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District Council of Yorke Peninsula - History of Arthurton
Arthurton was named after Arthur Musgrave, a son of Sir Anthony Musgrave, who was Governor of South Australia from 1873 to 1877*. *Place Names of South Australia
The natives knew the locality as "Kalkabury" which meant "she-oak hill"*. *Kalkabury became Arthurton. Page 5
In 1872 the pastoral lease on this area of land was revoked and under "the Waste Lands Amendment Act" more popularly known as "The Strangways Act", after Mr. T.H.B. Strangways who inspired the concept of closer settlement. The land was surveyed into sections for farming purposes, and was called the Kalkabury Agricultural Area*. *The Ill Shaped Leg. Page 83
When the site for the township was surveyed the same surveyor referred to town blocks as part of the township of Arthurton. As the town blocks were not sold until March, 1877, the farmers who had settled in the area some five years earlier, still referred to the whole area, including the town, by the name of Kalkabury*. *Kalkabury became Arthurton. Page 6
In 1874, when the first post office opened, it was issued with a Kalkabury franking stamp which it retained until 1876 when it was officially changed to Arthurton*. *Guide to and through Yorke Peninsula. Page 11
It was on Section 58, north of the town, that the Smith brothers designed and built their first stump-jump plough*. The local hotel was also built by Richard Bowyer Smith and he was the first licensee*. *Kalkabury became Arthurton. Page 6 **Kalkabury became Arthurton. Page 7
In 1887, when the Hundreds of Clinton and Tiparra amalgamated, the District Council shifted from the small building they used in the little township of Howe to Arthurton and held their meetings in the Arthurton Hotel.
In 1927 the Soldiers Memorial hall was built and the hall was handed over for the Council to use as their office, however, as the trustee considered it to be hallowed ground, there was a stipulation that dancing was never to be permitted within it*. *C. Zwar, Clinton District Council.
The District Council of Clinton area extends to each gulf a distance of 48 kilometres (30 miles) each way, and covers an area of 1049 hectares (405 square miles)*. *The Minutes are Confirmed. Preface.
Before the completion of the sealing of the coast road in 1962, most traffic for the peninsula travelled through Arthurton on the Kulpara-Maitland Road*. *The Minutes are Confirmed. Page 61
In the late 1950's reticulated water eventually arrived at Arthurton. Water from the Paskeville Service reservoirs gravitate to Kainton corner, and from there it was pumped to a hill just north of Arthurton, the highest point on the peninsula, 273 metres (897 feet) above sea level. Two large concrete tanks, each holding over 9000 kilolitres (2 million gallons) contain the water, which then gravitates down the peninsula*. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 114.
Since I have joined the club I do not think I have told, you about the town in which I live. Arthurton is approximately about 100 miles from Adelaide. A service car passes through here every day to Adelaide, as well as the mail car, which goes to Paskeville to meet the train. A new road is being made through Yorke's Peninsula, and passes through Arthurton. There are a grocery store and a greengrocer's shop, three churches, an hotel, blacksmith shop, and garage here. There is also the Soldiers' Memorial Hall, institute, and post office. For sport there are four tennis courts football oval, and golf links. There has been no golf club formed yet, as there are not many golfing enthusiasts. John Henschke (13), Arthurton.— Plnk Certificate.
Arthurton is a small town on Yorke Peninsula, it is about 100 miles from Adelaide. Round Arthurton a good deal or farming is carried on. Just lately a bitumen road was laid through Artburton. The traffic is fairly busy. A daily mail and service bus run through the town. There are not many buildings In Arthurton. Some of the most distinctive buildings are the memorial ball, public hall, hotel, grocer's shop, fruit shop, three churches, and a post office. The population is about 70 to 80 people. About 30 children go to tbe public scbooL Bill Henschke (13). Post Office, Arthurton— Pink Certificate.
A view of the main street of Arthurton on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, showing the church and other structures 1917. State Library of South Australia - PRG 280/1/12/295
WHERE IS KALKABURY ?
The name of Kalkabury, though still retained a nomenclature for one of the wards in the District Council of Clinton, had at one time wider significance for the residents of Northern Yorke's Peninsula. It is therefore of interest to a later generation to learn something of the earlier times, of the pioneers, and of the life struggles, hardships and successes of a period now gone beyond recall. The reminiscence are written by a pioneer who is still on the active list.
In response to a request, I will endeavor to relate some of the incidents of the early days of the Kalkabury district. But first I would like to say a word or two about the Land Laws or Acts they were called in the early days of the colony. The land was surveyed and sold up for cash, and, as only moneyed men could, purchase, it was the custom for the agents, better known as land jobbers, to buy up the land, at a nominal price and resell it at advanced figures and high rates of Interest.
The Strangways Act.
In the fifties an Act of Parliament, known as Strangway's Act, was passed, which had for its object the settling of the people on the land and giving them a reasonable start. The provisions were that they could select a block of land, not exceeding 640 acres (a square mile), by paying a deposit of 20 per cent., which would last three years. Then another 20 percent was to be paid, which lasted two years, when the purchase could be completed. In 1872 a new Act, known as the Act of 1872, was passed. This provided for the first payment to be a 10 per cent deposit, which lasted three years. Then another payment of 10 per cent, had to be made, and this lasted another three years, when the purchase could be completed or an extension of time for four years could be arranged, making in all ten years in which to complete the purchase.
Opening of Kalkabury.
In 1872 a small area, called the Kalkabury Area, was opened for sale. It was a small piece of so called plain, or small clearings in the surrounding dense mallee scrub. In all 39 sections were in the first survey, the numbers ranging from 21 to 60. Thirty-three Sections were offered for sale, the other six being reserved for township allotments, parklands and suburban blocks. When the land was first offered, the upset price was £2 per acre, which amount was reduced by 2/6 per week if unsold until it came down to £1, at which price. it remained and could be selected by anyone who applied.
Once a Sheep Run.
Before giving the names of some of the early settlers I would like; to state that previous to the survey of the land it was used as a sheep-run and cattle station. A Mr Burridge (I not sure of the correct spelling of the name) used to run dry cattle here and send the milch cows over to a milk round, near Adelaide, managed by his wife. It was also held as a sheep station by Mr W. W. Hughes (later Sir W. W. Hughes), who had extensive sheep runs, around the Wallaroo district. He used to send the sheep out here in the winter months in charge of shepherds and recalled them to be near the water in the summer months.
One of the first to select land was Mr Thomas Thomson, who was acquainted with the district in the shepherding days, and he selected what was known as the Kalkabury head station. It consisted of two shepherds huts, an underground tank, and a few brush sheep yards. ; Mr Thomson put in a few acres of wheat the first year and enclosed it with a basket fence to keep back the kangaroos, and had, I think, a fair return.
He battled on, like the rest of the settlers, with varying success and the usual ups and downs of the times, until eventually he was able, to retire, leaving his sons on the farm, which was considerably added to from the first selection. Mr. Thomson passed away at Moonta about two years ago.
Others who selected were Mr Peake, Mr Broadstock, and Mr Green. They did not work their holdings, but sold to others. Mr Peake sold to Mr David Henderson, Mr Broadstock to Mr, P. Leonard, and Mr Green, to Messrs Winzer Bros.
As I am writing from, memory I do not promise to give exact particulars, but as nearly as I can remember them, the names that follow are of those who selected in 1872:—Mr Thos. Kenny, sen., Mr . M, , Murnane, Mr Richard Triplett, Mr. James Hollams. Mr Joseph Colliver, Mr M. McCarthy, Mr John Morton, and Mr A. Buik and three sons. In the following year came Mr James Allen and Mr R. B. Smith, and later Mr M, Smith and Mr W. Beck.
Journey by Bollock Team.
Now a word or two as to how they came. There were no motor cars, lorries, or tractors, so, they had to use what they had. Messrs Kenny and Mr Carthy came from the Yankalilla district with their families with bullock teams, taking from nine days to a fortnight on the journey. Messrs Triplett and Colliver came from near Kapunda with horse teams. Messrs Henderson, Hollams and Murnane came from Salibury, Lower Light, and Yankalilla by horse teams, Messrs Buik and Wirizer from Wallaroo, where they had been, wood carting to the mines. Mr Smith came from Kadina, where for a time he was a captain in the Wallaroo Mines, and was always known as Captain Mick. Mr R. B. Smith was a wheelwright by trade, and came from Port Wakefield, but more about him later.
Mrs Kenny, widow of the late Mr Thos. Kenny who died in 1910 at the, age of 95 years, is still in the district. She is well over the 100 years' mark, and still going strong, except for being very deaf. When I saw her last she could sing snatches of her girlhood songs for our amusement. Mr Murnane died about seven years ago, at the age of 98 years.
In the seventies mining was booming on the Yorke Peninsula. The price of copper was about £120 per ton. In 1873 a small syndicate of Moonta men obtained a miner's right over section NO. 40, and sent out four men to test it for mineral. The names of the men were W. Matthews, T. Davey. R. Morton and R. Martin, two married men and two single. They worked in pairs, two in the morning shift and two in the afternoon, and they were working for several months in the winter of 1873, putting down two shafts, No. 1 and No. 2.
They also did a lot of costeaning work, that is striking small pits just wide enough for a man to work in, to a depth of about six feet, or more, and driving from one pit to another across the direction of the vein, in such manner as to cross all the veins between the two pits. No. 2 shaft was only sunk about 20 feet, but No. 1 shaft was sunk about 100 feet, until it got too. deep to haul the stuff to the surface without a windlass. They wanted a horse whip, but the funds would not permit of this, so they closed down without finding any mineral, though they said they had good indications.
The shaft is still there near the top of the hill on section No. 40, I well remember those miners, who used to visit the neighbors In the evenings for a yarn, and they could talk well. Mr. Mathews, designated as the "captain" had been to Cuba and Lake Superior in America, and related his experiences in a very amusing way. I heard more about mines and mining that winter than in all my life before or since. The men were good company and very obliging.
No Mail Service.
In those days we had no mail service, all, letters going to Moonta, and the first to go to that town would bring out the mail for themselves and all the neighbors. The miners had a horse and trap, and used to return to Moonta every Saturday and come back on Monday, so they were very useful in posting letters and bringing out the mail, as well as for anything else they were asked to do. One lady asked one of the young men (the one who owned the horse), if he would bring out some store goods for her, and his reply was characteristic of them: "Yes, Missis, anything from a needle to an anchor." For their use while working they built a rough hut, known as "the miner's hut." I shall refer to this later.
Kulpara Post Office.
As already stated, we had no mail service, but in 1874 one was opened between Kulpara and Edithburgh (it used to connect with the Wallaroo to Adelaide mail) and passed through Kalkabury. The settlers got together and prepared a petition to have a post office, naming Mr J. Colliver as a suitable person to be postmaster, and after some weeks or mouths of delay, the long-expected mail bag arrived. In the meantime we used to wait on the road to interview the mail-driver, anxious to know if the bag had come. The mail used to run twice a week, Tuesdays and Fridays.
Missing Man and Mail.
On one of those occasions a strange driver was on the coach, or rather buggy and pair of horses, and he told us that the man who had been driving delivered his mail at Kulpara (he was driving for a Mr Johnson who kept the Travellers' Rest Hotel at Kulpara), and asked permission to go to Port Wakefield with the Adelaide coach, promising to return by the afternoon coach in time to drive the mail on to Edithburgh. He went to Port Wakefield, left the coach, and has never been heard of since. Later developments revealed the fact that the Edithburg bag with about £300 in cash was missing. At that time there was no bank established on the Peninsula, and all business people had to send their takings per mail. The driver must have known of this. Some months after, the mailbag and a few papers and cheques were found in the scrub near Yorketown, but the man was not found. Mr Colliver kept the post office for three months, and then it was transferred to Mr H. Jones, about whom more will be said later.
Religious and Educational.
For the year 1873 no religious services were held except one in December conducted by the Rev. W. T. Carter, in Mr Colliver's house. Early in 1874 occasional services were conducted by local preachers from Maitland, first in Mr Colliver's house, and then, the miners hut was fitted up and services held there. The first local preacher to conduct service was Mr N. H. Wilson, from Maitland. He was accompanied by Mr P. Howard, who led the singing. Others included the late Mr H. Lamshed and Mr C. Miller. About September, 1874, the Rev. W. H. Pollard was appointed to Maitland, and he came out occasionally.
School in Miners Hut.
During the winter of 1874 an effort to get a day school resulted in Mr Henry Jones (a brother-in-law of Messrs Winzer Bros.) coming-out from Wallaroo and opening a school in the miners hut. He was an educated man a surveyor by profession, and had seen better days. He was glad to try his hand at teaching, and also in a little work at fencing in the evenings and on Saturdays, but he was not used to hard work, and did not do very much manual labor. It was before the days of free education. The parents had to pay so much a week for their children, I think it was about 6d for the little ones and 1/ for the bigger ones, But, as it was only a small school some paid more, to try to keep him going. One man paid 2/6 each for his three boys. There were about 15 on the roll, but the attendances were irregular and the teacher was not a success.
End of the Mine.
About the end of the year the mining syndicate was wound up and they sent out men and demolished the hut, taking all the materials they could remove, and also the windlass, ropes and gear from the shaft so that was the end of the mine. The settlers had to look round for some other place to hold their service.
Building a Chapel.
For a time they occupied a room in Mr D. Henderson's house, and they set to work and built a little church, or chapel as they called them in those, days, on a piece of land given by Mr D, Henderson on his section near the finger post at the junction of the Moonta, Kadina, and Paskeville roads. This building was of wattle and daub. I cannot give the exact measurements, but it was about 25ft. by 10 or 12ft. with iron roof, two small windows on each side, and a front door. It was built by the united efforts of the residents. I remember some of the workers. Mr E. Buik, who was a carpenter, put up the pine posts, Mr J. Allen nailed up the wattle and built in between with small stone and pug. Mr Colliver mixed the pug and assisted him. A subscription to raise funds to buy materials for the roof, window, and door, and a few seats, resulted in the required amount, about £25, being raised, and the little church was opened free of debt. I should mention that Mr R. Winzer (who was a plasterer by trade), plastered the building inside and out and put in a concrete floor, giving it quite a finished appearance. Everyone in the district did something to help.
The Early Preachers.
Some of the preachers who conducted service in the little church were well known in Moonta, including the late Mr Jabez Tonkin, Mr Brown from the Moonta Mines workshops, and Mr John Anthony. They used to come out for special occasions, such as the opening and anniversaries, although it was connected with the Maitland circuit, under the charge of the Revs. T. M. Rowe, R. Kelly and T. E. Thomas. In 1882 a property was purchased in Arthurton township.
Mr Jones, the first teacher, remained in the district for a number of years, doing odd jobs, and was the postmaster for a good while, but the school ended with the demolition of the miners hut. A young lady named Miss Pascoe, conducted a school in the little church for a few months one winter, and a Swedish doctor called Smidt, conducted a school here under the Education Department before they built the schoolhouse in Arthurton, but that was about all the opportunities the children had.
Roads! We had none. Only bush tracks as crooked as possible to have them, winding in and out among the trees, with the tree tops touching on top. One settler employed a neighbor to bring a load of furniture. They were travelling through the scrub between, Kainton and Kalkabury, the neighbor in front, and after a time he stopped his team and waited for the other to come up for Him to have some refreshment. He was told that it was only about two miles further to go. With a big sigh of relief he exclaimed, "I thought I was never going to see day-light any more."
The track to Moonta was very rough and crooked, and it was a long day's work to go for provisions, with one or two of the plough horses in a spring cart, which was about the only conveyance the people had in those days. They used to lay in a stock of tinned fish, jam, etc., to last for about two months, as they could not go often, and some used to boil the billy and have lunch on the way. One man and his wife were preparing to have lunch, and as he took off the winkers from the horse to get the bit out of its mouth and put the nosebag on, and before his wife got out of the trap the horse bolted, but did not get far before the wheels caught in the trees.
Lost in the Bush.
The first winter some of the settlers did some fallowing for the next year's sowing. They fallowed with a single furrow plough and bullock teams. They yoked up about 10 a.m., and worked on till, about 3 or 4 p.m., then turned the bullocks out to pick their living. One morning a young man started out on foot and without his coat, to bring in the bullocks. He did not find them on their usual feeding ground, so followed their tracks and found them, some distance away. When he found them he also found that he was lost. He tried to drive them back over their tracks, but they wandered round and round. No doubt the bullocks knew where the plough was, and also knew how to keep away from it. But the young man was completely lost, so he left, the bullocks and tried, to find his way home, but the more he tried the worse he got. He had to stand around under the bushes coatless, too wet to lie down, and no matches to make a fire.
Morning came at last, and all that day he wandered on, till towards evening he heard a dog barking, and followed the sound. He came to a shepherd just yarding his sheep for the night, miles away from Kalkabury. The shepherd gave him a share of his mutton and damper, and made him comfortable for the night.
In the morning he pointed out the Kalkabury hills in the distance, and started him on his right track, which he followed and arrived home, to find the neighbors, scouring the country with the aid of the police from Moonta and others. All were very pleased at his safe return.
On another occasion an elderly man was spending the evening with some friends, and at about 10 o'clock started for, home. He missed his way, as every bush looks so much like the next one in the night time. He had to camp under a bush and found his way home next morning. Kangaroos, in those days, were about in large numbers. They were to be seen on the little plains like flocks of sheep in the evenings. In the day time they would go back into the scrub.
One man used to go out regularly and shoot one or two in the early morning and again at night. He would not waste a cartridge on a small one, as he wanted the skins, and from the sale of them he was able to buy a set of shaft and leading harness for his first two horses, and also supply the larder with kangaroo tails and steak.
Shot a Horse's Ear Off.
On one occasion he was driving his two horses a heavy dray, with the loaded gun in the bottom of the dray. He saw a kangaroo in the bushes within easy range, so he pulled up his horses, at the same time picking up the gun, which became entangled with the reins and prematurely went off, shooting off about half of the shafter's left ear. Fortunately as be pulled up the leader was pulled sideways, otherwise the charge would have struck her, or if it had been a little lower it would have entered the shafter's head.
To be continued.
WHERE IS KALKABURY?
The name of Kalkabury, though still retained a nomenclature for one of the wards in the District Council of Clinton, had at one time wider significance for the residents of Northern Yorke's Peninsula. It is therefore of interest to a later generation to learn something of the earlier times, of the pioneers, and of the life struggles, hardships and successes of a period now gone beyond recall. The reminiscence are written by a pioneer who is still on the active list. - Concluded
A The Water Question.
The water question has always been with us, and unfortunately it is with us still every summer. It was a puzzle to get water, and it was carted for miles, some going in one direction and others in another. Some went to Kulpara, a distance of from 22 to 24 miles, and paid 8/ or 10/ for a 400 gallon tank, having to bucket it out of private dams or tanks. Others went to the Tiddy Widdy wells north of Ardrossan on the beach, and pulled it out of the wells by hand, sometimes going down into the well to fill the bucket with a pannican, and working all night to fill their tank. Others went to Moonta Mines and bought distilled water from the company, others to the Maitland well. All these places were visited in turn after the supplies in the private and Government dams were exhausted.
Others would remove their live stock back in the country to their old homes in the summer, In one family, the father and elder sons took the team and the livestock in this way, leaving the mother and the younger children on the farm with a small supply of water for domestic use. When the rains came, and the time arrived that the men were expected back, they were delayed a fortnight, and the mother, describing the incident afterwards, said she got a crook in the neck from looking up the track every time she came out of the door, to see if the teams were coming. Horse feed was another item of expense, some having to get it from the farmers at Kulpara and paying up to £6 10/ a ton for chaffed hay.
Humours of Hardships.
Some amusing stories could be told of the water carting times. One man was bringing home a load of water, and when about half-way it began to rain heavily. The water was running in the track, and his horses could not get along, and he said, "This is the end of water carting," so he turned the tap and let the water run away. He arrived home with the empty tank to find that it had not rained enough to catch water, so he had to turn back for another load. Another man was caught in a similar way, and he returned for the water when the track had dried a little. The tank of water was not required, as the rains were sufficient, so it was used to mix pug to build a chimney to his iron room.
The Inventor of the Stump-Jump Plough.
Mr Richard Bowyer Smith came to the area after the others. As there were only a few sections of land left, he could only get one here and another there. He selected sections Nos. 58, 60 and 40 (after it had been given up by the mining syndicate). As these sections were some distance apart it made a very awkward farm. He built a small house on each section, and his homestead on No. 58, where he also put up a private blacksmith's shop. He did not cater for outside work. His brother, C. H. Smith, was working for him, and it was during this time that the first stump-jump plough was made. Mr R. B. Smith used to spend his time between the farm and travelling for the firm of Messrs J. G. Ramsay & Co., machinists, of Mount Barker, and would sometimes be away from the farm for weeks on a stretch. He had a number of men cutting down and clearing the scrub, but the returns did not come up to expectations, so in January or February, 1876, he held the first clearing sale in the area, and, I think, a very successful sale. I know that one horse brought £31 and others in proportion. He had a good many implements and a flock of sheep, but I do not remember seeing any cattle.
Arthurton Hotel Built.
When the Arthurton township allotments were sold he built the Arthurton Hotel and was the first landlord, conducting the business himself for a time. The farming land was sold, and later the hotel, and he and his family left the district.
First Stump-Jump Plough.
I have been trying to get definite information about the first stump-jump plough, but there is always a certain amount of secrecy and mystery about new inventions. I do not promise to be strictly correct, as I did not see the first implement and must be guided by hearsay. One of the first attempts was a disc wheel or coulter affixed to an ordinary single furrow plough to run in front of the share and a little deeper, so that when the disc struck a stump it would rise over it lifting the plough with it, and the handles would rise above the head of the man holding them and, when the obstruction was passed, drop back into place again.
Another was a V shaped frame with one wheel in front and two behindhand the body of the plough fixed in between the frame on the hinge or king bolt with a long wooden lever to keep it down. Afterwards an iron lever was used with a big knob of iron about the size of a good pie melon on the end, to make it take tlie hard ground. I believe the secret of the first plough consisted of this king bolt or hinge, or pivot, whichever you may call it, as all stump-jump implements have this hinge. There are many different shaped frames and various devices such as bridle draft, spring, and weights, to snake them take the hard ground, but they all have to be hung on a king bolt to allow them to jump. Mr R. B. Smith has the credit of being the inventor, but it was Mr C. H. Smith that did the work and followed it up and improves on the first attempts.
I understand that Mr R. B. Smith applied to the South Australian Government and received a bonus of £500 for his invention. There is no doubt the invention of the stump-jump implements revolutionised farming in the mallee country. The words written by Mr H. "Bawden, sen., of Maitland, and recited by him at a literary society meeting in Maitland in June, 1894, are appropriate:—
MacFagyn's Fanning Experiences.
When MacFagyn started farming, some twenty years ago,
No land was found but scrub on which to plough and sow.
On a large scrub block near Arthurton, first he made a stand,
From there MacFagyn started out to grub and clear the land.
The sweat came streaming from him for he worked both night and day.
Until a man named Clarence Smith came passing by that way.
He saw the mallee standing there, thought of a stump-jump plough,
For he saw the sweat a streaming from poor MacFagyn's brow.
Says he, "knock of, MacFagyn, this slow game will never do;
Chop down those blessed inallees, I'll invent you a stump-jump plough."
A single furrow stump-jump plough he quickly then brought out,
MacFagyn held the handles as it wriggled round about.
"Stop, stop," says Smith, "MacFagyn, I'll improve upon that plough
Chop down a few more mallees, while I alter it somehow,"
Then a double and a triple, stump jump he brought out,
MacFagyn was delighted as he followed those about.
Then MacFagyn made a roller and rolled his scrub all down.
When Smith's six-furrow stump-jump plough was brought upon the ground.
It had a seat upon it and a fertiliser drill,
When MacFagyn saw that seat joy almost made him ill.
He sprang at once upon that seat and started out again,
He never knocked off ploughing for the sunshine or the rain.
Round his extensive holding he kept ploughing every day,
Sent all the stumps to Moonta, farm expenses for to pay.
Now see MacFagyn's homestead, haystack, coach house, and his barn,
Not one single mallee left on his extensive farm:
See his sheep agrazing there, and magnificent prize bull,
And now he pays an income tax on his butter, wheat and wool.
The above lines were written by Mr Bawden in reply to an article in the "Quiz," called "MacFagyn's farming experiences," which made MacFagyn fail time after time, ending up with him shedding great briny tears. Mr Bowden prefaced his remarks by saying "Quiz" had committed a libel on MacFagyn and on his farm, as MacFagyn never shed a tear. It was good honest sweat that "Quiz" saw streaming from MacFagyn's brow.
Every summer we were favored with extensive bush fires. No one appeared to know how they started, and they would be burning for days, sweeping large tracts of country. They made a grand sight—by day a dense cloud of smoke and at night illuminations by miles of flame and twinkling lights where the heaviest of the fire had passed, giving the appearance of the lights of a large town. Most of these fires did not do much damage, except to destroy the outside fence, miles of which were burnt at different times.
The most destructive fire was one that started near Weetulta at about 9 o'clock one morning in the month of November, and, fanned by a strong north wind, it raced along towards Maitland, reaching some of the farms there, when, at about 3 o'clock, the wind suddenly changed round to the west driving the fire before it towards Kalkabury. It crossed the Maitland and Kalkabury road. The fire, which was about five miles wide, bent some of the telegraph poles and broke the insulators, and quite a number of kangaroos were next day found dead on the road.
Young Man Burned to Death.
Tile only casualty was the death of a young man, W. Murnane (19 years of age), who went out to see if the fire was coming near a brush fence of theirs and was overtaken by the flames. His charred remains (almost unrecognisable except for a portion of clothing that was underneath him) were found after the fire had passed. It was a very sad case. An inquest was held in the Arthurton hotel. The late Mr H. Lamshed, J.P. was coroner, and the late Mr T. M. Sutton (well known later as the Superintendent of the Point Pearce Mission Station) was foreman of a jury of local residents. The fire was supposed to have started on the property of the late Mr W. H. Wilkinson, and he was charged with manslaughter for having started the fire that caused the death of the young man. The case went on to the Supreme Court, Adelaide, where he was acquitted.
The New Township.
About the year 1876 the sections reserved as town lots were surveyed and offered for sale in one acre or half acre blocks, with a strip of parklands all round, and outside that suburban blocks of about 20 acres each. The blocks were quickly taken up and a start made to open business. Mr W. H. Whitford, of Moonta, put up a butcher's shop and sent his brother-in-law, the late Mr L. Crosby, out to manage it for him. Later, Mr Crosby purchased the business and carried on on his own account. The suburban blocks were purchased by some as a speculation and by others for personal use. It was some of the best land in the area, i.e., the clearest, and it was soon ploughed up and put under cultivation. The late Mr W. Shannon, of Maitland, bought several blocks and had the land ploughed up by bullock teams under contract. The late Mr Fowler, of Yarraroo, also bought several blocks, but sold out later without improving them. Mr Shannon sold his later, most of them being purchased by local residents.
A One-Man Village.
The Arthurton township was for a long time designated as a one-man township—one publican, one storekeeper, one schoolmaster or mistress, one blacksmith—and for many years it , did not grow any larger. When offered for sale it was gazetted as the Township of Arthurton. Who gave it that name we never knew, nor were we consulted in the matter. Some said it was in honour of a member of parliament named Sir Arthur Blyth, but we never knew for certain. At about this time all the adjoining land east, west, north and south of Kalkabury was surveyed, and in the year 1879 was offered for sale and quickly taken up. Most of the old settlers increased their holdings by taking tip adjoining sections, as the Land Act was altered and allowed one person to hold up to 1,000 acres.
The Changing Order.
The residents of Kaltabury might have continued on the even tenor of their way for many years, but changes will come, and the stump-jump implements, the scrub roller and the fire stick, and the arrival of new settlers with new ideas and new associations, changed the order of things generally, Instead of grubbing and clearing a few acres each year, whole sections were rolled down and burnt and put into cultivation. There was great competition as to who could get in the largest area.
I have been going over the list of the first residents and can find only seven of those who were living here in the years 1873-4 now residing in the old area. I previously gave the names of the old residents and now give a list of the survivors;—Mrs C. Kenny, well over 100 years of age; Mr P. Kenny, her son; Mr W. J. Murnane, the sole survivor of the family, 15 of whom at one time met around the Christinas dinner table; Mrs C. Allen, who is near the 80th milestone; Mr G. Allen, her Son ; Mr. W. J. Colliver and. Mr J. H. Colliver. Of the others, the remains of some lie in the Arthurton cemeteries; some have removed to other parts of South Australia, some to other States, and some are living in retirement in Kadina, Moonta and other places.
And now I draw these reminiscences to a close by relating the fact that one day we received our mail, and the postmark was "Arthurton." The old post stamp of "Kalkabury" had mysteriously disappeared, and no one—not even, the oldest inhabitant—knew where it had gone. And that was the end of the Katkabury area.
AGRICULTURAL AREA. KALKABURY.
Proclamation setting apart portion of the Hundred of Tiparra, County Daly, as an agricultural area, to be called "Agricultural Area; Ho. 21, Kalkabuiy." All the lands in the said. Area (except township and suburban) to be open for selection on the 18th April next at £2 per acre, the price receding on the 2nd Hay to £1 15s., on the 16th May to £110s., on the 13th June to £1 5s., and on the 11th July to £1.
CAPTAIN COWLING'S REPORT.
" To the Directors of the Kalkabury Mining Company. " Gentlemen—According to your request I have carefully inspected your Mineral Section, in the Kalkabury Area, which is situated about 18 miles East of Moonta. " This Section contains 226 acres, on which there are two lodes discovered.
KALKABURY, August 16.
A cricket match was played on the Kalkabury ground on Saturday last between the Kalkabury and Maitland Clubs. The weather was remarkably fine, and a large number of spectators, including many ladies, was on the ground. The Kalkabury team was captained by Mr. Robert Lock, Mr. H. Jones acting as umpire ; while the Maitland team was captained by Mr. Arthur Short, Mr. Pain acting as umpire. The Kalkabury Club sent their opponents to the wickets, and they scored 76. The Kalkabury team; followed, and only scored 51. Both Clubs then sat down to a capital spread, and were waited on by the young ladies or the area. After doing justice to the eatables, play was resumed, the Kalkabury men again going to the wickets, and running up a score of 119. : The Maitland men only scored 62 in their second innings, leaving the Kalkabury men winners by 32 runs. In the evening Mr. Thomas Kenney invited the cricketers and others to his bouse, where dancing and singing were engaged in, thus bringing to a close a pleasant day.
KALKABURY, October 16.
A party of Government surveyors are now here surveying this township, but a great oversight seems to have been committed by the authorities in the choice of the site, as it is to be on the lowest part of the whole reserve, which in winter is almost a lagoon, as the surrounding lands are all much higher. All the settlers here are unanimous in the opinion that the site should have been fixed about ten chains more to the north, which is on high rising ground; and it is hoped that the mistake may yet be remedied by those in power. A Cricket Club has been started here, and over 20 members have joined the ranks— a fair number to start with.
Effect of the Heat on Birds. —
Travellers between Kalkabury and Moonta on Thursday, December 14th, inform us, that they saw number of parrots beneath the trees that had fallen dead from the effects of the intense heat. Hundreds of birds perished in the vicinity of covered waterholes and tanks ; and the smaller kinds with a strong instinct of self preservation crept into holes in the
ground, attempting to hide themselves from the intense heat of the sun. In and around Moonta also the feathered
tribe suffered severely, scores of domestic fowls having died during tbe hot weather.
A WILD MAN.
It was reported at Maitland on Sunday, December 23rd, that a wild man was in the bush at Kalkabury:—"A man named Tom, while steering a reaping machine for a farmer named McKenny, received a sunstroke. He jumped off the machine, pulled off his trousers, jacket and boots, and started into the scrub....
MAITLAND, December 29.
P.T. Elsholz informs me that after diligent search the police have come to the conclusion that the reports of a wild man having been seen in the scrub at Kalkabury and of a man who was supposed to have had a sunstroke and afterwards acted strangely are nothing but a hoax. Such reports are really unpardonable, as they not only cause great annoyance and inconvenience to the police, but also much loss of time to settlers and others, and at this time of year time is most valuable. I may add that it was Lance-Corporal Smith that went in search in the first instance, and not P.T. Elsholz.
KALKABURY, August 30.
A public trial of a grubber was held on Section 40 here on Wednesday, August 28, and it gave great satisfaction. It was the invention of Mr. Clarence Smith, blacksmith. It may be described as having three powers— First, to draw quickly small stumps ; second, to draw medium stumps ; and third, to draw stumps of any size. The change can be made from the first to the second or third power at once without stopping the horse, and no stump, however large, is too much for the third power. Indeed, It pulled the largest stumps so quickly after the chain was attached that two minutes was the average time. The onlookers expressed the opinion that no machine yet invented could beat it in drawing large stumps, and that it could draw small or medium stumps as quickly or even quicker than any other machine.
The Fire at Kalkabury.
In our last issue a reference was made to the sad occurrence at Kalkabury last Wednesday, which resulted in the death of a young man named Murnane. An inquest upon the body was held at the Arthurton Hotel on Thursday, before Mr. H. Lamshed. J.P....
Wednesday, March 26.
[Before His Honor the Chief Justice and Juries.] MANSLAUGHTER.
William Henry Wilkinson was charged with the manslaughter of William Henry Murnane, at Kalkabury, Yorke's Peninsula, on November 20, 1878. Mr. Symon with Mr. Cox for the defence. The prisoner is the owner of a farm of 500 acres in the Hundred of Tipara, between the townships of Maitland and Atherton.
Inquest at Kalkibury.
An inquest was held on Monday 23rd., at Richardson's Hotel, Atthurton, before P. Howard Esq, J. P. on the body of Harold George Sharred, a lad aged ten who met with his death on the evening of the 22nd. through a fall whilst running. Mr. L. Crosby was chosen foreman. Horatio Ross Brown, legally qualifiel medical practitioner, residing at Maitland, depose to having been called to see the deceased on Sunday the 22nd, about 9 pm. When he arrived at Arthurton the lad was dead. He examined deceased and saw no marks of violence with the exception of a slight scratch across the bridge of the nose. Made a further examination by daylight and found that deceased bid received a dislocation of the first and second cervical vertebral. By Coroner—Consider the dislocation sufficient to cause sudden death, Believed death ensued from dislocation of the neck. By Foreman —Did not detect any bruises or scratches on deceased's head. Think it quite possible for a person to fall on soft soil in such a way as to cause death. By a juror—Do not think death was caused through concussion of the brain. It is possible that a child such as deceased could have a fit suddenly and die.
William Thomas Heath, mason, deposed to seeing deceased on Sunday evening at half past seven p. m. he was alive and in good health and playing with his uncle's cap. Witness was going to the tents when deceased and his uncle ran towards him. The deceased turned his head to see how near his uncle was to him when he stepped into a bole and fell forward on his face. Was within five yards when he fell. Deceased's uncle also fell about five yards from deceased aid rolled over on the ground. Deceased's uncle then rose and picked deceased up. When deceased was lifted up his legs and arras seemed limp. Deceased's uncle then carried him to his father who exclaimed "the boy is dead"— "the boy is dead," The father said take him somewhere, when his uncle took him out of his arms. Noticed deceased's head falling about. Believe his neck was broken. Gave deceased a little brandy, and bathed his forehead with water, Mr. Sharred went for the doctor directly it happened.
By Foreman—Did mention that I thought deceased's neck was broken to Mr. Sharred Was not near enough to touch deceased when he was running. Saw deceased rise a little after he fell but he staggered and fell again. By Coroner—Did not fall a second time on any hard substance only on the tussocks. By Foreman—Did not notice whether deceased put out his hands to save himself or not. By Juror—Deceased's uncle was quite sober when the accident happened.
Joseph Sharred uncle, and George Carter Sharred, father of deceased corroborated last witness's evidence. The Jury returned a verdict to the effect that Harold George Sharred came to his death by dislocation of the neck caused through a sudden fall while running and that no blame can be attached to any person.
April 13 1885
An accident, which might have proved fatal, occurred to a young man of the name of Frederick Triplett, eldest son of Mr Richard Triplett, one of the oldest settlers in this Hundred. It appears that one day last week he started with his team and commenced ploughing, when all of a sudden the horses took flight, dragging young Triplett and the plough after them. He at last managed to stop them after receiving some very severe cuts about the face, head and body. Under the careful treatment of his medical adviser be is progressing very favorably .
Winter appears to have set in at last. It commenced raining on Saturday morning about 9 o'clock and continued all day and night, and never stopped until about 6 o'clock on Monday. It was a very steady rain, so that it did not run much, but gave the ground a good soaking, which will let our farmers get on with their tilling.
We had a fine race here on Saturday evening, between Mr Michael Muroane's horse and Mr Cadd's, Murnane's horse winning easy. Afterwards there was footracing, &c, &c. I bear that we are to have some more races in a week or so.
Our farmers are all busy putting in their seed, and they are living in hopes to bare a good crop, and that the wheat will be up to 5s per bushel next year.
POLITICAL MEETING AT ARTHURTON.
A political meeting was held at Arthurton on Saturday, March 9. Mr H. FREEMAN who was voted to the chair, said that the Committee associated with the meeting to consider the desirability of establishing a Creamery thought it would be fair and opportune time to discuss the question of the repeal of the Bill for payment of members. He was pleased to see such a large gathering, and without taking up the time of the meeting he would call upon Mr Hawke, who addressed the meeting as follows....
The first interment of an adult in our cemetery took place on last Tuesday. The deceased, Mrs Tilly, wife of Mr E Tilly junr., was a lady highly respected and very much liked by all who knew her.—Mr' and Mrs McCauley of Maitland, when returning from the funeral, met with an accident, their cart colliding with a stamp, overturning, and throwing its occupants. Luckily, however, they escaped without any apparent serious injury, though Mrs McCauley was rather severely shaken.—All the farmers in this locality, are now busily engaged in carrying on seeding operations, and as yet the weather has been most favorable to the work, no continued rains having occurred to cause any material suspension, though this advantage is counterbalanced by the disadvantage of a lack of water for stock, for we have so far had little or no rain to cause the water to run; consequently water carting is pretty general. We have been favored with some light showers, just sufficient to start and maintain the growth of the wheat.
Nov. 13.—On Monday last a very painful accident happened here to a resident farmer named James Allen. It appears that one of his horses with the harness on was galloping round the yard, when he seized holder the reins and pulled the horse suddenly around, and a collision ensued. Allen was brought to the ground, and when discovered, It was noticed that one of his feet was turned completely around, his leg being broken above the ankle. The unfortunate man with the assistance of his son succeeded in getting the leg somewhat in position before the arrival of Dr. Elphick, who set the broken limb. Bad rust is causing many of the farmers here great anxiety, as some of the crops present the ominous red appearance very conspiciously.—Hay making is in full swing and the yield of hay will be satisfactory.
Sept. 15th.—On last Friday our cemetery received its first male adult, the deceased being Mr. Joseph Colliver, senr. The esteem in which the deceased gentleman was held, and the sympathy felt for the bereaved family, were attested by the very long procession which followed the hearse to the cemetery, there being between 30 and 40 vehicles and several horsemen present.—The Catholic element of our community has commenced to hold religious services in our public school, and judging from the congregation which attended the only service so far held there is a sufficient number interested to warrant the erection of a Catholic chapel. For this purpose a site has been selected, and material has been lying there for the last twelve months awaiting funds before it could be utilized. The building is to be erected close beside the Wesleyan chapel, and will, no doubt, augment the mean appearance of that structure, which, by the way, is mean enough already, so much so that a well known Wesleyan minister stigmatized it as a disgrace to the connexion to which he belonged.— Mr. Crosby, the local butcher, met with a misfortune a few days ago which resulted in the smashing up of his buggy. While on his round he left his horses standing in the road in order to put up a panel, and while doing so the horses made off, and did not stop till they had broken off several fence posts, detached themselves from the buggy, and divested themselves of their harness.— The crops are looking well.
MEETING AT ARTHURTON.
A meeting was held at Scott's Arthurton hotel, on Thursday afternoon, by requisition of several residents of the easternand north-eastern portion of the Hundred of Tiparra...
DEDICATION OF ST. AGATHA'S CHURCH.
On Sunday, February 5th, a most impressive and interesting ecclesiastical ceremony was witnessed at Arthurton. On the morning of that day the solemn rite of dedication of the handsome new Catholic Church, which stands on an elevated site at the head of the township named, was performed by Archbishop Beynolds. The weather was all that could be desired — bright and sunny, with a beautifully cool south-west wind to counteract the effects of old Father Sol, There was a large attendance of people of all denominations from the surrounding districts, and tfee ceremonies, which were conducted with much impressiveness, were witnessed by a devout congregation that completely filled the new church. The sacred edifice is most graceful in its proportions and is solidly built of limestone secured in the district. The church when competed will consist of nave, sanctuary, sacristy, and porch, but it is the intention of the congregation to add the sanctuary when the funds are available.
The length of the nave is 40 feet by 25 wide. The ceiling is lined with match-board, stained and varnished which gives the building a spacious and impressive appearance. The windows are of cathedral-tinted glass, in which the various hues are chastely blended and add much to the interior effect. The windows are the gifts of nien)bers of the congregation and the pastor of the mission. One of the windows erected by Father Enright, is to the memory of the late Father Church and I hear the following inscription Tues sacerdos in sternum. In memoriam Reverend C. Church; erigi curavit Reverendus P. A. Enright." In the beautiful altar are seen good samples of tastefully executed workmanship which the painter's brush has painted artistically in pink, white, and gold, The front panels of the filtar bear monograms in gold bordered with red very neatly executed. On the altar are to be seen a set of six large bronze candlesticks, which give the whole structure a most finished appearance. The entire ground floor of the church is seated very comfortably. The seats are of kauri wood stained and varnished. The confessional is also very neatly finished and seems well adapted for the purpose it is intended. Indeed everything in connection with the building bears evidence that great care arid attention combined with decorative and artistic skill were bestowed in the erection of the handeome structure.
The church is dedicated under the title of St. Agatha, Virgin and Martyr. The ceremony of dedication commenced with a prayer which was recited by the local clergy at the door. The prayer being ended a procession was formed consisting of the Arch-, bishop, clergy, and laity, and preceded by a cross-bearer and acolytes. They made a circuit of the exterior and interior of the church, chanting the prescribed psalms, while the choir made the responses in beautfully solemntones. At the termination of the dedication ceremony Holy Mass was celebrated by Rev. Father Enright, the Archbishop kneeling on a priedien inside the altar rails. The music of the Mass was rendered principally by the Maitlandchoir, while Miss Moloney presided at the organ. Great credit is due to Miss Moloney for theinanner in which under the circumstances she conducted the choir, having had only one day's notice to prepare the music. Her thoughtful knowledge of church music and her intimate acquaintance with the ceremonial of the Mass stood to her well for the occasion, and notwithstanding the difficulties of the position she succeeded in carrying out the music in admirable style.
At the termination of the Mass the Archbishop preached a very eloquent sermon by which he kept his audience in rapt attention for nearly an hour. Then he appealed for help for the funds, to which a liberal response was given, the collection realizing over £110. The Archbishop during his visit was entertained most hospitably by Mr Kenny, of Kalkabury.
February i.—Once more the hum of the reaper, which has of late been beard on all sides, is silenced for another year. Cleaning, too, is almost finished, and the majority of the paddocks have been cleared, of the wheat. In a great many instances this last mentioned operation has not involved much labor. Estimating the yield of a district only on the data of hearsay is an extremely hazardous undertaking if anything like accuracy is required. However, it is the only available means, and consequently must be adopted. The yield, of wheat for this harvest in this district might, I think, be reasonably' estimated at five, bushels per acre. Of course, there has been a very great disparity in the yields of individual crops, some having been so low as two bushels, and others, in one or two instances at least, as high as ten bushels. As before stated, the general yield make be fixed at five bushels—a yield low enough in all conscience. One favorable circumstance, however, is the Comparatively high price of wheat, which has very considerably compensated for the lightness of the yield. On the whole, compared with some of our unfortunate brethren of the northern districts, we of this part of the colony have not much cause for bitter complaint or railing against providence. —A flood on New Year's Day on the Peninsula is a rara avis worth mentioning a month after the event. Although not on so large and predentious a scale here as in some other parts of the colony, still sufficiently large to be vary important in its results, bringing as it did an abundant supply of water to the farmers, the benefit of which they are likely to enjoy until the winter rains set in. It is to be hoped that the downpour was a precursor of a few more of a like nature to follow in the winter and a harbinger of something like a recurrence of the old seasons when farmers used to be occasionally favored with three or four successive days " honest" rain, instead of the equivocal half-and-half drizzles which have for the last few years only sprinkled their land.—'I regret to acquaint your readers of the death of a very old resident here in the person of Mr. James Allen. The deceased, who died of a pulmonary complaint at the Wallaroo Hospital on last Wednesday, was one of the very first settlers who arrived here some sixteen or seventeen years ago, and thus lived to see the whole district transformed from one howling wilderness of dense scrub into an almost unbroken scene of checkered and smiling fields. Being such an old resident the deceased made a large number of friends, many of whom turned out to pay their last token of respect on last Friday, when his remains were interred in the Maitland cemetery.
October 29. On Wednesday, the 24th inst., a picnic of the combined schools of Agery, Sunny Vale. Weetulta, Litle Kalkabury. and Arthurton was held in a paddock of Mr Kenny's, kindly lent for the occasion, but on account of the morning being showery very few from the outside schools turned up, but the afternoon proved fine, and a goodly number rolled np, and, from appearances, thoroughly enjoyed themselves....
Harvesting is just ever with our farmers in this locality. The returns are very disheartening, and in many instances ruinous. Some have not reaped more than bushels per acre, whilst 2 and 3 bushels is about the average. With this return, and at about 2s per bushel, it is impossible for our farmers to exist. Our Wesleyan friends held their opening services of their new church on Sunday and Wednesday, February 3rd and 6th. Rev. W. A. Langsfurd preached two instructive sermons on Sunday, and although the day was a scorcher the building was packed and many unable to obtain admission....
DEATH OF MR. C. H. SMITH.
INVENTOR OF THE STUMP-JUMP PLOUGH.
We regret to record the death of Mr. C. H. Smith, of Ardrossan, one of the in ventors of the stump-jump plough, which has been a most important factor in revolutionising agricultural methods. South Australia can claim the honour of being the birthplace of the stump-jumper, which is now almost universally used in wheatgrowing areas. There is a long-standing dispute as to who is entitled to the honour of having first conceived the idea of constructing implements of that character, but there cannot be much doubt that "The Vixen,'' a plough designed by Mr. R. B. Smith, of Kalkabury, in 1876, was one of the first of its class, if it was not the actual pioneer. The late Mr. C. H. Smith was a brother of the inventor of 'The Vixen,' and the brothers were working together when the implement was constructed. It is said that the first stump-jumper was the result of the interchange of ideas between the brothers, who conducted their experiments conjointly. The invention was registered by Mr. R. B. Smith on February 19, 1877, but on account of the difficulties and expense incidental to the taking out of a patent under the Act then in force he did not apply for one. Unfortunately, the implement did not immediately achieve the success which it afterwards attained, and this prevented the brothers from taking advantage of the protection afforded by the patent laws. In later years, however, they had the satisfaction of knowing that their efforts were appreciated by their fellowcitizens. In 1882 Parliament voted £500 to Mr. R. B. Smith in consideration of the valuable services which he had rendered to the state in this dircrtion. Whatever may be the facts respecting the origin of the stump-jump principle, there can be little doubt that no one in South Australia did more than the late Mr. C. H. Smith to perfect the invention. It is largely owing to his untiring enterprise that agriculturists have been furnished with those marvels of in genuity, the six-furrow stump-jumping ploughs, which are now in use. Imple ments manufactured by him have beaten those of all other makers in scrubland ploughing trials. One of the latest improvements made by Mr. Smith was to add to his ploughs a device for drilling in wheat and fertilizer. He was always experimenting, and at the time of his death was working out several ideas which he hoped would prove advantageous to the agriculturists. The late Mr. Smith has proved one of the best friends the farmers of Australia ever had. For several years past, Mr. Smith carried on a large manufacturing business at Ardrossan, and his workshops were extensive aud well equipped. His ploughs and other implements had gained a high reputation throughout Australasia, and he was unable to supply many of the orders which flowed in annually from Queensland, Western Australia, and other states. His death will be a serious loss to the agriculturists in all parts of the Commonwealth. The deceased gentleman, who was highly respected for his sterling character and admired for his great ability, was a justice of the peace and returning officer for the district. He has left a widow and family. The funeral, which took place on Sunday, was largely attended, representatives of city firms making a special journey to be present.
THE SMITH MEMORIAL HALL.
On Saturday last at Arthurton, a meeting was held for the ratepayers of Kalkabury Ward in relation to the Smith Memorial Hall. The Chairman of the District Council (Mr C. L. Palm), occupied the chair. The attendance was good. The Chairman explained that there had been a misunderstanding in this matter....
THE LATE THOMAS HOGAN.
It is with regret that I have to chronicle the death of Mr Thomas. Hogan, one of the pioneer residents of the district, who died suddenly at his residence, Tipara, on Tuesday last (December 28). The cause of death was failure of the heart. The deceased, who came to the state at an early age, resided with his parents near Kapunda where he was engaged in farming pursuits. On the opening up of the Peninsula lands he with his two brothers took up land in the Maitland and Tipara districts. The deceased, who was of a retiring disposition, took no active part in public matters, but was ever ready to assist in a practical manner in any case of charity. Deep sym-pathy for the widow and children was evinced by the large number of persons following his remains to the Catholic ceme-tery at Arthurton, where the funeral ser-vice was read by the Rev. Father Hourigan, of Kadina. The cortege, nearly a mile in length, was the largest ever in the district.
Harvesting operations are not yet finished and are. carried, out with great difficulty. Considerable damage ias been done to tbe crops by the recent storms. To-day (Saturday) a severe thunderstorm accompanied by bail and wind, fell over the district, doing considerable damage.
Owing to the recent heavy rains the roads are in many cases badly cat ap. The attention of the Clinton District Council is drawn to the dangerous washaways on the roads to Port Clinton and Port Price as several accidents have already occurred.
BUIK.— On the 4th August, at Arthurton, Andrew Buik, beloved husband of Elspeth Buik, aged 80 years. A colonist of 40 years.
BUIK.—On the 18th May, at her daughter's (Mrs. J. Gunter's) residence, Wallaroo, Elspeth, relict of the late Andrew Buik, late of Arthurton, in her 87th year, leaving three sons, three daughters, 30 grandchildren, 27 great-grandchildren to mourn
FATAL ACCIDENT—On Saturday evening last at between 8 and 9 p.m. a fatal accident happened to a young man named Frederick Lange, employed by Mr W. Short, of Winulta. The deceased and his brother were coming into the township in a pony spring-dray, when, just as they turned from the district read on to the main road, near the Catholic Church, a motor bicycle ridden by the Rev Mr Humphries, of Maitland, frightened the horse and it swerved, throwing Lange out on his head. He walked to the hotel, stating that he was alright, and retired to bed without assistance, but was found dead early on Sunday morning. Constable Watson, of Maitland, was sent for, and, Mr 0. Foley, J.P., on making a few enquires, considered an inquest unnecessary.
Notes from Arthurton.
An Arthurton correspondent writes: —Only very seldom news from this place is sent you, one reason being that, though a large numbpr of Catholics attend the church here, they are much scattered, and none of them live in the township. It is only on Mass Sundays or special occasions that they can consult each other....
RABBITS BY THE MILLION.
ARTHURTON, February 13.—At the meeting of the Clinton District Council on Saturday the Chairman (Cr. W. R. Stephenson] said he had been spoken to by landholders in the Hundred of Clinton regarding the prevalence of rabbits. He recommended that steps should be taken by the council to enforce the Act....
DEATH OF AN OLD ARTHURTON RESIDENT.
In the death of Mrs Harriet Colliver, which occurred on Monday last, in her eightieth year after a protracted illness, Arthurton has lost one of its pioneer and prominent residents. The deceased lady who was a native of Baldhu, Cornwall, arrived in South Australia, in company with her husband the late Joseph Colliver, by the ship Magdelena, on 20th January, 1855, proceeding straightway to Kapunda where eighteen years were spent. In 1872 Mr Colliver selected land on Torkes Peninsula. The following year he removed his family to the farm, known as Sunny Hill, near Arthutton, where the remaining years were spent. Mrs Colliver was therefore a colonist of nearly sixty years. Her husband predeceased her just over 28 years. Three sons survive, viz : —Joseph H., James P., and William J., all of Arthurton, also fourteen grandchildren. The high respect in which deceased was held was manifest by the large attendance at the funeral on Tuesday afternoon, the cortege extending for fully half a mile. Her remains were laid to rest in the Arthurton cemetery by the side of those of her late husband. The graveside service was conducted by the Rev A. A. Smith, of Maitland, and the funeral arrangements were carried out by Mr W. Cowling, of Moonta.
CLINTON DISTRICT COUNCIL.
COURT OF APPEAL. Saturday, November 24th.
On Saturday last, at Arthurton, the Clinton District Council sat as a Court of Appeal for the consideration of appeals against the recent assess-ment, when a large number of ap-peals were dealt with. About a dozen ratepayers made personal ap-plication, and the Council Chamber was crowded. The reasons given were many and varied, and the following arguments in support of a reduction may be quoted:—High cost of labor; land only fit for grazing; stony, stumpy, or rough ground; old assessment quite high enough; eaten out with the neighbor's rabbits; heavy taxation; scarcity of farm labor; disabilities caused through war; high prices of oil, implements, etc., certain portions of the land-unworkable; drift sand; land no more value than at previous assessment, and so on. Evidence was taken by the court, which then went into committee, the details of the deliberations being as under:-
D. J. Carroll, Agery Ward; assess-ment, £112.—Reduced to £100.
Mrs. Catherine McLeay, Clinton Ward; assessment, £348.—Reduced to £267.
A. McLeay, Clinton Ward: assessment, £278.—Upheld.
John Page, Clinton Ward; assess-ment, £52.—Reduced to £40.
Fennescy & Sons, Clinton Ward; assessment, £102.—Upheld.
Charles Foley, Clinton Ward; assessment, £186.—Upheld.
John Westbrook, Tiparra Ward; assessment £60.—Upheld.
W. J. Elsworthy, Port Arthur Ward Assessment, £144.—Reduced to £87.
Robert Harrison, Port Arthur Ward assessment, £35.—Reduced to £22."
John Honner, Kalkabury Ward; assessment, £135.—Upheld.
F. H. Rowe, Kalkabury Ward; assessment, £86.—Upheld.
J. C. A. Sachse, Clinton Ward; asr sessment, £76,—Reduced to £48.
C. H. Classohm, Weetulta Ward; assessment, £147.—Upheld.
S. S. Woodward and J. Woodward, Agery Ward; assessment, £115.—Upheld.
Geo. Morris, Kalkabury Ward; assessment, £50.—Upheld.
Geo. Morris, Kalkabury Ward; assessment, £43.—Upheld.
James Kelly, Port Arthur Ward; assessment, £65.—Upheld.
Thomas H. Thomson, Kalkabury Ward; assessment, £114.—Reduced to £104.
A. G. Lamshed, Agery Ward; assessment, £90.—Reduced to £72.
I G. Lamshed, Agery Ward; assessment, £45.—Reduced to £40.
J. T. Allen, Weetulta Ward; assessment, £75.—Reduced to £57. ~
Cogan Bros., Weetulta Ward; assessment; £56—Reduced to £45.
J. A. Whitelow, Weetulta: Ward; assessment £60.—Reduced tos£48.
C. W. Weldon, Weetulta .."Ward; assessment, ,£59.—Reduced to £47
MAITLAND, May 23.— During the past week the district of Arthurton has bad on unusual share of accidents. On Tuesday Mr. James Harmer (whose little, girl had died suddenly on the previous Saturday night) was feeding a chaffcutter, when his left arm was caught in the cogs, and the muscles between the elbow and shoulder were badly torn. Fortunately the engine stopped before hip shoulder and neck were drawn in. Mrs. Harmer ran to her husband's assistance, and after the chaffcutter had been partly dismantled she was able to release him. On the same morning Mr. Harmer's neighbour, Mr. James Berkin, aged 77 years, was feeding his pigs when he fell and dislocated one of his shoulders. The next morning Mr. J. Kenny, son of Mr. T. Kenny, of Winulta, lost portion of his little finger, and had the fourth and middle fingers crushed in an accident with an oil engine. An effort was being made to remove the piston,' but in turning tha flywheel a charge exploded and forced the piston down on Mr. Kenny's hand. The three cases were brought to the Maitland Hospital, where Dr. Browning attended to them. '
MR. LUTHER CROSBY, formerly of Arthurton, Yorke Peninsula, who had been ailing for the past two years, died at his residence, 6th Avenue, St. Peters, on November 28. Mr. Crosby, who was born at Prospect in December, 1853, and had therefore nearly completed his seventieth year, spent the whole of his life in this State...
ARTHURTON PICNIC MEETING.
GOOD WEATHER AND RACING.
The annual picnic race meeting and sports were held on Wednesday last, April 8th, at Arthurton, under excellent weather conditions. The attendance, however, though good, was not up to that of the previous year. The function was run in the interests of the Arthurton Soldiers' Memorial hall, which it is proposed to erect at an estimated cost of £800. The fund at present stands at about £300.
FANCY DRESS BALL AT ARTHURTON.
The Arthurton hall was crowded on Tuesday evening when a fancy dress masquerade ball was held in aid of the Soldiers Memorial Hall. The music for the dancing was rendered by the Moonta orchestra. Supper was served by the ladies. The prizewinners were: Best dressed lady, Miss McCabe; best dressed gentleman, Mr L. Kerley; most original lady, Miss Konzag; most original gentleman, Mr Vaughan...
The death of Mrs. Catherine Kenny, of Kalkabury, near to Arthurton, Y.P., at the age of 103 years, occurred on Tuesday
at the residence of her son, Mr. Peter Kenny, which had been her home for more than 30 years...
ARTHURTON SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL.
ARTHURTON, July 13.— The foundation-stone of the Clinton District Soldiers' Memorial Hall was laid on Monday afternoon by Councillor J. P. Pontifex. The building, which is situated in the main street, will be used as a council chamber as well as a hall. The chairman of the Soldiers Memorial Committee (Mr. J. H. Colliver) presided. The members for the district (Messrs. H. G.Tossell and E. H. Giles), the chairman of the District Council of Clinton (Councillor A. W. Wearing), and the other councillors were present. The local school children and the Maitland Brass Band, under Bandmaster Fischer, took part in the ceremony.Mr. Colliver said the memorial was overdue, as it was eight years since the armistice had been signed. The question of who was to lay the foundationetone had been decided by competition, in which five residents had taken part, and Councillor J. P. Pontifex had been selected by a large majority. (Applause.) He was one of the originally-elected members oi the District Council of Clinton. The sum of £600 had been raised towards the cost of the building, and 28 residents, including the members of the present council, had guaranteed £16 each. The contractor was Mr. A. G. Altus, and the building would cost approximately £1,200. Mr. H. D. Noble, a member of the Memorial Committee, presented Councillor Pontifex with, a silver trowel, and asked him to lay the foundation-stone, which he did amid applause. Addresses were delivered by Messrs. H G. Toseell, MJP., E. H. Giles, M.P., the Eev. C. W. Smith, an ex-A.I.F. chaplain, and Councillors A. W, Wearing and J. J. Henschke. Mr. H. D. Noble moved a vote of thanks to those assisting in the ceremony. During the proceedings the children sang the 'Song of Australia,' and the Maitland Band rendered several items. At night a public tea and a promenade concert and dance were held. All the proceeds went towards the MemoTial Fund.
A SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL.
OPENING CEREMONY AT ARTHURTON. Arthurton. October St.
Tie Soldiers Memorial Chambers were opened to-day by lie Commissioner of Public Works (Hon. M- Mclntoah). Steadily facing rain, which, wag generally welcome throughout the district, did not prevent a Urge nuniber of people from attending. After the doors had been opened and the hall formally declared open, the ceremony was continued mode.
Mr. J. H Colliver presided, and gave a history of the movement to erect the hall. He said many people had preferred a monument at the Ardrossan-Maitland cross roads as a war memorial, but it was pointed out that the Clinton District Council had been in existence for 40 years without a council chamber, and the erection of one was suggested as a memorial. In a short time £800 was subscribed. The total cost of the building was £1,160. and the district council had agreed to meet the balance. The hall was thus opened free of debt.
Mr. Mclntosh apologised for the absence of the Premier (Hon. K. L. Butler), and congratulated the people on having such a handsome war memorial. He noticed that there were two honor rolls in the hall, which recalled the fact that to some people the occasion was a sad one. He asked them to be of good cheer, as the last dar of those they mourned was a great day. It was a happy idea to erect a memorial in the form of a council chamber. The British system of government at its incepntion was little local communities, leading eventually to a national Parliament. In deciding that the memorial should be a hall for the council, they had got right back to the fundamentals of what the Australians had fought for.
Mr. E. H. Giles. JP, congratulated the district on having the hall. No~one could pass by without being struct by its chaste beauty.
The Major of Maitland (Mr. A. T. Harris) said it was creditable for such a small community to have collected each a large sum of money for the memorial. The chairman of the Kulpara District Council (Mr. J. P. H. Wallis) said it was pleasing: to find that so long after the war the desire was still in the hearts of the people to commemorate the sacifices made by the men of the district. The chairman of the Clinton District Council (Mr. A. W. Wearing) said the council had been long without a council chamber, and would no doubt occupy the new building for many years, although it was not the centre of the district. A vote of thanks to the Minister and to the contractor (Mr G. H. Altus) was moved by Mr. Tossell, M.P. An honor roll was unveiled by Mr. John Sharrad, who lost a son in the war. The school chidren sang the 'Song of Australia,' and led the singing of the ''National Anthem.' After the ceremonies a public tea was followed by a promenade concert and dance.
PASSING OF TWO OLD PENINSULA PIONEERS:
Mr. Richard Honner, Maitland.
With the death of Mr. Richard Honner, which took place at his home,." Glenanaar," near Maitland, on Tuesday, June 19, the Peninsula has lost one of its oldest and most respected residents. The deceased, who had been in declining health for over three years, retained his facul ties to the end, and received the last Sacraments at the hands of the Rev. Father Morrison, who attended him during his illness.
The late Mr. Honner, who was born at Roscrea, County Tipperary, Ireland, ninety-two years ago, married Miss Sarah Sweeney, of the same county, on June 16, 1856 and migrated to South Australia in 1858, and resided at Yankalilla until 1875, when he took up, land at Brentwood, and fourteen years later moved to Maitland. Although the deceased gentleman took no prominent part in public affairs, he was always enthusiastic in his support of any move ment for the advancement of the district in which he resided. He was for many years a large exhibitor of horses, cattle, sheep, and dairy pro duce at the Maitland A.H. and F. Society's shows, and acted as judge of horses, cattle, and sheep at Moonta, Kadina, Minlaton. and Yorketown.
Of a family of ten, seven sons survive him: Messrs. John Hormer, J.P., Arthurton; E. F. Honner, Maitland; R; J. Honner, J.P,. Dalwallinu W.A.; W. Honner. J.P., Junee, N.S.W.: J. J. Honner, J.P., Brentwood': R. F. Honner, J.P., Kojonup, W.A.; and J. S, Honner, J.P., Maitland, • There are twenty-two grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. Mrs. Honner predeceased her husband in 1924.
The funeral at the Maitland Cemetery, which took place on Wednesday afternoon, was a large and represen tative one. The burial service was conducted by the Rev. Father Morrison, assisted by the Rev. Fathers McNamara and Lee, M.S.C. R.I.P.
Mr. Thomas Thomson.
The death occurred at his residence. William street, Moonta, on July 30, of Mr. Thomas Thomson, at the age of 82 years (writes our local correspondent. He was born at Kilconqubar, Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1846, and, when 21 years of age, came to South Australia in the ship Atlanta. Mr. Thomson look up land at Arthurton, where for more than 50 years he held the well known Kalkabury Farm. He was one of the first settlers in that district. He retired from active farming 14 years ago, to resided in Moonta, where, he had since lived, and was held in high esteem.. He left four sons and five daughters.
DESTRUCTIVE FIRE AT ARTHURTON,
SCHOOL HOUSE BURNT DOWN.
The Christmas week proved disastrous for the head teacher of the Arthurton public school, Mr. F. B. Evans, when the school residence and school building which, are semidetached, were completely destroyed by fire, on Thursday, December 27. It appears that Mr Evans was lighting a petrol lamp, when it exploded, and in a few, seconds the room was in flames. Within ten minute practically the whole of the population of the small town was on the spot, but nothing could be done, and as it was, the teacher and his wife and two children escaped with but the clothes they wore. In less than an hour the two buildings, which were made of weather board lined with matchboard, were in ashes, and the whole of the belongings of the family and the school apparatus destroyed. Mr Evan's motor car was saved.
The building, which was one of the oldest in Arthurton, was erected in 1879, and had more than served its purposes. Mr Evans is one of the English teachers brought out five years ago, and married in Australia. Much sympathy is felt for the family, as nothing was insured, and the loss amounts ito between £300 and £400.
A public meeting was held at Artbnrton two days after the disaster, and £97 10/ was collected at the meeting. : It is intended to make the objective £200. Residents hope that the old structure will now be replaced by a substantial stone building.
"LITTLE KALKABURY" SCHOOL.
SUCCESSFUL OPENING CEREMONY.
There was a large attendance of residents of the Kalkabury district at the opening of the Little Kalkabury School, which took place in fine weather on January 28th, the public holiday. The school committee had been active for some time and assisted by the ladies, who also, provided re freshments for the occasion, the function proved a thorough success.
After the singing of the Song of Australia by the children, Cr. O. D. Jericho (chairman of school committee) in welcoming the assemblage, said it was a pleasure to see such a large gathering, and all were gratified that the chairman of the Clinton Council (Cr. J. P. Pontifex) had accepted the invitation to perform the opening ceremony. Often the" need of a school had been discussed and at length a meeting had been called by Mr and Mrs Sawley, to take place at their residence. A decision was then ar rived at, and Mr Sawley had offered to build a new school without expense to anyone, and just wanted help with the quarrying of the stone and the carting, etc. This fine offer had been gratefully accepted, and today, he asked Mr and Mrs Sawley to accept the sincere thanks of the residents for what they had done for the district. Besides the building Mr. Sawley had also given the land. The school had been erected according to the Educa tion Department's specifications, and was a credit to Mr Sawley and the district. The name, '"Little Kalkabury," was affixed to the school, which was a unique distinction. Although: no statistics were available, old residents had stated that the first school was established about 1887. In 1911 it had been removed to the old building near the main road, where school was held till 1925. It had been unfortunate that with ten children still attending, the building had been closed. At all times there had been a good attendance, and they rejoiced that Little Kalkabury school had come to life again.
The chairman then called on Cr. Pontifex to perform the opening ceremony, who in the course of his speech
"In behalf of the, Cinton District Council, I wish to thank the Little Kalkabury school committee for their cordial invitation to be present with you this afternoon, and to assist you in the opening of your new school. I also wish to congratulate you on the completion of not only such a well built structure, but of the neatand ornate appearance which it presents. Having occasion to pass this way during the course of its construction, when the walls were nearly up to the square, I came to the conclusion that it was a Government building that was being put up and not that of a provisional school. On learning that such such was not the case I did not feel so much surprised; because of the fact that when the people of this neighbor hood take a matter in hand, a good job is invariably accomplished. Your new school building brings to my mind recollections of past years' when I was a member of the old Green's Plains Board of Advice, and with other members we had occasion to visit the various schools within our jurisdiction.
The first school I remember was a few yards away, in Mt Hawkes' old residence. We want you boys and girls to remember that your parents have not given of their time and substance for your pleasure only, but for your benefit and advantage in years to come, when you will be called upon to take your place as citizens, and to fit you for any business or profession you may choose to engage in. Do not forget or neglect to pay attention to what your teacher tells you, and get all the knowledge you possibly can, now you have the opportunity, for your own good and future welfare. (Applause.)
Amid cheers, Cr. Pontifex then unlocked the door, and declared the building open for educational purposes.
A comprehensive vote of thanks was proposed by Mr A. W. Gower, seconded by Mr L. A. L. Gordon, to which Cr. O. D. Jericho and Mr N. J. Wall (on behalf of the ladies) responded. Miss Trenter, the teacher, was then introduced, and refreshments served by the ladies. An apology was received from Cr. J. J. Henschke, and the function conduded with the National Anthem.
NEW TENNIS COURTS OPENED.
Wednesday, October 30, was a redletter day in the history of Arthurton, when the opening of the new tennis courts and back to school celebrations drew a large crowd to the little township. The old school which was destroyed by fire Iast year has been replaced by a modern freestone building, and is capable of accommodating 30 dual desks, fitted with all conveniences....
The following is the record of the rainfall for the year ended December 1937, as gauged at Sunny Hill, Arthurton.
Rainfall for first six months, to 30th June, 772 points.
July, 183 points on 10 days.
August, 248 points on 13 days.
September, 317 points on 10 days.
October, 87 points on 3 days.
November, 236 points on 4 days.
December' 287 points on 3 days.
Total, 1,358 points on 43 days.
Grand total, 2,130 points.
Our Arthurton correspondent writes! under date of January 22:- This return is a little belated, but better late than never. Some say better never late. Howeyer, we have had big changes of weather, rain, thunder, lightning, floods, fallows badly washed away, harvesting delayed, hay spoiling in the paddocks, in fact quite a peck of troubles, about the worst in the memory of the oldest inhabitant. Just out of the woods. Now returns are about two-thirds of what was expected.
But must be satisfied.
An old and well-known resident of the Arthurton district, in the person of Mr. Joseph Henry Colliver, passed away at his homestead, "Sunny Hill," Arthurton, on Friday, May .10, following a residence of 67 years. The deceased, who was 77 years of age, was born at Kapunda, and was a son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Colliver. The family was amongst the pioneers of the district, and was successful in farming pursuits. The late Mr. Colliver was a frequent visitor to the three towns, and during one of these, at Moonta, about six weeks ago, he collapsed in the street, and from that time his condition was grave. He was Justice of the Peace, and entered the Clinton District Council as one of the representatives for Kalkabury Ward in i910, and continued until 1924. He was chairman of that body from 1918 until 1924. He also entered into other activities in the interests of the district. He was chairman of the Arthurton Soldiers Memorial Hall, in connection with which £880 was raised by voluntary subscriptions. He was a foundation member of the Arthurton Methodist Church/ and it was largely through his influence that the church was built, and also the school hail in later years. Mr. Colliver was esteemed by all who knew him, and this was evidenced by the large attendance at the funeral at Arthurton on Saturday, May 11, when the cortege included 75 motor cars. There are left a widow (a daughter of the late William and Caroline Hazel, Ross's Creek, Kapunda), and two brothers, viz., Mf. James P. Colliver, of Medindie Gardens, and Mr. John Colliver, of Arthurton.
Mr John Joseph Henschke.
Mr John Joseph Henschke. of Aruthurton passed away at the Wallaroo hospital, on October 7, following a long period of indifferent health. His passing will be regretted by a wide circle of friends. The deceased, who was only 52 years of age. was born at Hookina. He took up his residence at Arthurton in 1920, and proved a worthy and useful resident, being highly esteemed by all who knew him for his integrity....
Golden Jubilee of St. Agatha's Church, Arthurton
Archbishop on Rural Movement
THE weather may have been kinder to Yorke Peninsula Catholic pioneers who 50 years ago opened the new Church of St. Agatha at Arthurton, Yorke Peninsula. But heat waves would not have deterred the pioneers, nor did the heat last Sunday deter their heirs and successors. With hearts grateful to Almighty God, old residents from all over the State came back to this church of their fathers, in a twofold sense, to thank God for the parents and the church He had given them and to pray His mercy for their dear ones, living and dead...
MR. T. A. KENNY'S 95th BIRTHDAY
Two Other Nonagenarians Present
A BOUT 100 friends and relatives of Mr. T. A. Kenny assembled at his home on February 24 to congratulate him on attaining his 95th birthday, after a long and strenuous, though happy, life...
UNVEILING OF MEMORIAL
Saturday, April 10, was a gala day for Arthurton, the occasion being the unveiling of World War II Memorial and the opening of the two fine dressingrooms on the now Memorial Oval, which also has an attractive arch and entrance gate....