History of Yorke Peninsula

South Australian History Timeline

Indigenous History of the Yorke Peninsula - The Narungga

Yorke Peninsula was christened by Flinders on March 30, 1802, after the Right Honorable Charles Phillip Yorke, one of the first Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty who honored the voyage of the Investigator with their patronage. Flinders described the peninsula as "singular in form, having some resemblance to a very ill-shaped leg or foot."

Early Experiences of Life in South Australia

South Australia in 1887: A Handbook for the Adelaide Jubilee International ...

Credit Selection of Land South Australia Maureen M Leadbeater

During the first thirty years of white settlement, the South Australian Government sold Crown Lands only for cash with prepayment. Vast tracts of Crown Lands were leased by pastoralists to run their sheep. Small farmers could not support a family by growing crops on the standard 80 acre [32 hectare] sections which were too small to rest the soil by crop rotation. With high prices and the prepayment condition they were unable to compete with the pastoralists in land purchases....

Yorke Peninsula, South Australia Australia’s only leg!


Indigenous History SA. A Brilliant Blend.

The People.

The traditional owners of Yorke Peninsula are the Adjahdura people whose land reached from Port Broughton in the north to the Hummock Ranges in the east. The Kaurna People of the Adelaide Hills and the Nukunu people in the north shared their borders, and often met with the Adjahdura people for trade and ceremony.

The Adjahdura people consisted of four different groups - the Kunara from the north, the Windera in the east, Wari in the west and the Dilpa group in the south.

Evidence suggests that prior to European colonisation the Adjahdura People lived in settlements around the coast, with the young and old staying there while others went off for a day or two, returning with food. These settlements were at places with fresh water and food, including Moonta Bay, Tiddy Widdy Beach, Point Pearce, Point Yorke and many more.

Shallow graves of the Adjahdura people have been found with necklaces and other objects as well as ochre, which could have been used during the burial ceremonies for decoration.

Hunting and Gathering.

Living on the Yorke Peninsula meant that the Adjahdura people had plenty of fresh plants and animals to live off including roots, seeds, and a huge variety of fruit. Emu, kangaroos, possums, bandicoots, lizards, wombats, and bettongs were just some of the animals hunted.

The Adjahdura people were skilled at fishing, which made up a large part of their diet, as did shellfish such as periwinkles and warreners, crayfish and crabs. Fires were used to clear the grasses and promote growth of vegetation, and waterholes were covered with large boulders to keep them clean.

Their clothing mainly consisted of cloaks that were made from possum and kangaroo skins, dried and sewn together with the tendons from kangaroos and wallabies. In the wintertime, the men would rub emu oil on their skin to keep warm.

Archaeological evidence shows that the Adjahdura people used stone materials to make hammer stones, cutting tools, scrapers and spear tips. The spear tips would then be attached to a wooden shaft using resin or gum. Wood and roots were used to make spears, digging sticks and for building shelters.

The nets used for both fishing and hunting were called Buntu Buntu. They were made of reeds by the women and took a couple of days to make by the time they were picked, dried and rolled into string.

After European Settlement.

In the early days of settlement it was estimated that the population of the Adjahdura Tribe was 500. In the first 30 years of European settlement, 80 per cent of the Adjahdura tribe were wiped out through introduced diseases and by the bullet - massacres were a common practice. By 1880 there were less than 100 survivors.

Watering holes were how the Aboriginal people of the area sustained life. When Europeans arrived they took most of the water holes and cleared most of the natural vegetation for farming. In the early 1860s the Yorke Peninsula Aboriginal Mission Committee was established and teaching began in a wool shed in Moonta Bay under the command of Reverend W Julius Kuhn.

In 1867 the mission was moved to Point Pearce on 639 acres of land.This land grew in acreage as a small township developed, including housing, woolsheds, a church and large underground stone tanks.

The Adjahdura people harvested their own crops and the mission included a hall, meat shop, blacksmiths, wheat barn, piggery, shearing sheds and chaff houses. Bad things are spoken about Aboriginal missions - but Adjahdura elders Irene Agius and Elaine Newchurch talk about how important Point Pearce was in the survival of their people. They say it was a place they could run away from the bullet - a sanctuary for Aboriginal people.

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, missions from other areas in South Australia were closed down by government and Aboriginal people from other clan groups were moved to Point Pearce to live with the traditional owners of the area. This caused many problems that are still evident today.

From this time, the word Narungga - which means campsite - was used to describe the Aboriginal people who lived at Point Pearce. But today, the direct descendants of the traditional owners, who live on the land, still see themselves as Adjahdura people.


Farming History

Pastoral development began on Yorke Peninsula in 1846, with the first leases given in 1851. The leases had a term of 14 years which gave security to many of the squatter's and rent was set at 10 shillings a square mile.

It wasn't until 1860, when a successful wheat crop was grown at Green Plains near Kadina that an explosion of interest in agriculture began. Many workers from the Adelaide Plains, Barossa Valley and the Southern Districts came to try their luck on Yorke Peninsula. Agricultural success was evident when production rose from 552 acres planted and reaped in 1870 to 180,000 acres by 1884.

The experimentation of using superphosphate from trials by Professor Lowrie at Roseworthy College - saw Joe Parsons from Curramulka, drill seeds and phosphate together in the same hole in 1892. By 1896 other farmers in the area had followed his lead and they were averaging 4.5 to 5 bushells while the rest of the peninsula averaged only two bushells.

The rich limestone soils and growth in agricultural knowledge from clearing the land to sowing seeds, produced bumper crops and the Yorke Peninsula soon became known as the 'Barley Capital of the World'.

As a direct consequence of Yorke Peninsula's agricultural success, Ardrossan now has the third largest grain bulk-handling facility in South Australia.

Stump Jump Plough.

The ingenuity of early settlers was evident when in 1876 the 'stump jump plough' was invented to circumvent the laborious task of clearing mallee stumps from farmland. Invented by RB and Clarence Smith, the plough helped revolutionize the task of reducing the despised mallee scrub.

This was also assisted by knocking down and burning the growth of the mallee trees discovered by Charles Mullens at Wasleys, and the improvement of scrub rollers by William Fowler which allowed a team to travel over already rolled scrub. Ardrossan is known as the home of the stump jump plough and the ingenuity of the Smith Brothers is remembered and showcased at the local museum.


Maritime History

Historic Ports.

Since the settlement of Yorke Peninsula during the 1860s a flourishing shipping trade developed. Today Ardrossan, Wallaroo, Klein's Point and Port Giles are still thriving shipping ports with the export of grain and mining produce. They are serviced by large bulk carrying ships, quite different to the smaller ketches and windjammers of yesteryear. All of Yorke Peninsula's ports thrive as coastal holiday destinations. Whether you are dangling a line, reliving the history, diving on jetties or shipwrecks or relaxing on the coast you will enjoy our historical ports - a mixture of yesteryear and modern facilities.

Historic Jetties.
Yorke Peninsula is steeped in maritime history. Shipping was the main mode of transport for local produce for many decades, creating many colourful tales surrounding our jetties. Today they still abound with life, full of holiday makers and recreational anglers trying their luck. Yorke Peninsula's Historical Jetties brochure depicts many of these interesting tales.

Shipwrecks.
Yorke Peninsula's coastline is home to many shipwrecks and the fascinating history of their demise. The Wardang Island Maritime Heritage Trail has eight shipwrecks within 10 miles to explore in clear shallow waters making it ideal for novice shipwreck divers. The Investigator Strait Maritime Heritage Trail, between Yorke Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, features 26 shipwrecks dating from 1849 to 1982. You can download the Historical Shipwrecks brochure and waterproof dive trail booklets are available from The Farm Shed Museum & Tourism Centre in Kadina and Harvest Corner Information & Craft in Minlaton.

Lighthouses.
Surviving earthquakes, fires and constant erosion from the wind and sea, Yorke Peninsula's lighthouses have withstood the test of time. They guided shipping safely through wild seas and around treacherous coastlines and have been an integral part of Yorke Peninsula's history. Read about Yorke Peninsula's lighthouses - and the lighthouses of South Australia - on the Lighthouses Australia website.



THE FIRST OCCUPATION LICENCES GRANTED ON YORKE'S PENINSULA

The following persons having made application for Occupation Licences;

The description of the runs claimed now lie at this office for the inspection of any persons concerned —

Crown Lands Office; July 22 1846. Trove

Alfred Weaver — Eastern Coast of Yorke's Peninsula, at the Oyster Fishery.

Crown Lands Office, Adelaide, January 27, 1847.

R. G. Yeomans—Yorke's Peninsula.

James Coutts—Two runs on Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office; February 17, 1847.

James Coutts—Yorke's Peninsula.

Alfred Weaver—Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office; March 10, 1847.

Philip Levi—Yorke's Peninsula.

John Bowden—Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office, May, 19, 1847.

Robert Fry,—Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office. June 30th 1847

Edward Spice, on Yorke'a Peninsula

Crown Lands Office; July 24, 1847.

G. A. Anstey, about 24 miles N from Gum Flat, Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office, August, 18, 1847.

Thomas Naughten — Yorke's Peninsula

John Hart — Yorke's Peninsula

Geo. Alexander Anstey — Gum Flat, Yorke's Peninsula

Crown Lands Office, Oct, 2, 1847.

J. Bentham Neales,—Yorke's Peninsula.

George Field,—Yorke's Peninsula.

M. P. Hayward,— Yorke's Peninsula.

Crown Lands Office. November 3, 1847.

G A. Anstey— Currie Valley, Yorke's Peninsula.


FURTHER PARTICULARS.

Fri 24 Feb 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The following additional valuations by Mr. Goyder of runs on Yorke's Peninsula and Port Lincoln Peninsula have been confirmed by the Government and the new rents have been published in the

Gazette:—

No. 82. Yorke Valley Run (Yorke's Peninsula); lesse, Ann Rogers area 58 miles;

old rent, &c, £72 10s. ; new rent, &c, column A £650, column B £295 8s.

No. 21. Oyster Bay Run (Yorke's Peninsula); lessee, Ann Rogers; area, 52 miles;

old rent. &c, £96 6s. 8d. ; new rent &c, column A £520, column B £353 16s.

No. 71. Lake Sunday (Yorke's Peninsula); lessee, Ann Rogers ; area, 47 miles;

old rent, &c, £90 1s. 8d. ; new rent, &c, oolnmn A £560, colnmn B £397 10s.

No. 63. Corney Point and White Hut Runs (Yorke's Peninsula); lessee, Ann Rogers; area, 33 miles;

old rent, &c, £33 10s. ; new rent, &c, column A £125, column B £36 12s.

No. 111. Tucock Cowie Run (Yorke's Peninsula); lessee, William Gilbert; area, 104 miles ;

old rent, &c, £190 13s. 4d. ; new rent, &c, column A £1300. column B £833.

No. 79. Moorowee Run, (Yorke's Peninsula); lessee W. Fowler; area, 41 miles;

old rent, &c, £66 10s. ; new rent, &c, colnmn A £600, column B £184 16s.

No. 34. Penton Vale Run, (Yorke's Peninsula); lessees Anstey and Giles ; area 107 miles;

old rent, &c, £231 16s. 8d; new rent, &c, column A £1,580; new rent, &c, column B £1,182 16s.

No. 18. Gum Flat Run, (Yorke's Peninsula); lessees Anstey and Giles , area, 167 miles;

old rent, &c, £222 13s. 4d. ; new rent, &c, colnmn A £1,275 ; colnmn B £1,075.


A DESCRIPTION OF YORKE'S PENINSULA DURING THE PASTORAL OCCUPATION YEARS. Trove

That's the place where theres neither water, grass, nor trees — only scrub, interminable horrible, dwarf scrub, maintaining an incessant struggle for existence in the parched, scanty, hard baked soil. That is the desert, country where even squatters were mined, where shepherds used to grow mad in their solitary existence, tending forlorn sheep, which vainly sought scanty consumptive-looking blades of grass — a wretched, miserable place in where even a ghost would find it hard to live!


Waste Lands Amendment Act 1869 Wikiwand

Strangways introduced a bill in 1868 which was eventually passed in January 1869, despite conflict with pastoralists. There was an increasing demand for more land to be available for farmers to clear of scrub for the purpose of more intensive agriculture such as growing grain crops and mixed farming. The legislation provided for the creation of agricultural areas and sale of crown land on credit. The Act allowed a person to purchase up to 640 acres (260 ha), with a payment of 20 per cent at the fall of the hammer at auction, and four years to pay the remainder. The pastoralists who had been leasing the land for their sheep runs on easy terms for many years, were given six months notice of the resumption of their leases. The old regime was coming to a close, squatters runs were being cut up, and in 1874 the surveyors tents might be seen.


Place Names of Yorke's Peninsula in 1875.

Wednesday 8 July 1874, Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881) Trove

Schedule of Main Roads, Yorke's Peninsula Road Board. A. From Kadina via Moonta, Kalkabury area, Yorke Yalley, Gum; Flat, Penton Vale, Weaner's Flat, and Moorowie to Orrie Cowie. B. From Green's Plains via Moonta Mines and Moonta Town to Moonta Bay. C. From Wallaroo to Moonta. D. From Port Wakefield via Green's Plains and Kadina to Port Wallaroo. B. From Kadina to Broughton Agricultural Areas.


The Triplett Families in Australia


YORKE PENINSULA. Some Interesting Figures.

Sat 28 Apr 1923, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

The following list of Hundreds situted on Yorke Peninsula, with their areas in square miles and acres, together with names of principal towns and ports in each hundred will no doubt be found both interesting and useful. The list has been compiled from material supplied by the Land and Survey Department.

MELVILLE (78,400 acres, or 112 sq. miles) includes Yorketown, Edithburgh, Coobowie, Honiton, Sunbury,

Hundred of Melville, Proclaimed 18/2/1869.

DALRYMPLE (62,080 acres, or 97 sq. miles), Stansbury, Oaklands, Wool Bay.

Hundred of Dalrymple, Proclaimed 20/6/1872.

MOOROWIE (64,640 acres, 101 sq. miles), Warooka, Pt. Moorowie.

Hundred of Moorowie, Proclaimed 18/2/1869.

PARA WURLIE (80,640 acres, 126 sq. miles), Point Turton, Point Soutar.

Hundred of Para Wurlie, Proclaimed, 18/2/1869.

COONARIE (66,560 acres, 104 sq. miles), Point Yorke, Tucockcowie.

Hundred of Coonarie, Proclaimed 24/1/1878.

CARRIBIE (83,840 acres, 131 square miles), Corny Point, Daly Head, White Hut Station.

Hundred of Carribie, Proclaimed 25/1/1878.

WARRENBEN (105,920 acres, 165 square miles), Cape Spencer, Stenhouse Bay, Marion Bay, Ponda-Iowie Bay. (Althorpe's Lighjthouse is opposite Cape Spencer.)

Hundred of Warrenben, Proclaimed 24/1/1878.

MINLACOWIE (70,400 acres, 110 sq. miles), Minlaton, Brentwood, Port Minlacowie.

Hundred of Minlacowie, Proclaimed 26/3/1874.

RAMSAY (62,400 acres, 97 square miles), Port Vincent.

Hundred of Ramsay, Proclaimed 20//61872.

KOOLYWURTIE (50,240 acres. 78 sq. miles), Koolywurtie, Port Rickaby, Brown Point.

Hundred of Koolywurtie, Proclaimed 31/12/1874.

CURRAMULKA (67,200 acres, 105 sq. miles), Curramulka, Port Julia.

Hundred of Curramulka, Proclaimed 31/12/ 1874.

WAURALTEE (74,880 acres, 117 sq. miles), Port Victoria, Wauraltee, Mount Rat.

Hundred of Wauraltee, Proclaimed 31/12/1874

MULOOWURTIE (68,480 acres, 107 sq. miles), Sandilands, Pine Point, Muloowurtie, Black Point, Point Alfred.

Hundred of Muloowurtie, proclaimed 31/12/1874.

KILKERRAN (78,720 acres, 123 sq. miles), Kilkerran, Balgowan, Point Pearce, South Kilkerran.

Hundred of Kilkerran, Proclaimed 20/6/1872.

MAITLAND (84,480 acres, 132 sq. miles), Maitland.

Hundred of Maitland, was proclaimed 20/6/1872,

CUNNINGHAM (85,760 acres, 134 sq .miles), Ardrossan, Price, Dowlingville.

Hundred of Cunningham, Proclaimed 19/6/1873.

TIPARRA (171,520 acres, 268 sq. miles), Arthurton, Agery, Wetulta, Cape Elizabeth, Winulta.

Hundred of Tiparra, Proclaimed 12/6/1862.

CLINTON (87,680 acres, 137 square miles), Pt. Clinton, Port Price, Clinton Centre, Kainton, Yarroo.

Hundred of Clinton, proclaimed 12/6/1862.

Secure a copy of the book of Peninsula Views. 2/- per copy, posted 2/3. PIONEER Office, Yorketown.

New land was opened for selection


REPORT OF A VISIT TO YORK'S PENINSULA—BY MESSRS. COCK AND JAMESON.

Sat 8 Dec 1838, South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register (Adelaide, SA : 1836 - 1839) Trove

GENTLEMEN—Being desirous previous to my return to England to dispel some portion of the doubt or rather the complete ignorance which exists respecting York's Peninsula and the country near Port Lincoln, I gladly availed myself of the opportunity of joining some gentlemen in an expedition to those coasts. Much interest is known to exist, especially in England, concerning these localities an interest which appears to be well founded when we reflect that to a pastoral and grazing country, with a rapidly increasing population, space in an object of the first importance. From the geographical relations of Spencer' Gulf, it is to be inferred that its shores are not less fertile than those of St. Vincent's Gulf. To bring that inference to the test was the object of our expedition.

The continued prevalence of strong gales from the S.W. prevented us from entering Spencer's Gulf. We were, therefore, forced to content ourselves with some excursions into York's Peninsula; and, as our party was reduced to Mr. Cock and myself, we could not leave our boat, a decked cutter of ten tons, without some risk of being unable to find her on our return. It will be understood that the opinions expressed concerning the capabilities of the land are founded chiefly upon the wellknown judgment and experience of my fellow traveller.

The land of York's Peninsula, as seen from St. Vincent's Gulf, is very low and destitute of all the features of a line and hold country. No eminence of more than 200 feet in height was visible over a range of coast forty miles in extent. The coast is generally " bluff," and is composed of horizontal earthy strata, the upper beds of a whitish marl-like appearance, having the usual covering of vegetable mould, mixed with a reddish ferruginous loam. In its geo-logical formation it bears, therefore, a strong resemblance to the land on which Adelaide is built. The land stretching backwards from the sea is a dead level, but well covered with the common grasses, shrubs, and smaller trees of this country. Birds of the various Australian tribes are very numerous, as are also kangaroos of the large forest species, in excellent condition. There were many tracks and encampments of the natives, and their fires were visible in many parts of the country. The soil and the vegetation improved rapidly as we advanced inland, and we saw many extensive fields of kangaroo grass. The most abundant tree is the she-oak, whole forests of which we traversed, interspersed with the blue gum, the mimosa, and the cypress. The memebryanthum edile is too abundant. Its pulpy fruit has a very agreeable flavour when ripe, and is much eaten by the natives.

From this rough sketch it will he apparent that the soil is not of a very fertile description, but, so far from being a " barren and sandy waste" that, if we could have found a fresh water river, we would have pronounced it a good country for the maintenance of flocks and herds. From the numerous native population it is obvious that there is no scarcity of fresh water, although we could not find it.

Nine miles north of Troubridge Shoal there is another shoal of equal extent, covered at high water, running N. E. five miles, and bearing from Mount Lofty W. ½N. This shoal is not laid down in the chart. It was covered with innumerable birds, and as some of them were pelicans the reef may be called "Pelican Shoal." Between these two shoals the water is deep and smooth, and it is well worthy of attention, as affording good anchorage in the heaviest southerly gales, Troubridge Shoal acting as a breakwater.

In this part of the coast there is a beautiful semicircular bay, three miles deep, with sloping and wooded shores, from which many native smokes were rising. Landing at a distant part of the coast, we made for this bay, expecting to find a stream of fresh water running into it. We saw a party of eight or ten natives gathering the shell fish which abound along the coast. When they descried us they immediately ran into the woods, and we saw no more of them, to our great disappointment, as we expected to learn from them whether there was any fresh water stream in the neighbourhood along whose banks we might prosecute our enquiries into the neighbourhood. From the head of the bay we struck into the bush, and after a walk of twenty-five miles, during which we suffered consiberably from thirst, reached our boat. We found the soundings of the bay very shallow, and named it in our log "Deception Bay."

Unable as we wore to attain our objects, we saw enough to induce us to hope that this attempt to throw a light on these interesting parts of the province will not be the last. A party of five might in my opinion, if provided with two pack horses, reach Port Lincoln by land; as I believe from the number of natives that a scarcity of water is not to be feared. The natives themselves would, if they received no provocation, (judging from the ordinary principles of human nature) remain perfectly inoffensive. They are neither cannibals nor wild beasts, but human beings living on the spontaneous bounty of nature. Wherever they have been met they have returned kindness for kindness. In the neighbourhood of Encounter Bay they may perhaps have acquired an unfavourable idea of the white man's character, from the behaviour of a few sealers and whalers, but elsewhere they will, I believe generally be found very harmless and even useful as guides.

I have the honor to be Gentlemen, Your most obedient humble servant, R. G. JAMESON, Surgeon.

P. S.—lt is known that exploration is by many colonists regarded as unfavorable to the colunial principle of concentration. To those who hold such an opinion I would respectfully suggest that the range of accessible pasturage on this side of St. Vincent's Gulf is very limited and not capable of feeding more than 600,000 sheep, with the same proportionate number of cattle. Now the colony can hardly be of any importance as a wool— exporting settlement without five or six times that number of sheep.



NATIVES OF YORKE'S PENINSULA—PORT VICTORIA.

Sat 26 Dec 1840, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

We have been favored with the following interesting report by Mr Hughes, surveyor :—

REPORT OF SEVERAL INTERVIEWS WITH THE ABORIGINES AT PORT VICTORIA, BY J. H. HUGHES.

North Adelaide, December 12, 1840.

In the month of December last I proceeded across Yorke's Peninsula with my party, for the purpose of completing the Government surveys at Port Victoria, but it appeared, on arriving there, that the natives had discovered my depot of stores, and had rendered everything useless—tent, clothing, rations, instruments, &c. They had located upon the spot, and made an ineffectual attempt to surround the party, but were driven off without any shots being fired. The damage thus effected on the stores entirely prevented me from proceeding with the survey, and having been absent five weeks, we returned to Adelaide At a moderate calculation,the loss sustained was £150. Before we left the Peninsula, they contrived to rob us twice of blankets, although we never could perceive they were near us. I may mention that, upon a former occasion, having unintentionally surprised two of their females, every attempt was made to allay their fears by retiring from them, and on the same day we suddenly came in view of the whole tribe, but having only two men with me, without fire-arms, provisions, or water, and no probability of obtaining any before we had crossed the Peninsula, I considerd it prudent to retire without risking an interview, more particularly as they showed a menacing attitude. Being under contract with the Government for the completion of the surveys, I sailed in October last with a party consisting of eight, having taken the precaution of obtaining a sufficient stand of arms and ammunition for our protection against the hostility of the natives, being fully satisfied that the would consider us [?], from the leniency we had shown them; from the robbery of the depot, not the slightest retaliation having been made, although we had an opportunity of destroying all their spears. Having arrived a Port Victoria, any best, formerly left there, was [?] on the beach, about a quarter of a mile [?] where I had left it, and while preparing to go ashore to get possession of her, about seventeen natives made their appearances with their spears, yelling with their usual threatening attitude. The bottom flooring of the boat had been torn out, and the rudder, oars, &c. had disappeared. Orders wore then given to this four men who had come ashore with me to follow steadily behind me along the top of the sand-hills in a direction to the natives (who had taken their stand about two hundred yards before us), and endeavour to find the boat's oars, &c. As the party advanced the natives retired, rallying occasionally and shaking their spears. I considered it almost useless to make any attempt at a friendly meeting with them, and was preparing to return to the vessel, but advancing a few yards towards them alone, while my party stood still, I made the signal of peace by holding up both my hands and waving a green bough This caused them immediately to drop their spears, and one of them took a green bow also, and advanced to meet me, the rest remaining behind at about the same distance from him as my party were from me. He ap-peared very timid as he advanced, frequently looking behind him to see if he was supported by his party; but making motions that I wanted water, and presenting him with some biscuit, he came close enough to receive it, and was soon reconciled. He was made to understand that I would call my party up, who then advanced without their pieces, and he called to four of his party, who came without their spears. They now pointed out a track which led to some water-holes, at which they had encamped, and as I could not persuade them to return with us for more biscuit, I made signs that we would visit them before the sun went down, and bring them biscuit and get water. The parties now separated, each waving a green bough as they retired. Desirous of not breaking confidence with them, myself and five of the party went to their encampment in the afternoon, taking some biscuit and small presents for them. They were prepared to receive us, being seated in a circle, and without any weapons; the women and children had been sent away. They had dressed themselves with green boughs fastened round their middle, and advancing singly, the chief came alone to meet me, and introduced me to the water hole, and then to each of his brethren. Having taken water, some biscuit was distributed among them, with which they seemed much pleased. My party now came up with green boughs, and were received in the same manner. Having given them some small presents, we again separated, each party waving their boughs as long as they could see each other. During this meeting I had much cause to admire the orderly conduct of the natives, and the pleasure with which they appeared to view us, and I fully expected that all hostility had ceased. Four days after this, we again visited their encampment for the purpose of giving them more biscuit, but having reached within fifty yards of their huts, we found only four females. I stood and called to them, and they got up, much alarmed, but retiring a few paces from them and waving the bough, they collected their nets, &c. and walked away, leaving a number of spears and four young native dogs. Our party returned, without in any way meddling with them. As I have always conceived that a great portion of the hostility shown by the aborigines to the white man has arisen from real or anticipated acts of violence on their females, I had fully hoped that this visit of ours would have convinced them that we were real friends, as this was the second opportunity of molesting their unprotected females. Nothing more was seen of the natives for fourteen days, when the following account of a visit from them was given by the two men in charge of my tents .— In the middle of the day the tribe we had formerly visited, with others, amounting to twenty-four in number, made their appearance upon the sand-hills, about a hundred yards from our encampment. They made signals of peace, and were allowed to come down to the tents, and received biscuit, rice, and sugar; they then asked for water, which was also given to them. During this time their behaviour was very forward, and having two tents to take care of, the two men had much difficulty in preventing them from taking anything they wanted, and were under the necessity of showing the fire arms. They then asked for a fire-stick, which being given to them, they pretended to go away, instead of which they set fire to the grass, endeavouring thereby to drive us away, but we fortunately got the fire under before it reached the tents. Seeing this manoeuvre fail, the chief advanced to the tents with two young females, and made signals to the two men in charge to take them into their tents; but this being refused, some more sugar and rice was given to the females, aud they were ordered away. It appears that the chief had fully calculated upon the success of the females drawing the attention of the two men from their duty, at which time they, no doubt, intended, to pounce upon them; for while this was going on, some were busily engaged on the sand-hills collecting their spears (where it appears they had hidden them), while others were sneaking round to the back of the tents. The chief finding the scheme of his females fail, became quite enraged, and called loudly to his assistants, who ran to him with a bundle of spears, one of which he was on the point of throwing, and at the same moment another was seen running away with a great coat and a Kangaroo rug, which he had contrived to steal from inside the tent. At this moment both men discharged their pieces, but, it would appear, without effect, for one native got clear off with the coat and rug, and the other let his spears fall and ran away. Several loose shots were now fired to alarm the party in the field, for although the natives had disappeared among the sand-hills after the first fire, yet it was uncertain whether or not they would return. Having heard the report of the guns, I returned with the field party immediately to the encampment, when I received the above account, together with seventeen spears, now in my possession, which were found after the natives had retired. I have no reason to believe that any of them were wounded, as I followed their tracks in the sand for some distance, but could perceive no signs of blood, although I found some rice, sugar, and biscuit which they had dropped. The following day being the last which required the services of myself and party in the field, I determined upon getting away as speedily as possible; and to prevent any more signal shots being fired, I caused the materials of a large fire to be prepared ready for lighting, as a signal for our party to return, in the event of another visit from them. We were in the field the next morning before sunrise, and completed what was required before eight o'clock, and then returned to the tents. It appears that the natives, nothing daunted at the occurrences of the previous day, had been watching close to the tents all night, expecting the party would proceed to the field as usual, leaving the two men only behind; but owing to the early hour at which we had gone out, they were quite deceived, and showed themselves on my return to the number of twenty-six. Our signal fire was now lighted, and the whole party was mustered in half an hour. I perceived the natives had also made a smoke, which I suspected to be a signal to some other tribe, after which they went into the water to fish, about two hundred yards from our tents, as if nothing had occurred ; and as they came out, I approached them singly with a green bought and they did the same; but it appears they had not forgotten the coat and rug, for they would not face me, but scattered themselves about the sandhills round the tents. Their smoke had been answered from Gawler Point. Eight additional natives were seen coming towards us, and smokes had been observed in other directions. The natives were to windward of us, and they had set fire to the grass; and any attempt to extinguish it was useless. The tents were immediately struck, and all the luggage removed to the boats before the fire reached us. The removal of the luggage occasioning a division of our party, it became necessary, to keep off the natives, to fire over their heads whenever they attempted to come near us ; and we fortunately get every thing on board before the Gawler Point tribe could reach them, without any bloodshed, which must have occurred had their whole body advanced upon us, as I have every reason to believe they had intended.



"BARREN AND SANDY WASTE"

Fri 26 Sep 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

EARLIEST HISTORY OF YORKE PENINSULA

The "Pioneer" has made arrangements with an old Adelaide journalist to furnish a series of articles dealing with the history of the discovery and earliest occupation of Yorke Peninsula. His research has been almost wholly confined to the period when most people were throwing stones at the peninsula and calling it names. Subsequent development has proved that no part of South Australia was more grossly misrepresented and so little understood. No. 1.

Yorke Peninsula's coming-out year was 1802. That was when, from the mists of the unknown, this important "suburb of the mainland" revealed itself to Captain Matthew Flinders, who, his discovery ship Investigator, nosed about its bays and headlands, sounding- its waters and christening the most prominent geographical features. Flinders described the peninsula as 'singular in form, having some resemblance to a very ill-shaped leg or foot," and he named it in honor of the Right Hon. Charles Philip Yorke, afterwards Lord Hardwicke, who, as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1810, authorized the publication of the great navigator's journal.

CLEARED THE GALLERIES.

Yorke was born in 1764, and was a member of the Imperial House of Commons for Cambridgeshire, and afterwards of Liskeard. He was Secretary of State for War in Addington's Ministry in 1801. In 1810 Yorke made himself exceedingly unpopular by bringing about of the exclusion of strangers, including press reporters, from the House of Commons, under the standing order which led to the imprisonment of Sir Francis Burdett in the Tower, and to riots in London. In the same year he joined Spencer Perceval's Government as First Lord of the Admiralty. He retired from public life in 1818, and died in 1834, at the age of 70 years.

FRIENDLY TO FLINDERS.

The shabby treatment Flinders, and later his widow, received at the hands of the British Government is a matter of history. The navigator's biographer (Ernest Scott) wrote that it was derpressing to reflect upon the stinginess of a rich nation in this ease. Yorke, however, was not to blame. Upon the return of Flinders to London in 1810, after his long imprisonment in Mauritius, Yorke recognised that the special circumstances of the case demanded special treatment, and promoted him to the rank of Post-Captain. The First Lord also wanted to ante-date the commission to 1804, but the Admiralty was unsympathetic.

A LONG INTERVAL.

From 1802 until the official colonization of South Australia in 1836, Yorke Peninsula practically faded out of the picture, in common with the rest of the province, being known only to a few mariners from the east who traded to Kangaroo Island and vicinity for seal and kangaroo skins and salt. George Sutherland, commander of the' brig Governor Macquarrie, of Sydney, has recorded that, so far back as 1819, he "landed on the main in the bight between Point Riley and Corny Point.

WHERE ADELAIDE MIGHT HAVE BEEN.

The first definite proposal for the colonization of South Australia, according to Mr. A. Grenfell Price, was made by Major Anthony Bacon to the Colonial Office, London, in February, 1831, and his suggestion was that the capital of the new province should be fixed on Yorke Peninsula. When the time came for definite action, however, the first Surveyor-General (Col. W. Light) turned down Bacon's idea with a heavy hand. "Good harbors are not, I believe, to be found in narrow peninsulas," he wrote. He was fortified in his objection by the ludicrous declaration of, sealers that Yorke Peninsula was "a barren and sandy waste."'

AUCTIONEER TO THE RESCUE.

In December, 1838, what appears to have been the first real attempt to examine even parts of the peninsula was made by Robert Cock, pioneer Government Auctioneer, and Surgeon R. G. Jameson, in order to "dispel some portion of the complete ignorance which exists respecting Yorke Peninsula." They sailed from the mainland in a 10-ton decked cutter, and upon landing walked for 25 miles. They found the region very low and "destitute of all features of fine and bold country." No eminence over 200 ft. high was visible for a range of the coast 40 miles in extent. Birds and kangaroos in excellent condition were in abundance, and the blacks were friendly, but the explorers were disappointed by not finding a running stream. Tracks and encampments of natives were spotted, and the fires of aborigines were visible in many parts. The report continued:—"The soil is not of a very fertile description, but, so far from being a barren and sandy waste, if we could have found a fresh water river we would have pronounced It good country for the maintenance of flocks and herds." Cock and Jamieson named Deception Bay because they found its soundings very shallow.

AN EARLY LAND BOOM.

In June, 1839, the Adelaide Survey Association took up two special surveys of 15,000 acres each on the peninsula, and named them Victoria Harbor (later changed to Port Victoria) and Port Saint Vincent. The former was declared to comprise the "greatest extent of fertile country, especially for agricultural purposes, yet discovered in South Australia." This represented the first recorded attempt to settle the peninsula, but it proved to be only a short-lived land boom that was many years ahead of its time. The following extract from the "Southern Australian" of June 19, 1839, indicates the kind of boosting with which Pt. Victoria was launched:— The Adelaide Survey Association lately took a survey at a place called by Capt. Flinders Point Pearce in Spencer's Gulf. It turns out, however, that Finders was mistaken, for that which he laid down as a point proves to be an island, behind which there had been found one of the finest harbors in this part cit the world—a splendid bay completely sheltered from every wind, with a safe and easy entrance and an excellent anchorage. This splendid harbor the association have named Pt. Victoria, and from its situation, being about half-way up the eastern side of the gulf, and as we understand that it is backed by about 600 square miles of the finest land for agricultural purposes yet discovered in the province, we have little doubt it will become one of the finest ports in this hemisphere

LABOUR FROM LONDON.

It was anounced that the Adelaide Survey Association was going to ask the Colonization Commissioners in London to send out labour direct from England to Yorke Peninsula. Prices of the shares in the two surveys rose rapidly, and those for Pt. Victoria were quoted on the basis of £4 to £5, per acre, and those for Pt. Vincent at £2 10/- to £3 per acre. The Treasurer of the Association was Henry Qles, and when he appealed for a call of £30 a share some sellers came into the market where previously they had been sitting tight. Mr. Bigwood, of "Adelaide Bazaar, on acre 81 Rundle Street, advertised his willingness to quit his shares at £5 an acre, and Light, Kinnis and Co. offered 40 acres at Pt. Victoria for £150 cash. I In January, 1840, the following announcement appeared in the Adelaide press:—

PORT VICTORIA SPECIAL SURVEY. ,

Mr. Hughes informs the shareholder-; 1 of the above survey that he has discovered a reservoir of excellent fresh water only 7 ft. below the surface, one and a half miles from the head of the inner bay. The supply is sufficient for a large town and the cartage to Victoria is extremely easy. Melbourne St., North Adelaide.

SORRENTO OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

Upon the return to Adelaide of Mr. James H. Hughes after the discovery of his reservoir, the press intimated that "their fellow townsman" had been shamefully treated by the blacks, who robbed him of tent, rations, surveying instruments and other goods worth all together £150. It was not until a long time after the boom subsided that Port Victoria and Vincent again came into prominence. About 20 acres of the original township of Port Vincent was sold for £2, 600, and land advertisements declared that it was destined to become the Sorrento of South Australia. In the next article, entitled "Scrubby days of the Peninsula ," readers will be told how efforts were made to tame York '" PeninsuIa. One land seeker stating that there was "not one acre fit for cultivation."



"BARREN AND SANDY WASTE"

Fri 3 Oct 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

EARLIEST HISTORY OF Y0RKE PENINSULA No. 2.
The "Pioneer" has made arrangements with an old Adelaide journalist to furnish a series of articles dealing with the history of die discovery and earliest occupation of Yorke Peninsula. His research has been almost wholly confined to the period when most people were throwing stones at the peninsula and calling it names. Subsequent development has proved that no part of South Australia was more grossly misrepresented and so little understood.

Scrubby Days of the Peninsula.

William Robinson, who, before the days of C. B. Fisher and J. H. An gas, was the owner of the famous Hill River station, near Clare, did his best to damn Yorke Peninsula in October, 1843. Two years earlier he was concerned in a terrible encounter with the blacks on the banks of the River Murray. The natives scattered 6,000 ewes and 500 head of cattle which he and a party were over-landing from the Murrumbidgee to Adelaide, and 30 of the natives lost their lives in the skirmish which followed. Robinson's report is interesting as descriptive of the peninsula in its primitive state, and it makes amusing reading in the light of present-day developments.

lt is as follows :— I returned to Adelaide on October 12 (1843) from a short trip to explore Yorke Peninsula, which, I am sorry to say, was unsatisfactory. I proceeded, in company with Mr. Lines, in the "Resource" cutter, taking with us a couple of men and two horses. At sunrise we dropped anchor in Oyster Bay (now Stansbury). Owing to the loss of the cutter's boat, which was not recovered until the evening, we had to abandon our intention of proceeding at once to explore the country. On the day following we were detained by a like misfortune, the boat being washed off the beach during the night, and as this time we were not fortunate enough to regain her, we had to await a favorable time of tide for bringing the cutter close in shore. On Tuesday morning Mr. Lines and myself started at daybreak with two horses, leaving the men we had taken to explore the immediate vicinity of our landing place, and to try by digging if fresh water could be procured on the sand of the seabeach, but in which we afterwards found they were unsuccessful. We directed our course towards the opposite shore in a zigzag direction, averaging about N.N.W. For the first 15 miles we traveled through nothing but scrub, excepting about midway we passed over land little elevated, and covered with a sort of sharp, wiry grass. We then reached a low, range running nearly north and south, which was covered with the same description of grass, and wooded with sheoak trees. From this place we could plainly distinguish Point Pearce, and Mount Lofty was also in sight. During this part of our joumpy the only fresh water we found was in one native well, and in a small hole filled apparently by recent rain. We had seen, however, two saltwater lakes. We then turned our horses heads to the southward, and rode along this range so as to command a view of the shore of Spencer's Gulf and the intervening country, and proceeded to the termination of the range, from which we descended bearing a little to the westward. The whole of this range, as well as the country to the westward, is covered with the same sort of prickly grass and sheoak trees, except patches of scrub here and there on the flat. During this part of the journey we found no water. We again returned to the range, on which we slept. Troubridge Hill bore south a little easterly. On the following morning we were again on horseback before sunrise. We had intended to penetrate to the south east, but the country appearing one dense mass of scrub, and very low land, altered our course again to the notthward, returning nearly parallel to our former course till we came abreast of where we had landed, and again made Oyster Bay. During this day's journey we found the country similar to what I have described previously, without a single drop of water excepting at the small hole we had seen the day before, and which we went out of our way to reach for the sake of the horses. The general feature of the country is very flat, with no indication of permanent water anywhere to be seen. We saw a few natives, a great number of kangaroos, but very few birds, and not one acre of land fit for cultivation.

A TIMELY FOOTNOTE.

"Not one acre of land fit for cultivation " The editor of "The Register" would not believe it, and appended the following footnote to Mr. Robinson's report:—"No amount of disappointment on account of the first failure should deter from further attempts, inasmuch as the general belief is that good land, and that too in great quantities, must sooner or later be discovered in this large and hitherto unexplored district."

PAID CASH.

William Robinson, who so sadly misjudged what the scrub was hiding, afterwards settled in New Zealand, where he founded and made a fortune out of the celebrated Cheviot Hills estate in the Canterbury district, and was appointed a life member of the Legislative Council. He became known in New Zealand as "Ready Money Robinson," from his rare habit of paying cash for everything he purchased. Two of his daughters married titled men (Lady Dillon Bell and the late Lady Campbell).

DISCOURAGED BY NATIVES.

The Adelaide "Observer" of April 26, 1845. refers to another adventure of the same kind on the part of three white men and two semi-civilized blacks. They clambered up some cliffs into impenetrable scrub, apparently dense and compact enough to admit of being walked on. They came to a dark and gloomy gully overhung with dwarf gum trees and a kind of wild vine, making the top impervious to the sun's rays." Where could that have been? The report of this party mentions no locality by name. The sounding of an alarm brought them back to their boat, and suddenly 60 or more adult blacks appeared on the beach. One of them "a fine, portly figure, waded up to his shoulders to the boat, a perfect mixture of terror, doubt and good humour." He was pacified with a gift of bread. A little later a second large band of fine looking savage natives came on the scene, and the party of whites, discouraged from further exploration, lifted the anchor and cleared out. It is interesting to note that at this period (1845) the salt industry had already been started in South Australia. G. R. Thompson was advertising his salt works situated in King Willim Street, Adelaide, "opposite to Bentham Neale's stockyards." His selling price was £5 a ton, or 6/- a cwt.

GOVERNORS PARTY MAROONED.

In I848 Yorke Peninsula was still regarded by some people as "a desert shore," although a good place for a marine picnic. This is indicated by an account in the "Southern Australian" of March 28. 1848, of an unpleasant experience which befell His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor (Colonel Robe). The paper says:— Last week the Lieutenant Governor and a party of friends comprehending His Honor the Judge, the Surievor-General and the Collector of Customs, with ladies and families, proceeded in the Government cutter on their annual excursion to picnic on Yorke Peninsuia The cutter not being able to approach the shore on account of shoal water, the party were landed in a small boat. We fancy that in the joyous exuberance of such an occasion the small boat must have been neglected. Let this be as it may, the small boat disappeared. Our readers can imagine better than we can describe the lamentable condition of the isolated magnates, having a considerable portion of a great gulf between them and their ocean home for the nonce, a vast scrub in the rear, only three loaves remaining from the picnic, and very little grog. At last Quin, in the cutter, was made to understand that the boat was lost. Having no other, be was obliged to return to the Lightship (at the Semaphore), and by the time he landed to relieve the distinguished party they had been detained for 24 hours in durance vile on that desert shore. Ilv that time, of course, the whole party were grievously enhugered. However, the party, without any other casualty, were landed at Port Adelaide.

No. 3, entitled "Yorke Peninsula as Criminal Sanctuary," will tell the story of several Tasmanian convicts who worked in the Stansbury and Weavers districts until rearrested.



"BARREN AND SANDY WASTE"

Fri 10 Oct 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

EARLIEST HISTORY OF YORKE PENINSULA No. 3.
The "Pioneer" has made arrangements with an old Adelaide journalist to furnish a series of articles dealing with the history of the discovery and earliest occupation of Yorke Peninsula. His research has been almost wholly confined to the period when most people were throwing stones at the peninsula and calling it names. Subsequent development has proved that no part of South Australia was more grossly misrepresented and so little understood.

PENINSULA AS A CRIMINAL SANCTUARY.

What was telling principally against the development of Yorke Peninsula I was its scrubby nature, the almost complete absence of permanent surface waters, its isolation, the menace of the blacks, and the poor transport facilities available. Not one of the great explorers like Sturt, Stuart and Eyre seems to have bothered his head about the long, lanky stretch of territory that was destined to play such an important part in the primary and mining industries in the general prosperity of South Australia. Not only were the blacks hostile, but Yorke Peninsula had become a sanctuary for old lags who had escaped from Van Diemens Land (now Tasmania) on the boats of whalers and sealers.

BUSHRANGERS AND MURDERERS.

Inspector Alexander Timer's book of reminiscences contains a vivid account of the capture in 1848 of four of these desperate convicts in the Stansbury district. Their names were Rodders, Reilly, Lynch and Reynolds, bushrangers and murderers, who had been the terror of Tasmania for three years. They got away from Tasmania with an American whaler bound for Kangaroo Island, and in Investigator's Strait stole a boat from the whaler and landed on Yorke Peninsula. Information of their presence there was given to Tolmer in Adelaide by Thomas Giles and Alfred Weaver, two of the peninsula's earliest identities. The lags' story was that they had been fast to a whale, which dragged them out of sight of the ship and the island, and that, after cutting the line and landing on Yorke Peninsula, they walked along the coast until they met John Bowden, another of the pioneer pastoralists. Bowden pave them work, not knowing really who they were, and only too glad to get the labour.

A POLICE EXPEDITION.

Tolmer immediately dispatched to the peninsula a policeman dressed in dirty moleskins, a ranged blue shirt, and an old cabbage tree hat and carrying a swag and billy. This disguise was to enable him to wander about the Stansbury district as an ordinary bushman, and quietly ascertain whether the four castaways answered the description of the four criminals wanted in Tasmania, whence the description had been forwarded to the South Australian Government. Before the bush policeman could return, however, Tolmer received further information that satisfied him about their identity, and he set sail on the "Lapwing" with four mounted officers. There is a long, drawn-out account in the inspector's reminiscence's of what followed To the inspector's astonishment John Bowden demanded at assisting the police and made several paltry excuses, whereupon Tolmer intimated that unless he willingly afforded the help required he would be compelled to impress him in the Queen's name, whereupon the sheep farmer consented. There is no question about the personal integrity of Bowden, and his attitude only goes to show how hard pressed for labour the pastoral pathfinders of the peninsula were.

FOUR FOR THE GALLOWS.

Tolmer's ruses and strategy were equal to bloodless capture of the four criminals, who added new chapters to the Policemen's knowledge of foul language. Desperate efforts to escape when being taken to the mainland were frustrated, and eventually the convicts were returned to Tasmania wearing heavy shackles made fast to the chain cable. All were duly executed, and the island Government forwarded to Adelaide the £l00 reward which had been offered for the capture of each. Inspector Tolmer received only £25 of the £100 and his handful of men £15 each. Much disgusted, the first-named declared that it was adding insult to injury.

ROGUES GULLY A MISNOMER.

Writing about these malefactors reminds one that for many years the official maps of Yorke Peninsula have shown a "Rogues Gully" and "Rogues Point" on the north-eastern corner of the hundred of Muloowurtie. Everybody who made a hobby of the geographical nomenclature of South Australia has satisfied that these curious names must be a memorial of the escaped convict days of the peninsula, and an appeal through the widely circulated medium of the "Pioneer" in 1921 failed to upset the theory. Last year, however, the writer was spending an evening with Mr. C. Prevtag, at American River, Kangaroo Island, when the host produced an old map of South Australia, lithographed in London in 1855, which he had picked up in a second-hand shop in Adelaide. This map was inscribed to Arthur Henry Freeling. Survejor-General of the day, and had been prepared by H. Higginson and John W Painter. By the latter's name endures at Mount Painter, where the radio --- exists? Upon examining this map in detail, the writer discovered that where "Rogues Gull" and "Rogue's Point'" are shown on most maps of the peninsula, the names appeared is "Rogers Gully" and "Rouge's Point" are now quite clear that a misnomer has crept into the nomenclature of peninsula. The names really perpetuate those of the worthy Roger family, pioneer pastoralists, who held the ---- ---- as a sleepwalk. The present Auditor-General (Mr. W. E Rogers) is a descendant of the clan. Mr. Frevtag presented the old map to the Survey department, and a promise was given that the error would be rectified in future issues.

No 4 will deal with the "Pioneer Pastoral Pathfinders," and tells Alfred Weaver, the first pastoralist, in 1846.



"BARREN AND SANDY WASTE"

Fri 17 Oct 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

EARLIEST HISTORY OF YORKE PENINSULA No. 4. PIONEER PASTORAL PATHFINDERS.

Like many other parts of South Australia, Yorke Peninsula owes its earliest development to the emirate and enterprise of sheep farmers. To Alfred Weaver, whose daughter the writer met in Parkside several years and belongs the credit of being probably the first pastoralist to tackle the "barren and sandy waste" as a stockraising proposition. Considerable and patient research has revealed no earlier claimant to that distinction. The lot of the pioneers in this industry was a very unhappy one. The menace of the blacks, the difficulties of isolation and transport, low prices, the scarcity of labour and of surface waters, and the prevalence of coast and scab diseases made the venture heroic; but a distinguished band of stock-breeders faced the problems, and overcame them successfully. Most of them were eventually driven off the peninsula by the resumption of their holdings to make room for the plough. In the early days stock, coming and going, had to be driven right around the head of the gulf, and one flock of almost 2,000 sheep was almost entirely wiped out through drinking salt water along the coast line. The late Hon. John Lewis, in his book, "Fought and Won." also tells the following story:—

The late Wattie Thompson, of O'Halloran Hill, had a piece of country on the peninsula where he wintered his sheep, and he had 1,800 young wethers coming up from the peninsula. The man in charge got within a few miles of Clinton and left his sheep on a sand ridge while he came up to Clinton to get a drink. On returning to where he left the sheep he found that they had run on to the sea beach. The tide came in, they were trapped between the sea and the cliff, and every one was drowned.

ALFRED THE FIRST!

The story of the first sheep-farmers is well told in various chapters of "Pastoral Pioneers of South Australia," published in two volumes in 1925-27. Alfred Weaver was a Bristol man. and in 1846 took up 52? square miles of country at 10/- a mile, at Oyster Bay. Its grazing capacity was 7,000 sheep. The country had been spied out for him by Charles Parrington, who was with Colonel Light in the brig "Rapid." Mr. Weaver, who died at the age of 89 years, rests in St. Mary's churchyard, south of Adelaide. His name endures in Weaver's Lagoon. He came out to South Australia in 1839 on the ship "Katherine Stewart Forbes" and was fellow passenger of Sir Charles Cooper, who was the Judge mentioned in an earlier article as having been marooned on Yorke Peninsula with Governor Robe's picnic party in 1848. Weaver drove a mob of horses of his own breeding around the head of the gulf from Oyster Bay, and sold them for £60 and £70 a head at Salisbury. He disposed of his property to Messrs. Rogers, Lander and Stephen, who also had Lake Sunday and Corny Point stations. They ran 23,300 sheep, besides many cattle and horses.

GRAZED SHEEP OVER YORKE-TOWN.

A little later than Weaver came John Bowden, a Cornishman, who at one time was manager of the South Australian Company's dairy on the River Torrens, and estabiished Kersbrook. He grazed sheep in and around what are now Yorketown, Edithburgh and Coobowie. In 18-- we find him figuring as a defendant in an action by Mr. Maurice, another pastoral magnate, for breach of agreement in regard to the sale of 2400 ewes at 5/- a head and 1000 lambs at 3/- a head. We mention this only as a guide to the prices that Yorke Peninsula pastoralists had to put up with in the pioneering days. What a jury it was! Sir Charles Cooper was on the bench, and in the jury box were John Bailey (first Colonial Botanist and grand-father of the present Director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden). William (afterwards Sir William) Milne. Eustace R. Mitford, who make his mark on the inkv way as "Pasquin," W. C. Buik (afterwards Mayor of Adelaide), Henry (later Sir Henry) Avers. J. W. Dislier (of Disher and Milne), and Samuel Kearne. who had the Oaklands estate (mainland) before the Htm. John Crozier. John Bowden had a brother Jacob, who conducted a business as herbalist in Gilles Street, Adelaide, when the stumps of trees were still prominent in the main street of the capital. The writer had a letter from John Bowden's grandson at Quorn two or three years ago.

MISSING HISTORY.

James Coutts and John Sharpies had a big scope of peninsula country in the heroic days, but both passed out without anyone having set down in print an adequate account of their worthy achievements. The story their pioneering efforts would justify the telling, and one would like to get in touch, through the medium of the "Pioneer." with anyone who could assist in that direction.

ANSTEY AND GILES.

Messrs. G, A. Anstey and Thomas Giles squatted on country around Minlaton and Curramulka. Their holdings included the famous Penton Yale and Gum Fat or Mount Rat estates, and they parted with their country for a comparative song before the advent of fertilisers helped to make it one of the most productive parts in agricultural South Australia. George A. Anstey accepted a nominee seat in the old Legislative Council in 1851. He sat in Parliament for only three days, resigning in petulance and pique because of the "shameful preference of his fellow members for matters personal themselves as to their pockets and prejudices, but most mischievous to the country." Anstey son (Lieutenant Edgar Oliphant Anstey) was the first South Australian born military officer to fall in battle, being killed in action at Isandula, Zululaml on January 22 1879. Thomas Giles was a son of William Giles, second manager of the South Australian Company. The present senior member for Yorke Peninsula represents another generation of a really worthy family. The original parents brought out eleven children with them in 1837.

JOY, SHIPMATE, JOY!

Among the Rogers family. Samuel had part of Yorke Valley, including the site of Maitland township, eight of the street names of which are associated with this clan. William Fowler, who finished his days at Yararoo, was another who had a linger in the pastoral pioneer pie—he who ordered the following lines by Walt Whitman to be inscribed upon his tombstone:— Joy, shipmate, joy! "Pleased to my soul," at death I cry. Our life is closed; our life begins, the long, long anchorage we leave. The ship is clear, at last she leaps, She swiftly courses from the shore Joy, shipmate, joy! This sketch is not intended to be an exhaustive account of the pastoral development of Yorke Peninsula; it only points to the finger-posts of the earliest endeavour. The "Pioneer" would welcome any supplementary notes that its oldest readers may be in a position to furnish in a reminiscent vein. No. 5 deals with "The Awakening," and gives some interesting statistics of the Agricultural Babyhood of Y.P.



"BARREN AND SANDY WASTE"

Fri 24 Oct 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

EARLIEST HISTORY OF YORKE PENINSULA No. 5. THE AWAKENING.

One would have thought that the discovery of the great copper mines in 1859 would have served to focus vigorous attention upon the possibilities of agricultural and in mixed farming occupation lower down the peninsula, but the district continued to be a sheepwalk but years after the mining boom had helped to once again set the commercial joybells ringing for South Australia. We are concerned now with the trunk more than the head of the peninsula, but in passing it may be mentioned that the Moonta copper mine, although opened later than the rich gold reefs of Victoria, was owned by the first mining company in Australia to pay more than £l,000,000 dividend, that record having been achieved even before amalgamation with the Wallaroo company in 1889.

AGRICULTURAL BABYHOOD.

In proof of the agricultural development of Yorke Peninsula one turns to the South Australian Gazette " for 1867, which shows that in the previous year only 17 acres under wheat on the penisula, the total yield having been 174 bushels. Ninety? acres sown for hay produced ------ the total area under fallow was 12 acres, and there were 5 acres of garden and 1 acre of vines. At this time the peninsula was carrying 135,554 sheep, 942 horses, 1578 head of cattle, 2 goats, 23 pigs, and 481 head of poultry. The editor of the gazette drew pointed amotion to the great part private enterprise had played in the provision of public utilities from one end of the peninsula to the other. It had done almost everything he said, --- in the district pro-perou?, and had saved the government a very considerable outlay. ???

AN INFORMATIVE RETURN.

In this connection it is interesting to recall a return which the late Mr Robert Caldwell asked for in 1888 when he represented the district in The House of Assembly. The information he sought was the total amount the Treasury had derived from the sale and lease of all land in the electoral district of Yorke Peninsula until June 30 , and the total amount expended on all public works.

The return showed:— Revenue from land £---,---

Ependiture—

Survey Departrment £--,---

Jetties— £-,---

Lighthouses £--,---

Repairs to Roads outside district Council £-,---

Construction of Roads by Peninsula Road Board £130,272

Water Conservation £7,447

Public Buildings £--,---

Corporation and District Council £--,---

Total £297,258

The comparison would have been still more favorable to Yorke Peninsula had the revenue from sources other than land be included. The 1888 return has never been brought up to date.

ONE JUSTICE OF THE PEACE.

The real growing pains of the peninsula came along with the introduction of superphosphates, since when it has continued to be one of the most reliable grain areas in Australia. Indeed, the primary industries have been able to absorb the terrible shock caused by the cessation of mining and smelting operations. The Hundred of Strangways Act in the early seventies. Of course the salt and gypsum de-Meville was the first surveyed and settled under the regulations of the po-its helped materially in the uplift, and Messrs. Henry Berry & co are credited with having been the pioneers in the opening up of the salt industry which attained such importance that at one time it was proposed that Yorketown should be renamed Salt Lake City? In 1867 William Fowler was the only justice of peace in the southern peninsula the growth of which was so slow that for a long period it was attached to the electoral district of Port Adelaide. Separation followed complaints from the chief seaport that the peninsula mining towns were dominating the complexion of political representation.

PROSPEROUS SHIPPING DAYS.

Things were evidently looking up in 1878 because at the half-yearly meeting of the Coast Steamship Company it was announced that the steamer cercs was running regular trips to Yorke Peninsula and a dividend of 15/? a share for the half-year, equal to 17? per cent, per annum, was declared. Was that the lure which, in September, 1878, produced a prospectus of the Southern Yorke Peninsula Steamship Company, Ltd , seeking a capital of £8,ooo" The promoters wetre Messers J. Gottschalck and George Barr. of Edithburgh; Thomas Carlott, James Caldwell. junr., and G. A. Heinrieh. of diamond Lake; J. N. Lindner L.G. Jaensch, C. A. Haby. W. H. Tucker, sen., and John Allan, of Yorketown; V. Hitchcox and O. Klem, of Warooka. Being a local company it was exptected that the new venture would command the bulk of the trade between Edithburgh and Port Adelaide, and the proposal was to purchase a suitable steamer in Sydney. What happened the writer's notes do not say. In any case the boundary line of the "early history" of the peninsula may now be regarded as having been reached. As a parting shot, it may be stated that Sir R, R. Torrens, author of the Real Property Act, took up 80 acres on Yorke Peninsula with the last outstanding preliminary land order, with which he had previously tried unsuccessfully to acquire Port Augusta, Mitcham, and Granite Island. Victor Harbor. He, too, was among the Governor's marooned party of 1848.

This is the concluding article under the above heading. We hope to follow very shortly with a series of articles dealing with the Naming of Peninsula Places and Towns. Ed



YORKE PENINSULA PLACE NAMES

Sat 5 Mar 1921, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

HISTORY OF THEIR ORIGIN. No. I—The Work of Matthew Flinders.

The object of these articles is not to attempt to set down a history of the settlement and progress of Yorke Peninsula, but to place on record a narrative of its geographical nomenclature as complete as the information at our disposal will allow. Of course, the two subjects, history and nomenclature, are inseparable, and research in either must yield results common to both. We are hopeful that one effect of the publication of this series of articles will be to awaken interest in the nomenclature of the Peninsula among readers of the Pioneer generally, and especially among the old residents, who may be able to furnish missing name-place derivations or to amplify others now presented. Only by such co-operation can anything like a complete schedule be recorded, and the value of it especially in time to come, will be obvious to everyone. The place names of the Peninsula may be classified in several groups. The influence of that great navigator, Matthew Flinders, is detected along the whole stretch of coastline washed by the waters of Spencer's Gulf. St. Vincent's Gulf, and Investigator's Strait. A considerable interval separated the nomenclatural "stuffing" of the big boot, and this process was shared in by pioneer settlers, by the Governors of the State, particularly the late Sir James Ferguson, and by those who showed some regard for the mellifluous native language. A One British flavor has always characterised Yorke Peninsula geographical christenings since the beginning of settlement, when enemy place names came under the ban of the Nomenclature Committee during the war not one within the whole County of Fergusson had to be changed, Let us give the first attention to Flinders.

THE PENINSULA.

Yorke Peninsula was christened by Flinders on March 30, 1802, after the Right Honorable Charles Phillip Yorke, one of the first Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty who honored the voyage of the Investigator with their patronage. Yorke had a useful naval career, and was present at the bombardment of Algiers. Afterwards he was engaged actively in the suppression of piracy in the Mediterranean. He sat in the House of Commons for several years and succeeded his uncle as fourth Earl of Hardwicke. The fourth noble Earl was Postmaster-General in Lord Derby's Ministry in 1852, became an Admiral on the retired list in 1868, and died in 1873. Ernest Scott, author of "Terre Napoleon," says:'—" From the time when the Investigator passed the head of the Bight, the whole of the coastline traversed was virginal to geographical science. With a clean sheet of paper. Flinders began to chart a new stretch of the earth's outline, and to link up the undiscovered with the known portions of the great southern continent. Our interest in his work is intensified by the reflection that of all the coasts of the habitable earth, this was the last important portion still to be discovered." Priority of discovery has invariably carried with it the right of geographical christening, but every South Australian who has learned anything at all about the history of his State knows of the audacious attempt to rob Flinders of his privilege which followed the voyage of the French ships, Le Geographe and Le Naturaliste. Thus on Freycinet's atlas published in 1808 Yorke Peninsula was styled Presqu lie Cambaceres, after Jean Jacques Regis Cambaceres, Duke of Parma, who was raised to distinction by the French Revolution. He was a special favorite of the Emperor Napoleon, who made him President of the Chamber of Peers. Cambaceres was banished on the second restoration of Louis XVIII, but was afterwards allowed to return to Paris, where he died in 1824.

THE BIG WATERS.

Investigator's Strait bears the name of Flinders' ship, a sloop of 334 tons, originally called H.M.S. Xenophon. He circumnavigated Australia for the first time in this vessel, which was condemned as unseaworthy in 1803. On the French map Investigator's Strait appears as Detroit de Lacepede, in honor of Count Bernard Germain Etienne de la Ville Lacepede, French naturalist, 1756—1825, who was a member of the Institute of France that was entrusted with the Baudin's preparation of instructions for voyage of discovery Spencer's Gulf was named by Flinders on March 20, 1802. " in honor of the respectable nobleman who presided at the Board of Admiralty when the voyage was planned and ship put into commission”. This was the Right Honor-George John, second Earl Spencer. His sister was the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire (Georgiana). He became Viscount Althorp by courtesy on the elevation of his father to the earldom in 1765. He removed from the House of Commons to the House of Lords in 1783, when he succeeded his father. Earl Spencer went to Vienna as Ambassador Extraordinary, and upon his return in 1794 was appointed first Lord of the Admiralty, an office he held for six years during a glorious period of England's naval history. Spencer is famous for his rehabilitation of Althorp Library, founded by an ancestor and said to be the finest private library in Europe. He died at Althorp in 1834. Cape Spencer has a similar derivation. If Baudin's names bad endured Spencer's Gulf would now be known as Golfe Bonaparte. St. Vincent's Gulf was christened by Flinders on March 30, 1802, " in honor of the noble Admiral who presided at the Board of Admiralty when I sailed from England, and who continued to the voyage that countenance of which Earl Spencer had set the example." (Right Honorable John. Earl of St. Vincent). Flinders dedicated his journal to this and other First Lords of the Admiralty. St. Vincent was in active service as Admiral in command of the Channel Fleet in 1800, when passports were issued by the Admiralty to the French discovery ships Geographe and Naturaliste. Baudin's name for St. Vincent's Gulf was Golfe Josephine, " in honor of our august Empress." The author of " Terre Napoleon " says :— " It was a presty piece of courtiership, but unfortunately Napoleon's nuptial arrangements were in a state of flux, and when the trenchant 'Quarterly Reviewer' of 1810 came to discuss the work the place of Josephine was occupied by Marie Louise. The reviewer saucily suggested 'Bonaparte has since changed it for Louisa's Gulf.' " St. Vincent's Gulf, west of Glenelg, was known to the aborigines as Wongayerlo. meaning literally "overwhelming water in the west ; the place where the sun disappears."

FOUR TROUBRIDGES.

Troubridge Hill. Troubridge Point Troubridge Shoal, and Troubridge Lighthouse, perpetuate the name of Admiral Sir Thomas Troubridge, a distingushed naval commander, who, when Flinders' ship was fitted out, was one of the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom. Sir Thomas Troubridge fought in H.M.S. Culloden under Sir John Jervis (afterwards Earl of St. Vincent) in the battle off Cape St. Vincent on Feb. 14, 1797. Flinders was in New South Wales when this famous naval engagement occurred, and he bestowed the Troubridge names five years later. The Troubridge light was first exhibited in 1856

MORE 1802 CHRISTENINGS.

Corny Point was so named by Flinders because of its curious formation, and the navigator had in mind two gentlemen at the Admiralty when he christened Point Riley and Point Pearce. At the latter place a large town was surveyed in 1840, but not sold, although the location of the aboriginal mission station there has brought it into prominence. Hardwick Bay was bestowed as a compliment to the Earl of that name, who was formerly the Right Honorable C. P. Yorke. Flinders found the bay one of the safest and best in the gulf, with an abundance of wood and water on the shore. The Althorp Isles were so christened after Earl Spencer's eldest son and heir. This completes the most important share that Matthew Flinders took in the nomenclature of Yorke Peninsula. The next article will deal with the coming of the pastoral pioneers. Cricket reports are next issue.



YORKE PENINSULA PLACE NAMES

Sat 12 Mar 1921, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

HISTORY OF THEIR ORIGIN. No. 2—Something about the Pioneers.

For years after the foundation of South Australia in 1836 Yorke Peninsula was comparatively neglected by the pioneer pathfinders. Mr. A. T. Saunders, whose interesting hobby for years has been to dredge history from early newspaper files, told the writer that up to' the fifties the references to the Peninsula are singularly scanty and unimportant. This, no doubt, was due to its almost insular situation, and to a belief originally entertained that the country consisted largely of a waterless scrub. In 1839 a body known as the Adelaide Survey Association spied out the localities known as Port Victoria and Port Vincent. The latter (originally Port St-Vincent) was named by Robert Cock in May of the year mentioned from the fact of its situation on the western shores of St. Vincent's Gulf. A special survey of 15,000 acres was applied for. The party that visited Port Victoria at the same period undertook the journey in the schooner Victoria, hence the name- James H. Hughes surveyed both these places, but the venture was not a success. In January,1840, he published the following advertisement:—"Mr. Hughes informs the shareholders of the above survey (Port Victoria), that he has discovered a reservoir of excellent fresh water only 7ft below the surface one and a half miles from the head of the inner bay. The supply is sufficient for a large town, and the cartage to Victoria is easy. Melbourne Street, North Adelaide, December 31, 1839."

EARLY PASTORAL DAYS.

The most interesting light on the early pastoral occupation of Southern Yorke Peninsula is furnished by the reminiscences of Thomas Giles (hence Giles's Point), published in 1887. He says that all the country between Cape Jervis and Mount Remarkable was stocked before stations were formed on Yorke Peninsula. Then he refers to the failure of the Vincent and Victoria special surveys, and adds that the country was not taken up until 1846. In that year Charles Parrington, one of Colonel Light's men, was sent by his employer, Alfred Weaver, of South Road, near Adelaide, to inspect the country on Southern Yorke Peninsula. Miss Weaver, a daughter of Alfred Weaver, is now living at Young St., Parkside, a suburb of Adelaide, and informed the writer that in 1846 her father was running sheep at Port Elliot. He did not like the gradual encroachment of new settlers, and therefore sent Pairington "to see what he could find up the Gulf.'' The latter is described as an exceptionally fearless man. He took out a run at Oyster Bay (named because of the abundance of oysters to be found there in the early days), and Mr. Weaver built a fine house oh his new country and settled on it with his family. The sheep suffered a lot from scab, and this pioneer remained on the Peninsula for only seven years. Weaver's Lagoon bears his name, and Miss Weaver has a fine painting of it in her house at Parkside. It was known only as the "Long Lagoon” In her childhood; Alfred Weaver died at the age of 89 years, and was interred at St. Mary's, South Road.

Some years ago the South Australian branch of the Royal Geographical Society published the reminiscences of Octavius Skipper, who said that in he went to Yorke Peninsula with Mr. E. Thornton to settle a dispute over the delivery of "a small sheep station" by Weaver to G. M. Stephen. Two stockmen (Baynall and Armstrong), who went over with Skipper and Thornton, were murdered by natives, being speared through the kidneys. The other two white men had a narrow escape from a similar fate. Blacks were about to attack them when they were scared stiff by Thornton's glasses. They immediately adjudged him to be a white devil and decamped without wasting a spear.

GEORGE PENTON.

Mr. Giles' narrative says that Mr. Weaver's enterprise was soon afterwards followed by pastoral activities on the part of John Bowden, of Chain of Ponds, who applied for the country adjoining where Yorketown, Edithburgh, and Coobowie now stand and of Messrs Coutts and Sharpies- In the next year Mr Giles took up leases about Minlaton (then Gum Flat) Curramulka for Mr. G. A. Anstey. "It was no easy matter, he says," getting sheep round there, as the scrub grew so close to the cliffs that in some places we had to wait for low water to drive the sheep. Mr Coutts lost nearly 2,000 by their drinking salt water when being driven round in summer" Mr Giles had to travel 100 miles—from the River Wakefield to Gum Flat— for a of fresh water for his sheep. Messrs. Anstey and Giles selected Mr. George Penton as their overseer, and his name is perpetuated in Penton Vale. His employer wrote of him:—" He was an excellent judge of sheep, and moreover a determined, resolute fellow, just the sort of man for a new country. He came out in the Rapid with Colonel Light in 1836, and was one of the Colonel's best men." Mr. Giles describes Mr. Penton's exciting encounters with the blacks. Later be managed the run known as Penton Vale, which Mr Giles bought from Mr. Bowden, and continued in the employ of the same firm all his life. He died in 1867, and was buried at West Terrace Cemetery, Adelaide. A daughter, Edward Stonhouse, who with her husband, spent many years on the Peninsula, is now living at Malvern. She has an excellent enlarged portrait of her late father, and her husband was formerly one of Mr. Giles overseers. Mr. Giles wrote : It used to be pleasant to hear Penton spin yarns about olden times Colonel Light. No man could have had greater respect the memory of an old master than he had for the fine old Colonel- By the way, - Light was only 51 he died. Mr Giles' remains rest at Clayton Churchyard, Kenington.

FORMER PENINSULA RESIDENTS.

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Stonhouse were able to throw considerable light upon some of Yorke Peninsula's early nomenclature. For example, there is Lake Stonhouse. They said that Charlie Parrington discovered and named Lake Sunday from the fact that he encountered fresh water in the locality on a Sunday. Lake Monday owes its christening to its proximity to Lake Sunday. A son of the late Mr. Parrington is now living at Bull's Creek. Lake Fowler keeps green the memory of William Fowler, another pastoral pioneer, who ended his days at Yarraroo, near Kulpara. Wool Bay was the place where the Penton Vale wool was shipped. Originally there was a cutting, now enlarged to a drive, just wide enough to admit of a bale of wool being rolled down. That place is now known officially as Pickering, calling to mind the father of the well known John Pickering, ex-Comptroller of Railway Accounts. Mr. Stonhouse remarked that it was a mistake to say that Yorketown was known originally as Weaner's Flat. The latter place was so designated because it was an ideal weaning station when the locality was in pastoral occupation. The Yorketown Show Ground now occupies the identical spot. Lake Stonhouse must not lie confused with Stenhouse Bay, which is a tribute to the enterprise of Andrew Stenhouse, who opened up the gypsum claims in the locality in conjunction with Messrs. James Bell & Co. Mr. Stenhouse came from Dumbarton, Scotland. He was formerly sole proprietor of the Broken Hill Globe Timber Mills, and at the age of 81 years successfully underwent an operation for the amputation of a leg. Wattle Point was once marked by a fine growth of wattles, which have long since given place to a waste of sand, utterly contradictory to the choice of its nomenclature. Mount Rat— the puzzle nowadays is to find either the mount or the rodent—was so named because kangaroo rats were commonly found there in the early days. The natives called the little creature " Yelki." Mount Terrible marked the location of the habitation of a hutkeeper known as "Terrible Jack."

THE ROGERS FAMILY.

Mrs. Klem, of Corney Point, is another old resident who has made an interesting contribution to the nomenclature of the Peninsula. The Rogers family held a lot of country in the Hundred of Carribie and elsewhere, and several geographical place names perpetuate the cognomens of members of the family. Egan's Well embraces the maiden name of Mrs. Rogers, who was a daughter of a former keeper of the Adelaide Gaol. Point Deberg reminds one of John Thomas Deberg Rogers, a son of Thos. Win. Rogers. He was once in the South Australian Survey Department, and is now living in Western Australia. Bob's Well honors Win. Robert Rogers, a brother of T. W. Rogers, and Point Annie is after Aunie Egan, a neice of Mrs. T. W. Rogerf with whom she lived for some time. She lost an arm as the result of blood poisoning. Mrs Kleni says that Constance Bay is also traceable to the Rogers family. The Dairy in the Hundred of Carribie was so called because the same family made butter and cheese there, and sold the produce at good prices to those employed at the Wallaroo Mines. 'Mrs Klem also communicates the fact that Gellerttown, a suburb of Edithburgh was named after James Leon Gellert, grandfather of Leon Gellert, the Anzac poet. He was the first school teacher at Edithburgh, and owned the land cut up as Gellerttown, which is wrongly printed in the official list of villages and townships as Gillerttown, and now known as Gillerton. Ward's Crossing has a little history attached to it. The swamp which it traverses was very difficult for traffic to negotiate, and the late Hon. Ebenezer Ward, who once resided at Para Wurlie, was instrumental in getting the swamp metalled. His wife opened the new highway and christened it Ward's Crossing, which action hardly squares with the action of Mr. Ward, who unsuccessfully moved the following motion in the House of Assembly on October 9, 1872:—" That it is undesirable to continue the system of giving to townships and hundreds the names or surnames of ladies and gentlemen."That legislator's name afterwards got inside a hundred. Point Gilbert recalls the name of another early squatter in the late Mr. Joseph Gilbert, who held Tucock Cowie, Orrie Cowie, and other Stations, and is best known as the founder of famous Pewsy Vale Estate on the mainland. His daughter married Colonel John Adam Fergusson, brother of the Governor.

[The Rev. Robert Kelly, the first Methodist minister to reside in this district, has sent us a stamped envelope bearing the "Weaner's Flat" postmark. A photo block published in "The Pioneer" on August 29, 1930, shows a picture of Erichsen's store with the words "Weaner's Flat Store" printed on the sign board. These two facts alone point out that Yorketown was originally known as "Weaner's Flat."—Ed.] The next article will deal with the gubernatorial aspect of the Peninsula's nomenclature.



YORKE PENINSULA PLACE NAMES

Sat 19 Mar 1921, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

HISTORY OF THEIR ORIGIN. No. 3—Viceregal Christenings.

The whole of Yorke Peninsula is comprised within County Fergusson which honors the name of the Right Honorable Sir James Fergusson, sixth baronet, Who was Governor of South Australia from 1869 to 1873. He had more to do with place-naming on the Peninsula than all our other vicegerents put together and made the duty quite a family affJir. Sir james was born in Edinburgh. After leaving South Australia he served for two years as Governor of New Zealand, and then followed a useful political career in England. He fought in the Crimea War, and was wounded in a wrist at the battle of Inkerman. Other high offices filled by Sir James Fergusson were the governorships of Bombay and Jamaica, and during the latter regime he lost his life in the great earthquake at Kingston in January, 1907. Edithburgh, which was laid out in 1869, perpetuates the name of Lady Edith Fergusson, wife of the Governor, who was a daughter of the Marquis of Dalhousie, a former Governor General of India. Blanche and Edith streets in the same township bear the names of Lady Fergusson’s daughters. The " Private Letters of the Marquess of Dalhousie," edited by J. G. A. Baird, form an interesting volume on the biographical shelves. In 1859 the Marquis was hopelessly broken in health, and, writing to Sir G. Couper with regard to the approaching marriage of his daughter Edith to Sir Jas. Fergusson, of Kilkerran, Scotland, he said:—"Our marriage must be got over somehow, even if in total privacy. I trust in God I may look for a happy result to the event. All else is gloom on which I can no longer look with hope, and but that it were sin, I could wish that, so far as I am concerned, it were ended, and that I were taken away from a world in which I no longer serve any purpose but to be a dog to others and a weariness to myself" The marriage was indeed a happy one until Lady Edith died at Glanville Hall, near Port Adelaide on October 28, 1871. By the way, the sandstone for the building of Glanville Hall was brought to Port Adelaide from Yorke Peninsula by Capt. John Hart, C.M.G. The remains of Lady Edith were interred at North Road Cemetery near Adelaide. The funeral sermons were preached in St. Paul's Church, Adelaide, where she played the organ and trained the choir.

MORE FAMILY NAMES.

The Fergusson family Bible yields much more which is of interest in Yorke Peninsula nomenclature. The Hundred of Dalrymple was named by Sir James in 1872. His Excellency was a son of Sir Charles Dalrymple-Fergusson. The former's brother, Charles, assumed the name of Dalrymple as representing his great grandfather, Sir David Dalrymple, Bart. (Lord Hailes). For three years he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons in Scotland, and died suddenly from heart failure in 1917. The Hundred of Ramsay got its cognomen from the fact that Lady Edith Fergusson's noble father was a son of George Ramsay, ninth Earl of Dalhousie, a branch of the main line of Ramsays famous in Scottish history. Melville township and the Hundred of Melville form another link with the Fergussons- Among the private letters of the Marquis of Dalhousie the following appears: " They have elected me a Governor of the Bank of Scotland in room of my good did friend Lord Melville. The compliment pleases me. I like to be recollected at home among my own folk."

A DISTINGUISHED GENERAL.

Kilkerran was christened after Sir James Fergusson's estate in Ayrshire, Scotland. The root word "Kit" originally denoted an enclosure of some kind, and the rest of the name embodies that of St. Ciarran, the apostle of the Scots-Irish, and the founder of a monastic rule. (See Taylor's " Words and Places"). General Sir Charles Fergusson succeeded our late Governor in the barouetcy in 1907, and played a distinguished part in the Great War. It is recorded that he received a hearty welcome and an illuminated address from his tenantry at Kilkerran on his return, after having spent six years at the front. He was one of the few Generals who went right through the campaign, and after the armistice was appointed Governor of the occupied territory in Germany, with headquarters at Cologne. His younger brother James commanded H.M.S Thunderer in the Battle of Jutland. Governor Fergusson named Maitland in 1872 after the maiden name of a relative, Julia Maitland, daughter of the Earl of Lauderdale. The native appellation for the place is Madi waltu, meaning "white flint." Ardrossan is after the beautiful seaport of the same name in Ayrshire, Scotland. It contains the Gaelic roots "ard," a height' and " ros," a prominent rock or headland. Balgowan comes from Perthshire, Scotland. The Hundred of Cameron, and Lochiel within it, are two more names of Scottish origin which Sir James Fergusson bestowed, and that about completes his share in the geographical christening of this part of the State. Another link between the Fergusson's and Yorke Peninsula is the fact that Sir James's only surviving brother, Colonel John Adam Fergusson, married a daughter of the late Mr. Joseph Gilbert; who once occupied Tiicock Cowie and Orrie Cowie stations. No doubt Point Gilbert, near Port Moorowie, derived its name from the source indicated. [The conclusion of the Viceregal Christenings will be inserted next week, to be followed by the fourth article containing a miscellaneous list-of well-known inland and coastal towns on Yorke Peninsula.—Ed

To the Editor.

Sir,—In your series of articles on Yorke Peninsula place names Peesey Range has not been mentioned. To the early settlers this was known as the Pise Hut Range, and when one keeps in mind the correct pronunciation of "pise" the evolution of the name to its present form is easily understood. I am. Sir, etc.,



YORKE PENINSULA PLACE NAMES

Sat 2 Apr 1921, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

HISTORY OP THEIR ORIGIN. No. 4—A Miscellaneous Group.

Our three previous articles on the above subject dealt with names bestowed by Matthew Flinders, others having a personal association with Governors of the State, and a series connected with the early pioneers. Of equal interest is a miscellaneous group of names which do not come under any of the headings mentioned. Yorketown is regarded as the capital of the Southern Peninsula, and its nomenclatural history is the same as the Peninsula itself. (See Article No. 1). An old resident vouches for the fact that - Mr. Beaumont built the back portion of the present building known as the Melville Hotel, and surveyed the land around it. Just prior to leaving for Adelaide to fix his plans he named the place Yorketown. At that time it was the only town south of Moonta on the Peninsula. Originally it was proposed to call the place Yorke, but the authorities in Adelaide pointed out the undesirability of clashing with York, near Kilkenny. Messrs. Green & Co. and Mr. von Bertouch had a lot to do with the laying out of the township.

THE MINING TOWNS.

So far the Lower Peninsula has had all the attention, although its northern centres made it famous. The discovery of copper in 1860 soon resulted in the establishment of three important townships, and has been of inestimable service to the State ever since. Wallaroo is distortion of the aboriginal words wadla-waru (the d pronounced very softly), meaning wallaby's urine. It shows the care that should be exercised before native words are adopted for place naming. In the course of its corruptive evolution wadla-waru was twisted into Wallawaroo when Captain (afterwards Sir) W. W. Hughes held the country that locality for pastoral purposes. This was considered too cumbersome in the stamping of wool bales, and so the name was clipped to its present day form Wallaroo. In a New South Wales native dialect the same word means "black kangaroo" According to the late Mr. F. J. Gillen, S.M., a recognised authority on aboriginal dialects, the proper designation of Moonta is Moonta' Moonterra, meaning freely "place of impenetrable scrub." Before the discovery of copper the district was covered with a dense mallee scrub, which in parts was almost impenetrable owing to the abundant growth of creepers. The town was laid out in 1863, and was christened by Sir Dominick Daly. The third important mining centre, Kadina, was named by Governor Macdonnell in 1861. It retains in one word the sound of the native designation of a locality about four miles south of the present town—Caddy-yeena or Caddy-inn a, meaning "lizard plain." Other well known mining names are Yelta, a native word referring to a small animal, and Parramatta, borrowed from New South Wales, where the meaning has been recorded as "place where the eels sit down." Along the River Parramatta is a mud flat, on which eels used to disport themselves in great numbers, providing keen sport for the blacks and others when the waters subsided, Inseparable from the mining history is the name of Hughes. Port Hughes helps to keep green the memory of Sir Walter Watson Hughes, one of whose shepherds was the discoverer of the great mineral deposit in the northern peninsula. A fine bronze statue of the deceased Knight was erected some years ago in the grounds of the Adelaide Uuiversity, of which he was one of the founders.

BACK TO THE BOOT.

Getting back into the boot of the peninsula we have Brentwood, which was named by a pioneer who came from a market town so called in the Chelmsford division of Essex. The late Dr. W. L. Cleland told the writer that our Parkside Mental Hospital was modelled on the exact plans of the Brentwood asylum in Essex. During the war the English town was mentioned as having been bombed by Zeppelins. Two of the earliest settlers in Dowlingville were Messrs G.P.D. and J. T. Whittaker, whose mother's maiden name was Dowling, and another woman's name is perpetuated in Port Julia (Mrs Julia Wurm, of Stansbury) whose husband and sons took up land there. By the way, Stansbury was originally Oyster Bay, but when Governor Musgrave in 1873 bestowed the present appellation on this favorite watering place he left no record as to who he was honoring, beyond the fact that Mr Stansbury was a friend of his, Oaklands was christened nearly 50 years ago by Mr R. D. Anderson, who was the first man to take up land and grow wheat in the Hundred of Dalrymple. The cognomen was suggested by the abundant growth of sheoaks. Mr. Anderson afterwards lived at Streaky Bay. Minlaton is in the Hundred of Minlacowie, and the latter word means, in the native tongue, "sweet water," so that a free interpetation of Minlaton would be " sweet town"—certainly not an inappropriate effort in nomenclature. Honiton comes from Devonshire, and Melton occurs no fewer than sixteen times in England, while Sunbury had its beginnings in Middlesex, and Cranbrook in Kent. Howe in the Hundred of Clinton honors the late Hon. J. H. Howe, M.L.C., who attained Cabinet rank; Howetown, Port Pirie has a similar derivation. Kainton in the same hundred also looks like a personal name. In 1872 the local poundkeeper was one, P. J. Kaine. The cognomen is not officially recognised in the Lands Titles Office. Relatives of the late Inspector Alford, prominent in the police force in early days, say that Alford on the peninsula was christened after him Paskeville has reference to General Paske, brother-in-law of Governor Jervois. Green's Plains appeared on the map long before there was any agricultural settlement in the locality. This spot was christened — after a shepherd of Captain W. W Hughes. His hut was in the ( middle belt between the two plains, east and west. Two of Green's sons are on the land in Western Australia. (To be concluded )



YORKE PENINSULA PLACE NAMES

Sat 4 Jun 1921, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

More Derivations.

In connection with the publication in the PIONEER of a series of articles dealing with the geographical nomenclature of Yorke Peninsula, the assistance of Mr. Francis Garnett, Superintendent of the Point Pearce Aboriginal Station, was enlisted. That gentleman appealed to two reliable native women under his charge for certain missing derivations, and the results were gratifying and interesting. Mr. Garnett has furnished the following native names with their meanings : —Kalkabury, shea oak hill; Muloowurtie, rat burrow; Coonarrie or Binnarrie, hollow tree: Moorowie, sand Water; Para Wurlie, camp meeting; Carribie, emu flat: PondolowieBay, stone waterhole; Tucock Cowie, mud water; Tiddy Widdy Wells, Tiddy Widdy Ned. Mr. Garnett concludes by expressing the interest with which he has read the articles in the PIONEER- His letter was referred to the writer of the articles, who has replied as follows:—"Mr. Garnett has rendered a distinct service to those who are endeavouring to establish a proper record of South Australia's geographical nomenclature. All of the derivations he has supplied are quite new, and have a genuine ring about them. The response on the part of Peninsula old-timers has not been such as one would have expected, but the new light thrown on the subject by Mr. Garnett alone makes the publication of the articles worth while- I am sure the PIONEER will be pleased to hear from him again if further research yields any more missing derivations."


PLACE NAMES OF YORKE PENINSULA

Fri 21 Nov 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

PART III. GOVERNOR FERGUSSON'S INFLUENCE.

A PUZZLE.

The Hundred of Cunningham may have been named after the Northern district of Avrshire or after Sir William Cunningham, who was member for Ayr Burghs about the time that the survey took place. Sir James Fergusson had great influence politically and otherwise throughout the County of Ayrshire, which he represented be fore going to South Australia. When he returned from Bombay he, with Sir William Holdsworth, represented Manchester, and became Postmaster-General, I think, in the Salisbury Government. Sir Charles Dalyrmple at this time represented, with Lord Ficho, the Town of Ipswich. Another derivation suggested is in honour of the late Mr. Hastings Cuningham (note the one N), founder of Mount Gambier township, who was a close personal friend of the Fergussons of Kilkerran.

ONCE MAUTLAND.

Governor Fergusson still had in mind noble relatives when he christened Maitland, a family name of the Earls of Lauderdale, representing a very old and distinguished Scottish clan. An earlier form of the name, in the old world, was Mautland. Our natives knew the locality as Madi waltu, meaning "white flint."

FROM SCOTLAND.

Ardrossan is after the beautiful seaport of the same name in Ayrshire, Scotland. It contains the Gaelic roots "ard," a height, and "ros," a prominent rock or headland. Balgowan comes from Perthshire, Scotland. The Hundred of Cameron, and Lochiel within it, are two more names of Scottish origin which Sir James Fergusson bestowed.

SALT LAKE CITY!

Yorketown answers for itself as to nomenclatural derivation, and, as explained in the historical scries, might have been Salt Lake City, Whatever may be peninsula rivalries, it is regarded on the mainland as the capital of southern Yorke Peninsula. An old resident vouches for the fact that Mr. Beaumont built the back portion of the present building known as the Melville Hotel, and surveyed the land around it. Just prior to leaving for Adelaide to fix his plans he named the place Yorketown. At that time it was the only town south of Moonta on the Peninsula. Originally it was proposed to call the place Yorke, and it was actually advertised as such, but the authorities in Adelaide pointed out the undesirability of clashing with York, near Kilkenny. Messrs. Green and Co. and Mr. von Bertouch had a lot to do with the laying out of the township.



PLACE NAMES OF YORKE PENINSULA AN UP TO DATE SURVEY

Fri 28 Nov 1830, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

PART IV. COASTAL AND NATIVE NAMES.

Marion Bay and Sultana Point recall the wrecks of two ships so named—the former in August, 1831, and the latter in October. 1849. Sturt Bay is one of the many memories of the great explorer. Captain Charles Sturt, that our nomenclature supplies. Formby Bay was christened in 1908 after Mr. John Formbv, S.M., an ex-president of the Marine Board. Point De Mole reminds one of the late Mr. George E. De Mole, who accompanied Captain B. Douglas on his marine surveys and drew his charts, and Point Davenport represents one of half a dozen references to the late Sir Samuel Davenport in our nomenclature Port Rickaby preserves the name of Mr. T. Rickaby. J.P., an agricultural settler in the district served by the port, concerning whom the late Rev. Dr. H. T. Burgess published a very interesting biography in "The Cyclopedia of South Australia." Royston Head has an English derivation. Lord Royston was the eldest son of Lord Hardwicke (Hardwicke Bay). Black Point, a favorite resort of yachtsmen, is descriptive of the geological appearance of the locality. Point and Port Turton remind one of Mr. H H. Turton, accountant of the Savings Bank, who married Caroline, daughter of Governor Daly. There we have the derivation of Daly's Head. Point Souttar, as a name. is there because Mr. John Souttar, manager of the Bank of Adelaide, married Joanna, another daughter of Governor Daly.

THE NATIVE ELEMENT.

There never has been any official or any other systematic recording of aboriginal place names and their meaning in relation to the Yorke Peninsula region. Mr. J. Howard Johnson's vocabulary stands alone as the best effort of its kind, and the only rerget the writer had after reading and studying it was that the subject of place names did not claim greater attention. We meet the familiar "owie," and other forms of the terminal, as signifying "water." but the prefixes have always been the bug-bear of noinenclators. Coobowie was surveyed in 1874 by Mr. J. H. Packard at what had always been known as Salt Creek. He asked some natives on the spot by what name they knew the locality, and they replied "Coobowie," meaning "wild fowl and water" Mr. Packard recommended tile cognomen to Governor Musgrave, who adopted it. The sale of the township realized £1,200. Orrie Cowie in equivalent to "black spring water." Hubbracowie stands for "pigface waterhole," consistent with the growth of that plant near to it. Tiparra is a name by which a lighthouse, a spring, and a hundred are known. It was applied by aborigines to a remarkable spring within a short distance of the coast in a singular group of sandhills. In the centre of the hills is a hollow, like the crater of a volcano, containing fresh, clear spring water. No doubt the word has reference to these conditions. There has been much speculation as to the meaning of Warooka. The original assertion was that the name was applied to pastoral country taken out by Mr. Thomas Giles in the early fifties, and that is was the native appellation of a parrot with beautiful plumage. This drew the suggestion that the word was a corruption of Warriooka, meaning "Ship" in the Port Lincoln dialect, and that the natives would bestow on a ship a word equivalent to bird. Mr. M. Thring, of Strathalbyn. said he had often heard the expression from aborigines, when a sailing vessel hove in sight, "Warriooka come on." At the time of this controversy the late Mr J. Vigar, of Warooka, wrote:—"Warooka was first used by Messrs. John Young (now of Western Australia) and the late Thomas Robertson as the name for our post office. They both told me that Warooka was the native designation of a swamp or lagoon on an adjoining section, which the blacks called 'Warook.' The only native now living here told me it meant 'mud.'"

WHERE EMUS DRANK.

Curramulka represents a slight corruption of two native words—Curre (emu) and mulka (deep waterholes). Emus used to stoop to drink here and fall in, thus allowing themselves to be caught by the natives, who knew the place as Curre Mulka. Governor Jervois bestowed the named. Another authority says that the proper spelling is Curre-murrka, meaning "emu rockholes." Koolywurtie appears on the map as a Government township, a hundred, and a point (also named Black Point). Mr. R. Higgins, of Laura, wrote:—"The natives declared that this name should not have been applied to the nice country which it now represents. It properly belongs to a rugged, rocky point jutting into the sea, the literal meaning of the word being 'dirty tail.' "

Kulpara, originally the name of a pastoral lease, is aboriginal for "water-in-head—cocoanut." Wauraltee or Waralti Island is native for "bandicoot." It is also known as Wardang Island, which is not aboriginal.

COPPER REGION.

So far the Lower Peninsula has had all the attention, although its northern centres gave it fleeting fame. The discovery of copper in 1859-61 soon resulted in the establishment of three important townships, and was of inestimable service to the State. Wallaroo is a distortion of the aboriginal words wadla-waru (the d pronounced very softly), meaning wallaby's urine. It shows the care that should be exercised before native words are adopted for place-naming. In the course of its corruptive evolution wadla-waru was twisted into Wallawaroo when Captain (afterwards Sir) W. W. Hughes held the country in that locality for pastoral purposes. This was considered too cumbersome in the stamping of wool bales, and so the name was clipped to its present day form, Wallaroo. In a New South Wales native dialect the same word means "black kangaroo." According to the late Mr. F, J. Gillen, S M , a reconised authority on aboriginal dialects, the proper designation of Moonta is Moonta Moonterra, meaning freely "place of impenetrable scrub". Before the discovery of copper the district was covered with a dense mallee scrub, which in parts was almost impenetrable owing to the abundant growth of creepers. The town was laid out in 1863, and was christened by Sir Dominick Daly. The third important mining centre, Kadina, was named by Governor Macdonnell in 1861. It retains in one word the sound of the native designation of a locality about four miles south of the present town —Caddy-yeena or Caddy-inna, meaning "lizard plain." Other well-known mining names are Yelta, a native word referring to a small animal, and Parramatta, borrowed from New South Wales, where the meaning has been recorded as "place where the eels sit down." Along the River Parramatta is a mud flat, on which eels used to disport themselves in great numbers, providing keen sport for the blacks and others when the waters subsided. Inseparable from the mining history is the name of Hughes. Port Hughes helps to keep green the memory of Sir Walter Watson Hughes, one of whose shepherds was the discoverer of the great mineral deposit in the northern peninsula. A fine bronze statue of the deceased Knight stands in the grounds of the Adelaide University, of which he was one of the founders. He had been a student of metallurgy, and, having sensed the presence of copper in his sheepwalks at the top end of the peninsula, he encouraged his shepherds to look for the evidence.

MORE NATIVE WORDS.

Mr. Francis Garnett was, for a long period, superintendent of the Point Pearce Aboriginal Station, and was subsequently Protector of Aborigines . He filled in a piece of the vacant nomenclatural map in the following way:—Kalkabury, she oak hill; Muloowurtie, rat burrow; Coonarric or Hinnarrie, hollow tree; Moorowie, sand water; Para Wurlie, camp meeting; Carribie, emu flat; Pondoiowie Hay, stone waterhole; Tucock Cowie, mud water; Tiddy Widdy Wells. Tiddy Widdy Ned.


OLD PENINSULA DAYS.

Sat 14 Jan 1922 The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

By REV. ROBT. KELLY, of Ivanhoe, Victoria.

The excellent series of views of Central and Southern Yorke Peninsula published by the PIONEER Office brings to mind characters and events connected with the early days of settlement by the farming community. My first acquaintance with Yorketown was in the beginning of the year 1874. It was then known as " Weaner's Flat," and the post office kept by Mr. Edward Jacobs at his general store bore that designation. I do not think there was as much as a chain of macadamised road south pf Moonta at that time. Bits of the original forest remained in the as yet unformed streets of Yorketown, and the track to Editbburgh and other centres was something to be remembered. The boghole at Sheehan's Well, near the " Seven Roads," was a particularly lovely spot. Another treat was the "Peasey Swamp" on the way to Warooka, a town not then even named. Years aftewards I saw the results of the District Road Board's work from end to end of the Peninsula, and better roads could not be found anywhere. In the early 'seventies the old names were in common use. We had Salt Creek, Diamond Lake, Oyster Bay, Gum Flat, Yorke Valley, Kalkabury, and Parara. All these have been re-christened. Yorke Valley, of course, still describes the magnificent stretch of country extending from Urania to the north of Maitland. Many of those who took up land came from the districts south of Adelaide. There was a general movement just then. The northern areas were opening up as well, and there was a widespread desire for larger holdings and better opportunities. Stories were told of attempts to discourage the influx of the farmers. It was impossible to grow wheat, said those whose interests lay in other directions. The same thing was said of the North, but enterprising men were determined to try for themselves, and the issue was satisfactory, especially later on when scientific methods of cultivation were introduced.

BIG ESTATES CUT UP.

The old regime was coming to a close, squatters' runs were being cut up, and in 1874 the surveyors' tents might be seen at Minlacowie and about. Mr. J. W. Jones, if memory serves, had charge of one party. He had previously carried out similar work on the Broughton. Mr. Leonard Giles occupied Penton Vale, and his lieutenant, Mr. Paddock, managed Gum Flat Station. Mr. W. Fowler's Moorowie station was in charge of Mr. Geo. Phillips, whose gracious hospitality I shall never forget. Mrs. Phillips was only one of many bravehearted Australian women who have faced the solitudes of the back country and pioneered for civilisation. The Polhills were at Tucock Cowie, Charles Gall at Orrie Cowie, Samuel Rogers at Yorke Valley, and the native mission station at Pt. Pearce was under the care of the Rev. W. J. Kuhn. The Bowmans reigned at Parara, and the copper mine of that name was managed by Capt. Tregoweth, a burly Cornishman with the best qualities of his race. All there was of Ardrossan was a few score of whitie pegs among the tussocks, but less than four years it became a solid-looking little town with excellent prospects. Wauraltee Plain was a hunting ground for the kangarooers, among whom Charlie Parenton was reckoned chief. At the 10-Mile Hut (Koolywurtie) an old shepherd named Glass had his headquarters, and at Mount Rat another called Rusbridge held the outpost. I knew these old chaps, and they had romances of their own and a history worth listening to.

YORKETOWN.

Of Yorketown itself I can recall readily the names of some of the early residents. Jacobs kept the store, Rossiter the hotel, and Alden hoven the mill. The Newlyns and Geo. H. Heaney supplied the sadd lery, Jaehne was the blacksmith (this worthy citizen was accidentally killed by a fall from his horse). When the National Bank opened Mr. H. J. Hood was installed as mapager. Dr. Vonnida resided a little way out in the direction of Lake Fowler. Clergy were scarce. For 12 months or so I had the field to myself right up to Moonta and was called to Maitland and other distant parts to celebrate marriages etc. Presently, however, the Rev. J. Nancarrow (still active, I am glad to know) came on the scene in the Baptist interest. Father Church the Roman Catholics, and the Rev. J. H. Corvan the Anglicans. The i salt industry was in its infancy. Mr. Tocchi was working a lake near the township and something was being done at Lake Fowler, There was only faint promise of the big proportions of later years. There was a little friendly rivalry between Yorketown and Edithburgh as to which should claim to be the commercial centre of the district. The problem, I suppose, has been settled long ago.

HONITON—THE CENTRE OF LEARNING.

But it is interesting to call to mind a spot that made some pretensions to the position of intellectual centre. Diamond Lake (now known as Honiton) was the Boston or the Athens of S.Y. P. Its " Institute '' and library, and periodical lectures and what not were quite a feature in the life of the early 'seventies. Mr. Robert Caldwell (afterwards M.P.), and his family connections, with the Daveys, Corrells, Algies, and a number of others kept this side of hfiman interest going, and thus helped to brighten existence for those who had their full share of toil and responsibility as new comers away from the more easily accessible lines of traffic.

THE CHIEF SEAPORT.

Edithburgh always had its advantages as chief seaport, and it was blessed with a few enterprising men whose motto was " advance." Gottschalck and Klem were the pioneer merchants of the place. Names have changed but progress continues. Salt Creek (Coobowie) had a school of its own under Stephen Carter, but was noted chiefly as the harbor for the IUC sailing vessels " Edith Alice " and " Sailor Prince," which brought at first most of the goods for the settlers and did practically all of the passenger traffic. The Spencer Gulf steamers " Royal Shepherd " and " Lubra " used to call on their way, but a distinct stage was marked when the " Glenelg " was put on for the Peninsula trade. Her master, Captain Brimage, was highly popular, and deserved to be, j for no one could have shown greater consideration for his passengers, The "James Comrie " and the " Warooka " came later. My own experience of the gulf trip was gained early in 1874, on the small sailing boat "Sultana" (Captain Martin), and a dismal experience it was, only equalled by a two days' sail in the " Young St. George " a few months later. Unfortunately, it is easy to remember the painful things of life. It is usually the lot of the pioneers to do the rough and tumble work, and the new generation does not always appreciate the self-sacrifice of those that went before it.

DISTINGUISHED RESIDENTS.

Some who were young men in the 'seventies have distinguished themselves in public life or given son's and daughters to uphold the honor of a worthy name. The Hon. W. Kendall, M.L.C., of Victoria, was an enterprising farmer at Minlacowie. The Hon. D. J. Gordon, M.L.C., was a boy in Ardrossan who had proved the truth of the old Scotch saying that it is a great thing to have " guid forebears." The Rev. C. G. Teichelmann, who spent the years of his retirement in the vicinity of Stansbury, left children who filled a worthy place. A man of unusual parts was Mr. Jas. Gellert. the schoolmaster of Diamond Lake. A Jew by race, he was a christian by conviction and a man whose mental outlook was superior and striking. His descendants are represented in the world of literature. A quaint old Devonshire man was Lambert F. Bawden, of Hardwicke Bay, squatter and farmer in a small way a saint of the good old school, a musical enthusiast, and a mechanical genius in the particular art of manufacturing fiddles of all sizes, especially the bass viol Michael Kenny was an outstanding character, suggesting in some ways the great Daniel O'Connell, and an authority among those of his own nationality. Many of the first settlers have passed away, but those who are still with us remember them with respect. The pages of the PIONEER are liberally sprinkled with names that were familiar on the Lower Peninsula 48 years ago Evidently the children are satisfied that the fathers made a wise choice when elected to build their homes in such such a pleasant part of the State. They might easily go farther and fare worse-



OLD PENINSULA DAYS. No. 2.

Sat 4 Feb 1922 The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

BV REV. ROBERT KELLY, OF Ivanhoe, Victoria.

NORTHERN YORKE PENINSULA IN THE SEVENTIES.

By " Northern " I mean the agricultural settlements to the North of Minlaton. The North and South ends of the Peninsula were occupied about the same time—in the early " seventies.'' The mid - portion came a little later. In 1874 there was a long lonely stretch from, say, Lake Sunday to the lower end of Yorke Valley. One might follow that track and see no one except the station people at Gum Flat. It was the same if you took the track from Mr. Williamson's just out from Moorowie. Occasionally a surveyor or a hunter might be met. At the 10-mile hut Mr. Glass would probably not be at home. The understood rule in that case was "Go in and help yourself." This primitive hospitality was seldom availed of, though the spirit of it was much appreciated. One of the beauty spots on the journey was the passage through the belt of mallee that separated the marly land of Wauraltee from the Urania plain. The scrub just here was taller and finer than the average, and the bird-life more plentiful than usual. It was always a pleasure to renew acquaiutance with this bit of nature. One seemed to find companionship, and it was like a welcome to a new region.

YORKE VALLEY.

Certainly Yorke Valley was attractive. The evident richness of the soil, the massive tussocks of "blade grass." and the parklike appearance of the slopes, dotted over with sheoak (Casuarina), and 'on the East side particularly, with a larger growth of eucalyptus, suggested that this was quite a different country from what had just been left behind. No wonder that there was a rush for this, promising land. Men bought at £6 and more per acre. It turned out to be an excessive price, and it was a relief to many when the Surrender Act was passed, which allowed of repurchase. There was much criticism, however, at the time, and some felt that Commissioner Catt's concessions went too far. Anyway a number of settlers who saw difficulties before them were able to get on to their feet, and the prosperity of the district became assured. By 1876 Maitland was taking shape as a township, though in winter the streets were veritable bogs of sticky black mud. Mr. J. O. Tiddy had opened a store, Mr. Driscoll a hotel, and among the other tradespeople were Stevens (blacksmith), Woods (wheelwright), Harper (butcher), Lacey (blacksmith), Swann & Simeon (carpenters and builders), C. Hick (mason), and J. j Weidenbach (storekeeper)'. A Bank agency was opened with Mr. F. A. Braddock in charge. The want of a medical man was felt, and provision was made by public subscrip--tion. Dr. Baly, a young English doctor with first-class qualifications, was secured. He was followed by Drs. O'Grady and H. Ross Brown. A second hotel (Pearce's) was built, besides churches and other public buildings. The principal water supply was the " Well," situated near "Ynoo," Mr. S Rogers' head station, and adjarent to the home of the late Mr. H. Lamshed, M.P. The business of Mr. Tiddy was taken over by Mr. Albert Waterman for some time. As I am dependent largely on memory for details some names may have been lost sight of.

KILKERRAN

Kilkerran was settled early, the Hydes, Millers; Wards, Moodys, Elliotts, Clifls, Gordons, and Dutchkes being names that come readily to mind. A brave attempt was made by Mr. Robert Hyde to establish a vegetable garden in the scrub at Kilkerran. A likely spot was chosen, and, in spite of all the difficulties, the old gardener (Mitchell) achieved surprising success.

ARDROSSAN. Early in 1877 land about Ardrossan and northward was selected, quite a strong contingent from Gawler being among the newcomers. Shops sprang up and a fine flour mill was erected by Mr. Freeman. The steamer "Amy" regularly traded to this port. Port Victoria also was coming on and among the first business men were Messrs. Hincks; Feltus, and Harrington. A few sections were occupied at Weetulta and Kalkabury, Messrs. Kitto and T. B. Wicks settling at the first, and Messrs. Colliver Murnane, Crosby, Triplett, Winzer, and Cook at the second. There were many others, of course. Among the happenings of this time were the wreck of the '' Agnes "' off Point Pearce in October, 1876, the opening of the telegraph to Maitland on June 13,1877, and the first lighting of the Tipara Light on Auguat 20, 1877. This lastnamed event I witnessed from the Tipara district.

MINLATON.

Minlaton at this period was moving and there was a good demand for township lots. In 1876 among the new arrivals were Messrs. F. Baker, Long, Wilson, McKenzie Bros., D. Teichelmann, Foulis. and in Koolywurtie, Messrs J C. Tonkin, Rickaby, and C. Maple. Wauraltee life centred around the store of Messrs. Leonard. In the district were Messrs. G. Illman,. Duthie, Bowey, W. and J. Kelly, Fraser. Crocker, J. Williams and nearer Port Victoria, Messrs. C. Edson, and C. Hoffrichter. About Mount Rat there were Messrs. T. C. and W. S. Reade, A. Joyce, Evan Davis, and Humberstone. These again are only a few names that easily come back after a long lapse of years. I cannot speak intimately of later developments, having been up to 1898 only an occasional visitor, but I can say that the pioneer settlers throughout the Peninsula were a fine, sturdy set of people, men and women alike, who did not mind working hard and roughing it until returns began to come, thus rewarding their enterprise and self-denial.



OLD PENINSULA DAYS. No. 3.

Sat 1 Apr 1922 The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

HOW THE LETTERS CAME.

By REV. ROBERT KELI.Y, of Ivanhoe, Victoria.

In 1874 the mails were carried by the vessels that traded to the southem part of the Peninsula. On my first visit we left Glenelg in the ketch Sultana (which, I believe, was known as the "mail boat") about 8 o'clock on Friday evening:, January 23, of that year. The boat was crammed with passengers, all more or less ill. We landed at Sultana Bay in the morning, and after refreshments at the Captain's house (Capt. A. Martin) I left on horseback for Weaner's Flat, accompanied by George Klem, who carried the mail-bags before him on his saddle. I think Gottschalk & Klem (George's brother Otto, now of Corny Point), had the contract for the mails. It was a rough ride— stones, dust, and heat making it very uncomfortable after the night's tossing on the water. Later on additional mails were sent from Adelaide overland. Mr. Scott, of Lake Sunday, had the contract for these; and- drove a buggy and pair twice a week to the Hummocks. I cannot say exactly when this began, but in June, 1875, I had an experience of the trip. I was the only passenger, and we left Kulpara at 4p.m. It was bitterly cold, and the roads were flooded. About Kainton and Kalkabury we drove through long stretches of water, reaching nearly to the axles. The road was narrow—a mere cut in the mallee—so that one could not get off the track. Occasionally the horses stuck up. and had their places changed. Now and then the driver slept and I took the reins, At Kalkabury post-office (farmhouse) we had coffee about 11 p.m ; at Maitland, about 1 a.m., made some tea in a back room at Driscoll's hotel, reaching the 10-mile hut at Koolywurtie about 9, Gum Flat 10-30, and Yorketown after 2 o'clock. I don't know how much Scott was paid for his work, but I am sure it was well earned. The overland mail must have been running for some time before this, because late in April, 1874, it was robbed, and many people suffered loss on account of this. I forget who had the contract at the time. If memory serves correctly the mailcart ran from Green's Plains at this earlier date—I am not certain on the point. Mail bags were found after the robbery, but I think there was no conviction. With the advent of more regular steam communication to Edithburgh, Stansbury and Ardrossan the whole system of mail transport was changed for the better.



ACCOUNT OF A TRIP TO YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Wed 23rd Apr 1845 South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

[To the Editors of the Register.]

Gentlemen. —If the accompanying paper is worth an insertion in your columns, it is quite at your service.

I am, Gentlemen, Yours, &c. N. R. F.

On the 12th April, 1845, the weather being remarkably fine, I resolved on making an excursion across the Gulf, having three objects in view—the first and grand one being to improve my health, which had latterly not been of the best; the second, to explore the Peninsula, which, though no more than a day's sail from the Port of Adelaide, may still be said to be a Terra Incognita; and the third, to obtain wattle gum. of which I had heard there were quantities.

I hired a whale-boat and two men—one, the owner of the boat, and the other a sailor; and in addition to this force, I enlisted two natives, who afterwards proved themselves to be of the greatest service, each respectively rejoicing in the classic names of " Tommy" and " Jacky"—and, laying in stores for a fortnight's voyage, and ammunition for an unlimited time, we weighed anchor in the evening, and reached the Light-ship about 10 pm, where we fastened our bark to one of the incidentals. Next morning at day break we hoisted a sail and set off for the opposite coast in a direction west of the Port. Towards evening the wind freshened, and we were forced to take to our oars. At a distance of fifteen miles from the shore, we could discern the smoke of native fires, which shot up in a thin blue line into the air like a rocket. The native fires seem to possess even a difference from the fires of civilized people; I don't know why, but one can at once tell a native's. This showed how remarkably quick their sight is when at such a distance, they could discern our little bark. Their fires were evidently intended for signals, as we could perceive one column of smoke rise after another along the cliffs. By the way, reasoning from this, it would appear that a party of natives would be the best persons to appoint to our signal-staff on West-terrace.

The appearance of the coast was pretty, being formed of cliffs about one hundred feet in height, changing in their hues from white to red. and were covered close to their edges with thick dark foliage. At last we reached it, much fatigued. Here the water was beautifully smooth and clear —so clear, indeed, that one hardly saw its surface in looking down. While my natives lighted a fire on shore, I had a delicious bathe. The usual quickness of the aborigines was soon exhibited by their discovering the foot-marks ot natives along the sand, which I would have passed many times without observing. They seemed much frightened while on shore, saying that "black fellows plenty spear them, and by and by would come down to where they saw our smoke." This seemed likely enough, so, after climb-up the cliff. and endeavouring to penetrate the scrub, in which I was unsuccessful, I returned to the boat, much to the delight of my black-guards, and directed the men to pull farther up the shore. We ran into a little bay, surmounted by high red cliffs, covered on the summits with dense scrub. I never, in any other part of the colony that I have visited, saw such scrub; massive it might be called, as you might almost walk along the surface of the foliage. tn this bay we cast anchor, or rather our sand-bag, out of reach of spear shot. Next day, I landed again, taking with me my guards "Tommy" and " Jackey", a pair of horse-pistols and a double-barrelled piece, and directed the men to pull across to a point of land distant about five miles higher up the gulf. We soon came on a path made by the natives of the Peninsula, which wound picturesquely along the edge of the cliffs. The interior was one mass of scrub—eternal scrub —as far as we could see, which probably was about three miles, the ground rising and falling in slight undulations. On our right the view was beautiful. The sea was perfectly smooth and bright, here and there only ruffled by the sudden plunge of some gulls as they skimmed along its surface, or by the oars of the boat, as it stole by. In the distance, the Mount Lofty range, and even the hills over which the Mount Barker road used to wind, were clearly perceptible; the horizon of the sea forming a line along their base which gave the appearance of the hills gradually sinking down into the water; or as if the sea had swallowed up the plains and Adelaide, and now threatened the moun-tains. The coast line did not form so straight a one in reality as it is made to look in Flinders's chart; but his was a general not a minute survey, and the limited portion of the ground which I saw, and over which I passed, proved how extremely accurate are his descriptions, even in the smallest particulars. About the middle of this bend or bight, over which we were passing. we came to another path leading up a dark, gloomy, suspicious-looking gully, which was overhung : with dwarf gum trees and a kind of wild vine, making the top impervious to the sun's rays. This new path also ran down to the beach ; and it was here we first clearly beheld the recent print of of a man's foot, which there was no mistaking. The others which we saw no one would have known were those of men from cows' but the natives them selves. Robinson Crusoe and the first foot-print which he saw with all its accompany-ing terrors, passed through my mind. I felt now I must be on the qui rive.

The treachery of the aboriginal tribes of New Holland is proverbial; and I began to think that there was a possibility, though not much probability, of native ambushes, or dastardly attacks, from behind the bushes which all along skirted the shores. With regard to the possibility of a rough handling, " Tommy" and "Jackey" perfectly coincided with me. The prints were as fresh as if made only an hour or so before. Near the point to which the boat was making the country suddenly began to improve; and as I was thinking of calling the men to pull in to accompany me to see how far it extended, my attention was arrested by their hollowing out to me, at the same time rowing towards the shore as fast as they could. " Who's dead, and what's to pay? " thought I along with Sam Slick. We could as yet see nothing; but my darkies smelled if they could not see; and away they dashed, leaving me to pay the piper." I walked towards the boat, cocking my pistols at the same time, in case of accidents, for I now began to suspect something had startled the nerves of my brave crew, although I had reason to suspect, even then, that it did not require an I earthquake or shipwreck to disturb their fears. No sooner had I reached the water's edge, than a large body of natives rushed out from behind the other side of the point, which was concealed from my view by the trees, and commenced yelling and shouting in a most furious manner. I must acknowledge that this little scene rather discomposcd me, and I scrambled into the boat as I best could, pushing off as quick as possible into deep water. Most of the natives, whom I must for the future call savages, rushed into the sea waving their hands over their heads still yelling. I saw no weapons whatever, but most of them kept their hands over their heads, in one of which they way have concealed a waddy. They were perfectly naked, and were neither painted nor tatooed. The first opinions I had formed of the chivalry of my sailor companions were in this matter fully confirmed. Were I inclined to have exhibited a warlike disposition, I would rather, to say the truth, have vented my anger upon their heads, than upon those of the poor savages. Their shameful cowardice disgusted me; nor would they understand that the more they displayed it, the more would the boldness and confidence of the savages be increased. Finding that we were out ot their reach, the natives stopped—most of them up to their necks in water. I beckoned to one of them to advance, and, as he approached. I could not help admiring his fine portly figure, and, though deep in the water, his manly bearing, that might well be envied by many of our own colour; but my natives could not understand a, word he said ; he seemed much astonished at what he saw, and looked pleased on getting a piece of bread. I showed him a gun, but he did not appear to know its use. Even at his smiles my " gallant tars" seemed frightened. Notwithstanding what had passed, I now thought of landing among them; but the horrible paleness of my companions deterred me from making the attempt. Discretion evidently was with them the better part of valour. The number of natives collected on the shore I supposed to be about sixty, or perhaps more. The women did not appear at all.

After shaking hands with our new visitor, which seemed a very odd ceremony to him, we pushed away for another point about three miles off. It must be remarked that the coast here is formed of a series of indentations, or bends, miking a series of headlands, or points. On leaving, the enemy collected in a body, and appeared in that position until we lost sight of them —perhaps consulting on the internal resources, and the " ways and means" of defending the country.

After the scene had passed, I could not I help congratulating myself on what I may call my escape, in not having come right upon the natives at the other side of the point, as only a few hundred yards separated us; it is hard to say what might have been the consequence, had I fallen in with them suddenly : and it was as well, too, that I did not land amongst them, it being probable that they are as remarkable for treachery, as any other of the native tribes of New Holland. Deceit is one of the darkest traits in their character, nor is it probable that it can ever be eradicated in the present grown-up generation. In getting half way to this new point, I perceived one of the troop separate from his companions, and run after us along the beach ; and just as we got up, he ap-proached. Here I again landed alone, the poor fellows in the boat being so terrified at the site of their wild looking countrymen, that I saw it was useless to ask them to accompany me. The native on the beach was the same that I gave the bread to, and, therefore, I had the less hesitation in meeting him. Poor fellow ! he looked a perfect mixture of terror, doubt, and good humour. I again gave him bread, and made signs for water. He pointed at once in the direction, offering to accompany me; but as I did not want it badly, and did not like trusting myself in the bush with him, I declined. I also explained to him that I wanted gum; but he shook his head, as much as to say that I was in the wrong furrow" I returned to the boat, first having a delightful swim, which appeared to astonish him, as it was then blowing fresh and rather cold. On we pulled to another point, or rather to a bend, in the coast, marked by high red cliffs; and in passing along the beach we saw a large encampment in a good state of native architecture, compared wiih the wurleys of other tribes elsewhere. This showed us still in the land of the Philistines. In the aspect of the country about, there appeared but little improvement; but in the distance, about ten miles, it looked grassy, and more promising. We got to the cliffs, after very hard pulling, the native following us along the beach. Here we prepared for an attack upou our wallets, at which my courageous crew were first-rate hands ; but just as we commenced, our happiness was again broken by another fearful rush of those devilish looking fellows, from behind the rocks and bushes which skirted the base of the cliffs. Their numbers were about the same as the last we had seen. Their yellings were the same—rushing lowards us hand over head, and waving their spare one occasionally. It might be in friendship, but, to our civilized notions of etiquette and hospitality, was rather a strange mode of evincing their good-will. There was no occasion for me to give any orders—up went the sand-bag as if by magic, and tug went the oars. Fear has an astonishing effect on delicate nerves. I never before, or since, saw the crew pull so well or so actively. As we retreated, one fine-looking fellow, rather elderly, who, I supposed, was a chief, shouted out to the others to " Hold on the boat," in words sounding like man mando youco, which being interpreted by my sable esquires at the bottom of the boat, meant what I have said. If this was his intention, it was high time to be stirring; but fear may have dictated this translation to my interpreters. The words, for what I know, may have been friendly: however, off we went like the wind. The sail was hoisted, and before evening, were miles away, I imagined that they fancied we had kidnapped the two blacks in the boat, and wanted to do the same with them, and they were, therefore, determined to turn the tables on us. I never saw finer looking or more savage fellows. This was the last interview we had with any of them.

My courageous crew, now out of all danger — if ever there was any at all — wished me to fire among them; but as I wanted to court their friendship, instead of alarming them, besides it being perfectly useless, unless in actual self-defence, I would not think of it. We made towards a distant patch of grassy looking country, about fifteen miles distant, and as the breeze was brisk, soon reached it. I landed, taking with me my trusty body-guard, T. and J., and proposed to the "gallant tars" that they also would accompany me ; but the boat, they said, would not be safe left alone —might run on shore, and one could not manage without the other; but if I particularly desired it, they would come. Better to be without such servants, so I left them, ordering them to pull along shore as I proceeded on the hills. Here there were remains of native fires. The shore was fringed with some pretty shrubs, inter spersed with pines, and the slopes (which can nearly be called hills) were covered good grass —here and there dotted with she-oak trees, and occasionally divided by clumps of trees, which were arranged so regularly, and one could uot help thinking that they had been so disposed by the hand of art, and not that of nature. Indeed, the whole looked the very beau ideal of a nobleman's demesne deserted. After walking about four miles, we returned to our bark, and pulling a little further up, slopped for the night. The next morning bore a very threatening aspect; all around was covered with a dense fog, such as I never saw on the plains of Adelaide; and were it not for a little compass, we must have remainad where we were. I pulled up the coast some five or six miles, and again went ashore, and here commenced that horrible swamp that extends, I believe, all round to the Port. On getting through the mangroves—the first I had seen on this side—and through the swamp at the back of them, we came to fine grassy slopes, similar in general features to the last, but better land. We heard cockatoos—soon returned to the boat, as by reason of the density of the fog, would see very little beyond us. Next pulled (all pulling this day) across the gulf; and, just as we got half way, the clouds, or mist, suddenly cleared off, like the rising of a curtain in a theatre, revealing to view the whole of the top of the gulf, which we were much nearer than I had expected, and beautiful it looked! It formed a bay of an immense semicircle in shape, bordered all round by bright green mangroves, and behind rose the grassy slopes, parts of which I had before seen, all terminating in Mount Arden, which seemed to guard the calm and solitary waters beneath. Though at this period of the year every thing and place was dried up and yellow, yet after the mists had cleared away, the whole scene looked fresh and charming. —

The water is pretty deep on the western side of the bay, but on this side shallow. I landed on the eastern coast, about six miles below the highest point of the bay, but had a dreadful swamp to cross, and on reaching the high land was disappointed in not seeing any appearance of sheep-stations nor sheep, for the feed here was generally good. We saw marks of kangaroo, emu, and turkies ; and from this ground could discern the long and extensive Gawler swamps, which may be termed the Pontine marshes of South Australia, without any of the interest which invests them, but with most of the annoyances. Discovered the wreck of a boat among the mangroves as we returned. The water here is clear, or clearer than crystal, and I rolled into it as usual. Remained here another night. Next day, at daylight, commenced our voyage towards Adelaide, pulling, not through the sea, but apparently over an immense sheet of polished steel. We soon came to that extraordinary and extensive tract of sand which extends nearly down to the Port running out some six or seven miles and only covered with a few inches of water. A northerly breeze sprung up—here cool and exhilerating; but on shore, called a red hot wind. Our little craft rushed or rather flew through the water, shivering under her canvass, and reminding one of he rapidity of the sword fish after his prey. Nor did we slacken rein until we reached Torrens Island, where I again for I the last time indulged myself in another long swim ; and after a slight glance at, that place, ran up to the Port and were soon along side the Falco, American brig.

P.S. We did not discover any water in York's Peninsula, but having seen the re-mains of native fires, one may reasonably imagine that there is some.



MINERAL DISCOVERIES UPON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 12th Jun 1847, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

The South Australian peninsula above-named had for some time been considered an almost useless tract of country chiefly because during Colonel Gawler's administration, two Special Surveys were taken there — one on the eastern and the other on the western side— which the takers were allowed to exchange for two other Special Survey districts this side, on pleading the utter unavailableness of those they had chosen on the other side of the Gulf.

In some parts of the peninsula the scrub is impenetrable, extending from shore to shore, and there seems to a considerable extent an absence of surface water. It was ascertained, however, a few months ago, by Mr Weaver and his party, that some good sheep and cattle runs existed beyond the region of scrub, and they determined to reach them. In pursuance of this design they skirted the coast with their stock, and in their progress discovered a large copper deposit abutting upon the shore, near their cattle runs ; and having made special application for two hundred acres of land, Messrs Weaver and Hart effected the purchase at the last public land sale at the upset price, and thus secured (judging from report and assays made of some of the lumps of ore brought over) a property second only to the celebrated Burra Hurra.

In point of transit facility, the new discovery infinitely surpasses anything that has preceded it, for the ores obviously exist in abundance, and may be wheeled from the property, and at once put on board lighters, whose loadings may be transferred to vessels of large burthen, for which there is safe anchorage within about a mile.

Captain Hart has just returned from the spot, bringing with him many admirable specimens of the ore ; and the Lieutenant Governor having quietly put to sea in the Government cutter yesterday, his Excellency is presumed to have gone on a visit to the new mine, where, we understand, ten or twelve men are already employed. The herbage on such available pasturages as have yet been discovered, is described as very luxuriant ; but those who are depasturing stock thereon have hitherto had to depend for the supply of themselves and cattle on a small lagoon of fresh water, being the only permanent supply yet discovered. Water has been found at a depth of about six feet in many places, but invariably too salt for use. In addition to a considerable number of sheep previously sent over, Messrs Coates and Co. have recently forwarded six hundred head of cattle.

The peninsula abounds in salt-water lagoons ; indeed, some of them may be called lakes, being ten or twelve miles in compass ; but in summer they become quite dry by evaporation, and then a deposit of salt, two or three feet in thickness, makes its appearance, being perfectly white and fit for culinary use or curing processes.

We can only hope that the enterprise of the co-proprietors may be handsomely rewarded by a successful prosecution of what they have so fortunately obtained.



THE YORKE'S PENINSULA MINE.

Sat 25th Aug 1860, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

REPORT BY COLONEL FREELING.

Survey Office. Ausrust 24. 1860.

Sir-In compliance with the instructions contained in your minute of the 31st ult., that I should report on the nature of the country claimed, under the Regulations for granting Mineral Leases, by Mr. W. W. Hughes and others, at a place called Walleroo, on Yorke's Peninsula, I have the honour to state that the mineral sections applied for are situated about four miles and half south of Point Ritz, and extend from the eastern sea board of Spencer's Gulf, in a straight line nearly south-easterly, a distance of nine miles and a half, at seven miles from the coast. Other sections are applied for, running nearly north and south a distance in all of four miles.

The area comprised by the applications is 3931 acres.

The country in which this mineral land is situated is apparently of limestone formation; is slightly timbered near the coast with thick mallee scrub and pine timber further inland, and rises very gradually from the coast, at which place the cliff is about 15 feet high. The only water yet known nearer than 12 miles is that at the Walleroo Sprints in sand hills near the sea beach. this water is very brackish, and although sufficiently good for cattle, scarcely is useable for domestic purposes.

Mining operations in some of leased land are being prosecuted with much vigour, and although the ground has as yet not been sufficiently opened to admit of the employment of a great number of miners, yet there are already about 200 persons employed in matters immediately connected with mining operations.

There are at present on the east and wpst line three principal shafts the "Wombat," on Section 152A; the "Home," on Section 144; and the "Bingo," on Section 152 D. There have also been sunk on the same general line, westerly from the " Wombat," four trial shafts, in all of which copper ore has been struck.

On the north and south line the principal shaft is the " Wandilta," situated on Section 159 A.

The shafts have been sunk an average of 65 feet in deplh on the " Wombat ;" and in the " Home" shafts galleries are now being driven laterally from the bottom of the shafts.

I descended the "Wombat" and the " Home" shafts. The width ef the lode in the former is six feet, and in the latter eight feet, and I saw no appearance of its dying out.

From the several shafts above alluded to, about 600 tons ot copper ore of a very good quality has been raised. Its value can soarcely be estimated at much less than £8,000. The copper ore lately brought from Walleroo to Port Adelaide was the produce of the " Bingo " shaft.

The quantity of the ore on the surface, the width and richness of the lodes, and the number of places in which it has been struck, are most hopeful indications of a very valuable and extensive mine. That the proprietors themselves are very sanguine of success is evinced by the substantial stone buildings they are erecting for the use of those connected with the mine ; good stabling has already been built for the horses that are employed on the works ; and the miners themselves are rapidly dotting the ground with comfortable though less substantial dwellings.

The mine is admirably situated as regards cheap and easy transport of the ore, being only about five miles from the convenient shipping place of Walleroo Bay. This bay is formed by Point Riley on the north, and by another point, unnamed, about 9and a half miles south. Although open to the north-west, yet it is stated that there exists a reef at some distance from the coast, which materially modifies any sea from the westward, and between the reef and the shore, both at its north and I south limits deep water openings are reported to exist. There is deep water near the present landing-place, to which there is already a good natural road, and a landing jetty might be constructed to this place at small expense.

A nautical survey of Walleroo Bay would prove of great service, and indeed would become absolutely neces-sary if a trade sprung up, such as from the promising appearance of the mine may be reasonably anticipated.

I examined the country with a view of selecting a site for a township, and conceive that one with advantage, mighthe laid out near the landing place, and south of Mr. Hughes's head station. That gentleman has applied for a square mile to be surveyed round his station ; but as this request, if complied with, would embrace the best locality for a township, I am not prepared to recommend it ; still I think Mr. Hughes's interest on the Head Station, and the public requirements would be met by surveying a block of about 240 acres, so as to include Mr. Hughes's buildings, and which would leave ample space for the proposed township.

I am inclined also to recommend the survey of another township, about six miles inland, situated between Wandilta and Home Shafts, to give miners and others employed on the mines chances of obtaining freehold property in the immediate neighborhood of their work.

Whilst on the ground the Surveyor might be instructed to lay out for sale a few sections in the vicinity of both townships. A rumour was current that speaks of gold have been found in some of the pieces of copper ore raised at Wallerow. I do not believe this part of the country is auriferous. The report may probably have arisen from mistaking mundic for gold. I accompany this report with a rough plan, showing the bay, the proposed township, sites of the mineral sections applied for, and the principal shafs sunk.

I have, &c.,

A. H. FREELING. Lieut. Col. B.E.,

Surveyor-General. The Hon. the Commissioner of Crown Lands.



THE YOEKE'S PENINSULA MINES.

Sat 26 Apr 1862, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1867) Trove

Two or three weeks ago we despatched a special representative to Wallaroo and the neighboring mines, in order to collect on the spot reliable information with reference to these new and important hives of industry....


WATER, WATER, IS NOW ALL THE CRY

Wed 28 Dec 1864, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Water, water, is now all the cry, and it's becoming a most serious matter to the whole district, no rain having fallen far five months. The tanks at Kadina, Moonta, and wallaroo Bay are almost exhausted and the price now is 12s. for a load of two hogs heads....


DAILY MAIL FOR YORKE'S PENINSULA

Sat 25 Mar 1865, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881) Trove

Sir,'—If you can find space in your next issue to insert the following, it would possibly be useful in directing the attention of the proper authorities to the advantage of our having a daily mail....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. I.

Sat 26 Aug 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

No part of the Province of South Australia at any period of its history ever advanced with such rapid strides as that triangular portion of Yorke's Peninsula comprising' the mines of "Wallaroo and Moonta, and the Port of Wallaroo....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. II.

Wed 23 Aug 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Having, in our last, given a general cursor view of the history and present condition of the great mining district of Wallaroo, we shall proceed to describe more particularly the roads, the physical features of the country, the townships, the mines, the social and political condition of the population, &c, &c....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. IlI.

Wed 30 Aug 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The first of the mines which attracts the attention of the traveller overland from Adelaide is the Cumberland, situated about a mile and a-half to the south of the Clinton-road, and 11 miles from Kadina....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. IV.

Fri 1 Sep 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The physical features of the Peninsula are not very interesting. The country is alternately open and grassy, and covered with extensive patches of scrub more or less dense....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. V.

Tue 5 Sep 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The township of Wallaroo is the most pleasantly situated of the three Peninsula townships, being built on the shores of the bay, having a total frontage of about three-quarters of a mile to the sea, and extending inland about the same distance....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.—THE MINING DISTRICTS. No. Vl.

Tue 12 Sep 1865, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The trade of Yorke'a Peninsula is in the aggregate larger than that of any other part of the colony of equal extent....


A TRIP TO YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Wed 25 Oct 1865, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881) Trove

We hare been favoured with, the following account of a trip from Adelaide to the Wallaroo district by an esteemed correspondent.

After spending a delightful evening, in company with the Professor and others of the Acre, I repaired to bed, and on the following morning I learned from HostFoote's railway card (not Bradshaw's) that the Northern train would leave at 8 a.m. To the station I proceeded and took a ticket for Salisbury, determined to have a ramble—not knowing or caring where. Arriving at Salisbury, I found in waiting a nondescript sort of vehicle, drawn by four horses, and called a mail-coach, the destination of which. I soon found was Kadina, the capital of the world-renowned Wallaroo copper mines. There happening to be room for more passengers than had booked for places in Adelaide, I determined on leaving the train and making one of the number. The passengers were of a motley description, two females, each with a babe in her arms, and two small children, several lately-arrived immigrants, miners, going to develop the famous store of treasure, and a gentleman with sundry packages, who I afterwards found was travelling for one of the large wholesale houses of the metropolis, and that the boxes contained his samples. I forgot to say that children and sample-boxes are not taken into account with respect to the room they occupy. Having got her Majesty's mail safely stowed away, we proceeded on our journey. The first twelve miles, through fine fertile-looking country, was quickly passed, and we arrived at the small but neat little village of Virginia. Having liquored, and having had a change of horses, proceeded on at a dashing rate through ruts, over stones, and stumps, until we halted for a few minutes at the township called the Two Wells. Preparations were making here for the forthcoming harvest; a smithy busy at work, and a fine stone building, intended for a steam four-mill, in course of erection, which, I think, from the amount of splendid crops of wheat growing in the neighbourhood, will scarely be idle on working days, and is likely to be a fortunate spec. On went the coach over splendid plains—I wish. I could say the same of the road—until a deep creek was reached—which certainly is an ugly place to be called The Light—where we had to alight. Practice had given our driver confidence, and the conveyance was driven down the dangerous bank, through, the bed of the creek, and up the other side in masterly style. We crossed on a foot-bridge thrown across, I am told, by the spirited contractor, to avoid any risk of detention to the mails, should the rain at any time flood the river and prevent the conveyance crossing. A section or two further on we came to the next place to change horses, and in a neat little cottage refreshments of a teetotal description are provided by the lady at a very moderate charge. We started again, and on asking the distance to the nest stage or changing place, I was told thirty-five miles. "What!" I exclaimed, " with the same horses! " " Yes ; the same horses." About half-way through, at a place well named Purgatory, the down coach was met. The drivers rested their horses a few minutes, and then changed seats. Our steady civil driver I was sorry to lose, but we found the other equally civil and obliging. Both are a credit to the firm they represent. This part of the road passes through a deal of sterile, hungry-looking stunted scrub, the only use of which I can see is to learn us to be contented and duly appreciate the more fertile fields we had passed. We arrived at length at a small public-house near Port Wakefield—small but commodious enough for the few straggling travellers passing. After refreshing the inner man, once more, I betook myself to the coach again. Beyond a dangerons fording-place, nearly opposite the inn, and which I thought might be made safe for a very few pounds, we crossed the Hummocks, the road over which no doubt will be improved some day when a member of the Government or some other bigwig has been unfortunate enough to get his leg or neck broken. The next stage is Green's Plains. There extensive paddocks have-recently been fenced in, and every preparation was making for the growing of crops for the use of the horses. A first-rate team was put in to finish the journey, and after passing over the plains, the country again appeared barren and worthless. At length we passed the New Cornwall mine, and arrived at Kadina, tired and dirty. I hope for the sake of others that may have to come this same journey, that it will not be long before the proprietor adds width and length to his vehicle, giving room for passengers shoulders and knees. The horses are a credit to Mr. Roounsevell.

Next morning I decided on looking round the Wallaroo and other mines in the vicinity, which you have so often described. I got back in time to start by a conveyance to the world-renowned Moonta. We reached the township about eleven o'clock. The road over which we passed was full of stamps and ruts, but the vehicle was rather more commodious, and well-horsed and driven.

On arriving at Moonta I was fairly startled by the huge engine-house, the extensive; buildings, the number of shafts opened, the crowds of men and boys going to and from their work, the handsome and commodious inns, shops, and dwellings, all the work of so short a time. There were immense heaps of ore waiting for cartage, the quantity of which, one of the captains informed me was considerably over two thousand tons. After visiting the ponderous engine, working with its silent steady stroke pumping the water, the newly-built smiths' and engineers' shops, with their punching, cutting and boring machines, their powerful lathe and other conveniences for carrvinsr out the heaw works required, I left the Moonta Mines, thinking that they were indeed the sons of fortune who became possessed of shares through, the generosity of the first proprietor, Capt. Hughes.

Rambling on over a sandhill, I came to the Karkarilla Mine. This property, though riot extensive, nevertheless shows unmistakable signs of prosperity. A rich pile of ore was in progress of bagging for immediate removal to the Port Adelaide Smelting Works. The engine, a beautiful piece of mechanism on the horizontal principle, was forking the water from the 70-fathom level,—the greatest depth that any mine is at present working in the province. Mechanics were busy erecting ft house for a crushing machine. All about work seemed to be carried out in a systematic and economical maimer, a credit to the superintendent. I soon expect to learn that this is a dividend paying mine.

Still further rambling, I found myself in the township of Moonta. Like all new places much remains to be done to improve the township. I learned that the town was under no corporate body—not even the police regulations against nuisances. Slaughteryards are erected in the principal parts ; pigs and goats roam about with impunity, and the greengrocers deposit their filthy refuse in the midst of the street, to the disgust and risk of the health of the inhabitants. Perhaps it is necessary for some contagion to break out before the inhabitants will bestir themselves to abate such nuisances, The shops I found commodious and stocked with every necessary and many of the luxuries of life. There are two schools, but the bulk of the population residing at the mines, have their schools and places of worship there. The place, I overdone with inns. The different denominations are well represented there being chapels for the Baptists, Bible Christians, Wesleyans, and Church of England, but at present no Romish Church.

No public conveyance connects this place with Port Wallaroo, which I think is a mistake, compelling me either to go back to Kadina by coach, hire a trap, or tramp it; the latter I determined on; and I soon reached the Yelta Mine. Here a great deal of money must have been expended in trying to trace the Moonta lodes, but at present without much success. I saw a place close to Hancock's shaft, from which, a fine bunch of carbonates had lately been taken. A shaft has been sunk 20 fathoms on it, but the prospect had not continued down, and no ore was raising at the time of my visit. At Hancock's shaft the result was better, ore of a very rich description was raising, and a good pile on the floors. I thought myself a lucky fellow that the excitement caused by that discovery had not influenced me in buying shares. I thought also they were lucky that had sold, notwithstanding reports I have seen to the contrary. No doubt time and money will some day develop the mine, but I should not like to wait for the mine paying dividends to provide me with an income. Other parts of the mine I left unvisited, having ascertained the distance I had to walk to me port to be ten miles.

The tract cut through the scrub , in a direct line, was at intervals taken up by the works of the tramway in course of construction, but the road everywhere was in a miserable state—sandy in parts, dusty and toil some to travel over.

Three hours' weary waljking brought me to the Bay. Here were full-rigged ships, barques, and schooners; besides a fine large screw steamer, all employed in transporting machinery, coals, and merchandise of every description, required for the use of mines and the men engaged on them. The Bay if of great extent, and the ancourage first rate. Should at some future time a breakwater be built, the port will then resemble a dock. Tracks laden with goods run to Kadina and a decent sort of carriage for passengers, having first and second-class compartments. The town is divided by the tramway, giving it the appearance of two towns. It is well situated, on gentle slopes, and has a clean apperance. The houses of the working-classes are built of stone, the shops are numerous; everywhere the place exhibits signs of prosperity. The most noticeable building is the Smelting Works", whose glaring fires and tall chimneys you have so often described. I could not help noticing the many splendid edifices ercected for public worship. I determined on remaining at one of the inns for the rest of the week; said having previously refreshed at the Globe, thither I went, and secured my bedchamber. I found the host ready to give any information required the accommodation equal to any in town, and thought him the right sort of man for a Boniface. Sunday, found the shops of every description closed, and the places of worship well-attended by well-dressed persons, but the tall chimney belched forth its disagreeable black smoke and sulphureous: fumes much the same as on other days. Sly curiosity led me to ramble through the works. Men were there busy feeding fires. Sunday was unheeded under that shed. While the chapel bells were calling their congregations together, men were busy wheeling materials into the furnaces. I thought the same law that compelled the small shopkeeper to observe the Sabbath might be made to apply to the rich Smelting Company.

I retumed per steamer, and after a delightful run of 24 hours, arrived at Port Adelaide.

BRAMBLER. October 13,1865.


A NATIVE MISSION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Wed 10 Jan 1866, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

Sir— I shall be glad if you will allow me space in your columns for a few remarks on the subject referred to in a communication published in your paper of January 3rd, headed "An Aboriginal census" ...


YORKE'S PENINSULA STATISTICS.

Wed 24 Oct 1866, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881) Trove

We have before us a Parliamentary Return of the "Yorke's Peninsula Revenue and Expenditure" during the six
years from 1860 to 1865 both inclusive....


RENEWAL OF PASTORAL LEASES.

Thu 20 May 1869, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900)

The second session of the present Parliament will not be allowed to close until a very important topic connected with the pastoral occupation of the country has been settled. During the session of 1868, strange to say, little or no reference was made to the interminable squatting question, but this short respite promises to be abundantly atoned for in the history of the session which is to commence towards the end of July of this year.....


Mr Strangways' Pastoral Bill

Wed 24 Nov 1869, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881)

Mr Strangways' Pastoral Bill has been submitted to the Legislature, and the fact is fully evident that the learned Attorney-General is alive to the difficulties attendant upon a satisfactory settlement of the question. The leases, he classifies under two schedules, fir it, those felling in on June 30, and as far. as 1878, to the lessees of which he offers a renewal for seven years, with half of the unexpired term of the old lease where there is any; the rent to be fixed by valuation under the direction of the Commissioner of Crown Lands. In the other schedule are leases, some of which dp not expire before 1878, to the lessees of' which he offers ten years-being seven years and the difference between 1870 aud 1873-with as before half of the unexpired term ; the rents to be determined as in the case of the other leases. Annual leases in the hundreds are to have a right of renewal yearly for seven years, the Government having the power to abolish the hundreds if necessary, and the rent to be determined by valuation. There are also provisions in the Act for recovering rent. In the first schedule will be found the Gum Flat, Oyster Bay, Pentonvale, Yorke Valley, Corney Point, Oyster Bay, Coffin's Bay, Yorke's Peninsula runs, Port Davenport, North Mannanarie and St. Vincent's runs, all on Yorke's Peninsula; also the Rutallo and Rocky River runs, Crystal Brook, the Crystal Brook run, the Bundaleer and the Hummocks runs. In the second schedule are nine other runs described as being on Yorke's Peninsula, and others near to the Tipara. Objections will be taken to the Bill, doubtless, because in the valuation the squatter will not be represented. Should he disapprove of the valuation lt is lease will be forfeited and submitted to auctionan obviously unjust way of dealing with a tenant who has regularly paid his rent and may have expended a large sum of money in improving the property. Another objection is a branch of the foregoing. No provision is made respecting improvements made. A squatter may be charged rent upon his own capital or be compelled to forfeit it.


THE GOVERNOR'S VISIT TO YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 9 Jul 1870, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

The people of Yorke's Peninsula have waited long and patiently for an opportunity of proving to the head of the Executive the vast extent of their natural wealth, and their extreme indigence in the matter of public works....


YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 10 Jun 1871, South Australian Chronicle and Weekly Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1868 - 1881) Trove

There is no more interesting study for thoughtful men than to watch the progress of material industries opened out in new colonies....


FARMERS ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Tue 20 Aug 1872, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

Although frequent reference has been made in public to the growing importance of Yorke's Peninsula in relation to the rest of the colony, very few people have an idea of the change which is rapidly being brought about over the large tract of land, which by a glance at the map will be seen to be included in "the Peninsula.". The designation has hitherto been generally applied, and has come to be understood pretty much as applying to. Kadina, Moonta, and the Other townships amongst and around the rich copper mines of the Wallaroo District. Daring the last few years, however, the farmers have found that there are other beside mineral riches to reward labour and perseverance, and there is now a wellbeaten track from Port Wakefield round the head of the Gulf, and by way of Clinton, Parara, and Oyster Bay, down to what may be termed the settled district at the foot of the Peninsula. The first-named spot will be remembered as once the changing-place for the Wallaroo mail, where bags and passengers were transferred from steamer to coach, or vice versa. It now has all the appearance of a sad falling off from those comparatively busy times, and is chiefly notable from the fact that water is there retailed at 3d. per bucketful, none being obtainable between it and Port Wakefield—a distance of 30 miles. Parara, the Messrs. Bowman's station, has some good wells of water in the sandhills close to the beach; and Oyster Bay is the shipping-place of the wool from Messrs. Rogers, Landers, and Stephens's run, a large shed being erected at the spot, where many thousand sheep have been shorn every season for some years past. Between Parara and Oyster Bay there are three good watering-places—Black Point, Sheaoak Plat, and Beach Hut—the precious fluid being found in each instance close to the sea-beach, which is within view from the road nearly all the way along. It is the South end, or foot of the Peninsula, how-ever, which is the destination, or has become the home of most of the travellers along the route referred to. It was under Mr. Cavenagh's Commissionership, nearly four years ago, that the domain of the blackfellow, the sheep, and the kangaroo -was first invaded by the surveyor with a view to its being made available for agricultural settlement; and the surveyor was Mr. Strangways, a brother of the late Premier and author of the Act now "known by bis name. It will be remembered how when the Area of Troubridge and the five others defined in the Act were declared open for selection, it was sneered at as "nothing but limestone." Only a few sections were taken up at the full price, and the rest of the land over and above what was dummied remained open for a long time at £1 an acre. The result of the first and second harvest of the early settlers was, however, of such a nature that in spite of stone and timber there are now not half a dozen sections in the area unselected besides those on which the head station stands with improvements valued at £1,700. The neighbourhoods of Bald Hills and the Peasy Range are fast assuming the appearance of settled districts—with comfortable stone homesteads, wire-fenced roadsand sections, and chapel and sohoolhouse, the latter licensed by the Education Board. Next to Troubridge in date of settlement comes the Hundred of Morowie, which very little was at the time of its being first submitted to auction bought either by agriculturists or capitalists, and it remained in the occupation of the sheepfarmer until the favourable returns from the adjoining lands became known, and induced an influx of farming population, which has been going on ever since. The last area thrown open was that of Penton Vale, adjoining Troubridge on the north, and bounded by the same coast-line on the east, and the Oybter Bay Area, new just surveyed, is a continuation of the same line. At present there is only one Post-Office to supply the whole of the three areas, as they may be termed, although Morowie is not technically an area. For years past a mail bag had been regularly sent along from Moonta once a week for the accommodation of the sheep and cattle stations, each of which has a private bag. About a couple of years back a hawker, having a keen eye to business and noting the advance of settlement, resolved to improve upon his nomadic style of life, and with a pretty good idea of the most central spot for such a large tract of country planted a store at the place which has now become the embryo township of Weaner's Flat. A saddler has once " located" next door, a public-house or hotel is in course of erection, and a blacksmith and a shoemaker are daily expected. The Government Township of Edithburgh (for Troubridge Area) has not made nearly so much progress; but there also a public-house has been begun, and two storekeepers are on the ground. The delay in the commencement of the jetty has kept back everything else; but when that is once well in hand Edithburgh will soon assume a different appearance, for there will be in all probability a large quantity of wheat shipped this season at the jetty if it is finished in time. If it is not it will be necessary to use the old place— Salt Creek—which some think should have been the site for the jetty and township. For the latter it would certainly have been preferable to the locality selected, as there is water obtainable at an easy depth. Another site spoken favourably of amongst the settlers is one of the sections on which Penton Vale Station is situated, which would be in many respects a good position, and, if surveyed in township lots,, probably bring in a fair price to the Government, as it also possesses the advantage of having good water at the depth of about 12 feet, while some settlers not far off have gone 60 feet without success. There is talk of memorializing the Government to survey a township at this spot, or, if they do not, to at least reserve some of the wells, of which there are six or seven. That there must be a township somewhere soon is pretty certain, and in all probability there will he a good deal of contention which of the three places named shall carry the palm. Certainly Weaner's Flat has the advantage of having obtained the start, mainly through the enterprise and energy of Mr. Jacobs, the storekeeper and Post master.

In addition to those above referred to there are other areas higher up the Peninsula— Kalkabury now open, and Yorke Valley and others ready to be declared—but these will be intimately connected with the Wallaroo townships, while those at the lower end do business almost entirely with Port Adelaide, two vessels, the Sailor Prince and the Edith Alice, bring employed all the year round in trading backwards and forwards. The accession of business to the tradesmen at Port Adelaide from this source has been considerable during the last two years, and will soon rapidly become of more importance. The jetty at Hungry Point will be the shipping place for the wheat from the Troubridge Area; and when the Oyster Bay Area becomes settled, the produce from that and Penton Vale will be shipped at Oyster Bay, but for the present the Penton Vale people will have to cart either to the jetty or to Salt Creek, which has been the shipping place chiefly used by the squatters for the last twenty years. At one time any one would have been laughed at who hinted at such a thing as Yorke's Peninsula ever becoming an agricultural country ; but that time has now passed, and many a smiling homestead is to be seen where not long ago there was nothing but the wilderness. A large portion of the Peninsula is covered with a dense mallee scrub, and will very likely never—certainly not for many years—be occupied except for pastoral purposes. There are other portions, however, which are wooded more or less with sheaoak, teatree, and peppermint, and it is this description of land which is bring taken up and occupied under the area system. There may be a block or two here and there tolerably dear, but for the most part a large amount of clearing has to be done before a crop can be put in. The usual mode of clearing is by means of bollock-teams, which in the winter time can pull down most of the sheaoaks and teatrees, and is much more economical than hand-grabbing. A greater difficulty than timber is the limestone which is to be found almost all over the Peninsula at a depth varying generally from nothing to about 18 inches below the surface. In some parts, notably Yorke Valley, there is anample depth of soil, something like four feet, but usually it is much less than that, and a great deal of the land is only to be broken up by dint of great labour and perseverance, nevertheless the returns obtained have been of so satisfactory a nature that each harvest has stimulated the demand for land in the locality. One great advantage is the probability, if not certainty, of water being obtainable by sinking. Many of the settlers on Troubridge and the Morowie Hundred have reached water at depths varying from seven to thirty feet, and several of those in Penton Vale Area have secured the precious boon, though they have not been six months on the land. In many cases the fresh water is obtained, curiously enough, by sinking at the edge of the salt lagoons which abound, but it is also met with in other places. The fact that the squatters have always watered their flocks and cattle, including a large proportion of horses, at wells, and have not resorted to dams, Shows that water is pretty generally attainable, "although often a good deal of time and labour has to be spent before the wished-for result is ensured. There are, of course, some localities where no springs exist, and in those cases settlers have either to catch sufficient rain in tanks or reservoirs, or else fetch their water from a distance. It is surely reasonable that where wells have been made, they should, on the resumption of the land, be reserved for public use, as a convenience to travellers and stock as well as to settlers.


Recollections of a trip to Yorke's Peninsula

Friday 27 Sep 1872, The Irish Harp and Farmers' Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1873) Trove

By Peregrinator.

Starting from Blyth's Plains, we steered our coarse through the adjacent scrub in a westerly direction, where it is about seven or eight miles in width. We had travelled no great distance when our pro gress was obstructed by a fence, which, crossed the track we were following. One of the party — there were three of us — seeing a hut through the thick mallee scrub, went to see if there were any person in it who might direct us to the right road, if road it may be termed. He being told to keep to the left, we struck out in that direction ; and had it not been for the expertness and patience of our driver the vehicle would never have been navigated through " the tangled mass of un dergrowth" — and overgrowth, too. How ever our spring-cart and pair of bays, than which, like Tam O'Shanter's grey mare, Meg, " a better never lifted leg," got safely back to the road again.

We discovered that this fenced paddock had been lately taken from the Government under the Scrub Lands Act ; but how the selectors mean to grub it and make it pay expenses, I am perfectly at a loss to conjecture. Being on the right track we soon got through the scrub, and found ourselves on Mr. C. B. Young's land, of which he lias a considerable portion sown with wheat this rear, because, I dare say, he could not find any one foolish enough to give him two or three pounds an acre for it. or give him a rental of four or five shillings an acre per annum.

The crops in this neighborhood are looking rather puny ; indeed, the land is of a very inferior quality.

Turning a little to the south, we soon came in view of the Diamond Lake : but why it received such an appellation does not well appear. It is a low, salt swamp, with scarcely anything but saltbush growing upon it. About two or three miles further on we arrived at Whitwarta, where we halted and fed our horses. Having done so we entered the hotel, (I forget its name), kept by an astute looking individual, of rather short stature. Each having taken dinner and his fancy beverage, we were again ready for a start, when Mr. Whipcord, as I shall call my friend who drove the two in hand, jumped from the vehicle, ap parently a little elevated in spirits from the effects of brandy and cloves, and said " he should go no further without a drop in the nosebag." What he meant I could not understand until he returned with a gallon of the best P.B. obtainable. Handling his reins and whip, we again started off through rather poor country for about eight or nine miles, when we came in sight of the Gulf. Leaving the Hummocks and Mount Templeton ranges to our right and Port Wakefield to our left, we drove along the head of the Gulf, a low, swampy place, evidently not many years ago covered with the briny sea. Having crossed the swamp, we came to a Mr. Towler's dwelling, where, I believe, farming and squatting pursuits are carried on. The wheat here looked fine and healthy.

Seven or eight miles south of Mr. Towler's, and travelling close to the beach, we arrived at Clinton, alias Port Arthur, where the Wallaroo miners and proprietors formerly received their goods, but which now presents a dismal appearance to the traveller. An old jetty still stands there, but I believe it is very seldom used. A house, once the Clinton hotel, is the only building, save a few sheds, to be seen. A few chains to the west is a dense mallee scrub.

Having pulled up before the door of the ex-hotel, we enquired if we could find water for our horses, to which enquiry a shrewd-looking woman, evidently with an eye to business, answered —

" We sells water."

" All right !" ejaculated Mr. Whipcord.

Retiring to the adjacent scrub, the word " Camp 0 !" reverberated through the still air. A slight rain now commenced to fall, and we found it necessary to make our temporary lodgings as comfortable as possible. Having pulled up under the shelter of a large bush, we spread a tarpaulin over our cart, with some mallee branches underneath it to lie upon. We boiled the billy, or, in other words, made some tea, eat supper, and turned in, i.e., went to rest,

"We'll have heavy rain to-night, said our fellow-traveller, who, by the way, happened to be one of those unfortunate; individuals who prefer Boonycamp's bitters and that good-for-nothing drink called ginger-beer to the revivifying and reani mating " pure juice of the barley."

" Never mind," answered Mr. Whipcord. '' so long as there's a drop in the nosebag neither rain, hail, or snow can do me harm."

Soon we were all overcome by " balmy sleep," as Somnus administers his favors to those who lie on rough beds as well as to those who repose on downy couches.

How my bedmates rested I know not, but, this I am certain of, that I awoke

About the time when Night had driven Her car half round the vaults of heaven," and found a goodly portion of my body bereft of the blankets and exposed to the chilly air, which near the sea at night is generally felt. Having adjusted the blankets, I was soon again in the " land of dreams."

Awaking in the morning, taking some food, and packing our travelling paraphernalia, we again set off, along the sea beach at intervals, and some times a little inland. Having travelled about 25 miles, we reached Parara. Here we fed our horses, took some dinner, and strolled along the sea-shore, picking up some shells of which there is a great variety. The water here is very good, and requires but shallow sinking to procure it, Mr. Beaman's house is the only one in the place. I understand he is a squatter on a small scale. Our horses being fed, we started off through a very scrubby track for about 25 miles, and, indeed, it is very poor land throughout.

At length we came to a place which, for want of a better name, is called Sheaoak Flat— a nice shady camping ground, close to the water's edge, witli a few sheaoak trees growing upon it. We found abun dance of good water, for there are two wells sunk, and the water is within three or four feet ot the surface. Here we camped for the night.

Awaking in the morning, making our toilet, which resembled that of a New foundland dog,— (as somebody said), a shaking, we set off again, keeping as close as possible to the sea-beach, travelling through scrub land with occasionally small open plains, where sheep were feeding. About 13 miles on our road we came to a sand-hill. Here a waggon was stuck, and the Teutonic waggoner having only a pair ot jaded horses was unable to extricate it. Mr. Whipcord proposed to yoke his pair to the waggon, but the owner said his own horses " Vorkam very vell. Very vell vorkam. No yibum back." At these assertions, we, together with his wife, put our shoulders to the wheel, in the true sense of the term, and the waggon was soon released.

Leaving our German friend, we set off, and soon came to the Beech Hut. Here, also, there is plenty of good water in a creek within one chain of where the tide rises, two wells being sunk there by some squatters. A few miles further on we arrived at Oyster Bay. Here a township is laid out, and the surveyors are surveying the land about, which will soon, I under stand, be proclaimed an area.

About three miles further on we came to Pentonvale Area, a rather stony land, and covered with sheaoak trees.

Travelling still further on, we came to Troubridge Area, very stony land also, with sheaoak and teatree growing thickly upon it. Water is very easily obtainable in most parts of both these areas, being in some places within two or three feet of the surface. The crops in the neighborhood are looking tolerably well. Salt lagoons are very numerous in and about both these areas.

On all sides one might hear the " Gee Dandy, come here Lively " of the bullock-driver, and the stroke of the woodman's axe re-echoing through the fertile valleys. In a word, there are scores of families making a living on these areas, where but a few days ago only a solitary shepherd, with his dog and crook, were to be seen.

On reflecting on these facts I could not help soliloquising— What a misfortune to South Australia that the land was not given to the farmers on liberal terms long ago, thereby giving many of thoso who are now in a state of semi-pauperism a chance of earning a livelihood. I believe I said you could hear the bullock-driver on all sides— well, I made a great mistake. Almost all the best lands in these areas are dummied, and no real work is proceeding on the dummies' land, only the snug cottage, erected for the use of the dummy, and the sheep-proof fence. One may easily know the dummies' land wherever lie sees it from the above facts. I heard, also, that , in some instances the dummies did not reside on their alleged farms three months in the year. It is really strange that our legislators do not put a stop to such a state of things. But I believe the majority of them are in favor of dummyism. Apologizing for this digression, I must resume my account of our journey.

Travelling to within four or five miles of Salt Cheek, we came to Mr. Michael Kenny's farm, and from him we received a hearty shake hands and a cead mille fail the in his wonted open-hearted Celtic manner. Here we partook of Mr. Kenny's hospitality a few days, travelling in any direction we chose.

About a mile south of Salt Creek is situated the township of Edithburgh. At Hungry Point I understand the Government intend erecting a jetty for the use and convenience of the farmers and others. There is an hotel there, built by W. Young, of Port Wakefield, which is indeed rather too small for such. I learn he was refused a licence for that reason. A store was being erected there by Mr. Gottchalk, of Eden Valley. I heard that Mr. Martin, Machinist, of Gawler, was on a visit to the areas, and had received orders for about 50 reaping machines.

About nine miles to the west is another township — Weaner's Flat. This seems more like a township than the other, as there are a blacksmith's and a saddler's shops, a store and post-office already in working order, and an hotel nearly completed.

Growing weary of pleasure-seeking, we started for home via Gum Flat, where we camped one night. Gum Flat is about 20 miles north of Pentonvale. Plenty of water is easily obtainable. The station belongs to a Mr. Rogers. Some fine gum trees grow there, from which it derived its name. Kangaroos are veiy plentiful in the neighborhood, and some say there are more kangaroos than sheep on the runs. Some persons live wholly by hunting and killing these marsupials, and selling their skins for 15s, or 20s. per dozen.

Leaving Gum Flat next morning we travelled through rather scrubby and rough land, we arrived at Urania head station, in Yorke Valley. The only buildings at this so-called head station are two miserable huts, one of which is valueless. Entering into the best of them, we found that it was not quite uninhabited, as some dying embers were still in the sooty fireplace. We had not been long, inside before a man came to the door, with rifle in hand, who seemed rather surprised at his strange intruders. Giving the usual salutation, he advanced a little further, and soon we were all seemingly good friends. He having the weekly papers with him, we spent a good part of the night in perusing them. Our new acquaintance was a boundary rider, or some such person, belonging to the station, and from him we learned that Mr. Rogers had taken 800 acres from the Government under a mineral lease, he having discovered a copper mine in Yorke Valley area.

Starting next morning to have a look at York Valley, we met with the so-called mine, but so far as copper ore was concerned there was no such thing there, only a few surface stones, evidently brought by some person from some other place and broken there, at the 12 or 14 feet deep hole that was excavated, apparently to deceive the public. Anyhow, we came to the conclusion that the rumor we heard must be a hoax, as certainly the Government would not grant a mineral lease until they sent some competent man to inspect the mineral qualities of the so-called mine. It might be that Mr. Rogers, from his hatred towards " cockatoos," tried by some means or other to deprive them of the land around the alleged mine. Having taken up our abode that night at Kilkoanna, we were gathering some wood wherewith to make a fire, when Mr. Whipcord picking up a stick, let it drop again as if it had been a snake, or some such venomous reptile. On going to see what was the matter, I found the stick belonged to an old railing which enclosed a grave hard by, which seemed to be the last abode of the mortal remains of some loving father, or mother, or perhaps the grave of some once agile stockkeeper, whose thread of life had been rent asunder without a moment's warning, as is the case in man instances in this our Austral land. Anyhow we could not help thinking that this was a proper place for a cemetery reserve, but no such thing is left there. Perhaps the surveyors did not notice the grave referred to. Next day we made a start for home, and about seven or eight miles from Yorke Valley we came to Kalkabury area. There is some wheat sown there, and it is looking very healthy.

Leaving Kalkabury we travelled through a dense scrub until we came to what is called the Cocoanut Station, but now wheat is sown in the neighbourhood.

About I3 miles further on our way home we came to Brown's Hotel at Green's Plains, where we took a little beverage, as if to shorten the way home. Leaving there, and about seven miles further on, we found ourselves on top of the Hummocks range, which appeared like a huge camel under us. On we came still further until we arrived at Mount Templeton, where the crops are looking excellent.

The sun had now sunk behind the western horizon, and we had still 15 miles to travel, but now the pale-faced moon shone out us brightly as could he expected, and we made our way home before we halted, rather fatigued from the wearisome though pleasant journey to Yorke's Peninsula.



A VISIT TO YORKE'S PENINSULA. BY A. RAMBLER.

Mon 9 Jun 1873, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The surprising wealth of the copper mines on Yorke's Peninsula, and the wonderful development of the; mineral discoveries at Wallaroo and Moonta have made those mines a name in the world....


A VISIT TO YORKE'S PENINSULA. BY A. RAMBLER.

Tue 10 Jun 1873, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Leaving the Wallaroo Mines after a very heavy rainfall—the heaviest, I was informed, which had been recorded, viz., 2 and a half inches within about an hour and a half —we were driven to Moonta, a distance of some eight or ten miles....


A VISIT TO YORKE'S PENINSULA. BY A. RAMBLER.

Thu 12 Jun 1873, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Having written about Kadina and Moonta, I must now refer to the shipping place of the Peninsula—Wallaroo...


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA, YORKE VALLEY.

Thu 19 Mar 1874, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

To above designation may appear some what incongruous in describing the following place but it was used in the first instance, and still continued, in contradiction from the Wallaroo district, which is usually understood by the term Yorke's Peninsula alo...


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA

Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904), Saturday 7 March 1874 Trove

The agricultural areas of Yorke's Peninsula, though less known than those in the North, are steadily rising into importance. They are comprised, with one exception, in the County Fergusson, a tract of over 2,000 square miles of country, much of it unfit for arable farming though capable of being usefully employed under the mixed system.....


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA,

Mon 9 Mar 1874, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

In close connection with the Troubridge Area are the Hundreds of Moorowie and Para Wurlie, which about the same time as the Troubrige Area was declared were surveyed and put up to auction, I presume on the old "killing-a-squatter principle," but somehow or other the bait did not take, and every section, almost without exception, passed the hammer, so that all the sections in those districts have taken place at the minimum price of £1 per acre, although Including some land of the first-class.

HUNDRED OR MOOROWIE

Troubridge on its eastern side. It is named after Mr. Fowler's Moorowie Station, which has a garden, is fenced in front of the house one of the paddocks is enclosed with a tall kangaroo fence—the only one I have yet seen on the Peninsula. There is a cultivation paddock, where hay has been grown for, the last l4 years. A plentiful supply of water is easily raised by a Californian pump from a waterhole, which was the origin of the as also the site of the station. (Some of the land is of excellent quality, free from stone and only slightly timbered, although many sections do not offer inducements to the farmer for arable purposes. The place is badly infested with rabbits, and, judging from their numbers, is, I should think, their original home. In one spot I kept starting dozens of them at evey few paces, and I don't know how many brace have not been bagged in one day's sport. Great as the nuisance may be, many or the their families have been ; largely indebted to them for their supply of animal food. Mutton (as it often happens in a sheep country) being unobtainable for love or money. This is not always the case, but it has been so, and the butchers as well as private families have imparted their mutton by the boats from Port Adelaide. The yield in Moorowie has been perhaps rather more than that of Troubridge—I should say from nine to ten bushels as an average, and the quality first-rate.

PARA WURLIE

is separated from Moorowie by what is known hs as Great Swamp, now perfectly dry, although in passing across it I saw what appeared to be a large sheet of water some distance off. I afterwards learned that there was no water at all, and this was a mirage. The principal cultivation is on the Peesey Range, which forms the best part of Mr. Joseph Gilbert's Orriecowie run. The land is of good quality, being generally covered with black and silver grass, and more or less timbered. The subsoil is a rubbly limestone, of which many evil prognostications were made. The crops have this year turned out better than in any district I have yet noticed, and the average will most likely, come up to 12 bushels per acre. A building for the double purpose of a school and a Wesley an Chapels now approaching completion, and is to be opened on Good Friday. It is called, on account of being situated on the highest part of the range, Mount Hardwicke Chapel. A store and Post-Office adjoining it have assumed the native name of Warooka; while it is stated that the proprietor of the township, which was a piece of freehold land, has still another cognomen which he wishes to impress on the locality. All this is rather confusing, and as a respected settler put it to me - why they should go to the barbaric title of some poor native instead of perpetuating the name of one of our oldest noble families he could not understand. However, native names have been warmly advocated, and I do not profess to pronounce between the two, but certainly it is a great pity to encumber a young place with a number of different and confusing names. There are some excellent log fences in this as well as the other districts I have referred to. Manyof them are proof against both small and great cattle, thoroughly substantial, and more durable than wire, the posts of which must after a series of years get rotten and want renewing. And although posts are very plentiful now ten years time will make a great difference in that respect. The natural shipping-place for the Peesey Range and adjacent country is in Hardwicke Bay, a large bay in Spencer's Gulf, protected by the two headlands, terminating, one in Point Pearce and the other in Cape Souttar and Waldung Island. The spot where the vessels lie is off a sort of inner promontory, Point Turtbn, off which there is deep water and good anchorage. Being in the route of vessels trading between Ports Wallaroo and it affords peculiar advantages in the way of freight, and the settlers are bestirring themselves to obtain a jetty, which could be constructed at moderate expense. At present the bags of wheat are sent down from the cliffs by means of slides into the boat or barge, and then transferred to the vessel. In the landing of cargo there is more difficulty, and the boats are obliged to go round onto the sandy shore, and then the goods must be carted over a wide piece of beach shallow water. One or two alterations of the roads leading to Point Torton are greatly needed, and some of the residents have been urging the Commissioner of Crown lands on the subject, but without, as yet, any satisfactory result. A plentiful supply of goodwater is obtainable within a mile of the Point, which is a great boon when teams are carting in hot weather. Water is generally plentiful throughout this hundred. There are one or two remarkable appearances about the coast South of Point Turton, ascending a hill which commanded an extensive view, I observed a sandhill ridge perfect and continuous, which apparently had once skirted the shore, just as the sandhills at Glenelg do at present. But this ridge is now fully half a mile from the sea. The intervening space is nothing but pure sand, gradually sloping down to the beach, and covered now with a growth of sheoak and bushes. To the northward of Point Turton the appearance is somewhat different, although pointing to a similar inference. There may be seen ridge behind ridge of sand, each running in an unbroken line, until some distance farther north they merge into a more irregular series of sandy ranges extending some miles inland. I do not profess to give a scientific opinion, but the unmistakable impression produced on a common observer is the seashore has been receding. Akin to this, if not bearing out the conclusion, I noticed that from the swamps (both the shore) and even many miles inland, there is dug up what might at first sight pass for limestone, but proves on examination a conglomeration of clay and shells, with sometimes more or less an admixture of sand. It is soft when taken up, and I saw a house the quoin-stones and window-sills of which were cut out with an old saw. When exposed to the air the surface becomes quite hard, and thus affords good building material.

PENTON VALE AND DALRYMPLE.

The former name is that of an agricultural area, the latter of the hundred, which comprises not only the whole of the area, but also other country beside. The Penton Vale Area was thrown open in the beginning of 1872, and a few sections were taken up at the top price of £3 an acre, the remainder being left till the price came to £2, at which prioe a good many were secured, while others have since been taken at the lowest price. The best of the land is a belt running from, the head-station to the northern boundary, and another along the sea-coast, the intervening country being of a very stony description. Nearly all that has been cultivated had to be cleared, and so far the results of the cropping have been generally satisfactory, and such as have given the district a good repute. The soil is brown with black friable loams, with some red hard land in the flats, which is generally not so productive, so far as present experience shows. The average yield has been estimated this year at between eight and nine bushels. I believe the returns will show that to be rather under the mark. There is a moderately good supply of water in several reserved wells, while some of the farmers have obtained it on their own land. The depth at which it is found varies greatly, in some cases being only a few feet, while other wells are 100 feet deep. The most central and generally used well, at Hayward Park, is 60 feet deep, the water being drawn by a horse-whim. It is considered a grievance that this should have been leased to the squatter whose sheep are on the unoccupied land, and who is authorised to levy, charges for all cattle watered.

It is very necessary, however, that there should be some one in charge of the machinery, which is in a very dilapidated condition, and as it is difficult to get the farmers to combine to do anything of the kind, perhaps, provided the charge is kept moderate, the arrangement is the best that could be made.

Penton Vale, Messrs. Anstey & Giles's head-station, is situate on the boundary adjoining Troubridge, on a stony flat, but possessing the great advantage of an abundant supply of beautiful water at a very short depth. An endeavour was made to have a Government township laid out on such a suitable spot, which would have afforded the very, best site for a mill; but the land was taken up by the proprietors of the run a day or two before the memorial reached the Crown Lands Office. There is a slight change in the timber in this area, peppermint being more plentiful and the land richer than in some other parts through the area, and as in Troubridge, there are a number of lagoons, one of which, called Weaver's, is very large. Close to its edge, apparently in its bed, are two wells, at which a large number of cattle are watered all through the summer, although the water is very brackish. In winter and for some time afterwards there are small fresh lagoons around the larger one, where the cattle can get a drink without any trouble. The land used to form part of the well-known Lake Sunday Run, and even in the stoniest parts is well grassed. In very dry seasons when the grass has been entirely cleared off by the sheep the sheaoaks were chopped down, and served the purpose of herbage proper. In the first settlement, when the surface was eaten so bare that a hatful of grass was not to be obtained the Sheaoaks in this, as in the other areas, was of great assistance as fodder for bullocks, which do well on it, and even for horses. Now, however, grass is abundant and cattle in good condition. Between the settled part and Lake Sunday Station, on the western boundary, there is more land in the course of survey, some of it of fair quality, although all considerably timbered and in parts very stony.

HUNDRED OF RAMSAY

Adjoins Dalrymple to the north, and was only declared last year. A large proportion of the land is taken up, and a good deal will be in crop this year. Most of the wells are deep, one of them at Scrub Hut being 110 feet. That was leased, the same as Hayward Park, but has since fallen in, and so at present is not I believe available for the supply of stock. There is a fine supply of water at Beach Hut, which, as the name implies, is situated close to the coast. It is unfortunately in a distant corner of the Hundred, away from the bulk of the settlers. Water is sometimes taken from it to

STANSBURY, OYSTER BAY,

which is a township surveyed and sold by the Government, although not at present much populated. It is, however, the natural outlet for both the Hundreds of Ramsay and Dalrymple, except a small portion of the latter adjacent to Salt Creek. Oyster Bay has been for many years the place of shipment for the Lake Sunday Run. The front allotments fetched high prices. A long sandspit stretches out from one of the promontories, so that there is good shelter for vessels in almost any weather. A considerable quantity of wheat was shipped there this season, and the settlers hope before nest harvest to have a jetty erected. The township is prettily situated on the slope of a bill, commanding a beautiful view of the country on either side, as well as the sea and Mount, Lofty. Already a store and a blacksmith's shop are in full operation and a Post-Office, although there has been hardly more than ; one harvest reaped, but very few settlers having any crop before this harvest, and those who had but a small quantity, although a high average. In a small cove at one corner of the Bay a vessel is being built for the Peninsular trade, to be called I believe the "Free Selector." The knees and other heavy timbers are all obtained on the adjacent land, the crooked peppermints being very excellent for such purpose. It is the second vessel that has been built in the same place by the proprietor, Mr. Taylor. A sum of £50 has been obtained from the Government for the purpose of clearing the road inland as far as Weaver's, over which there is considerable traffic. A very pretty wooded point runs out on the right of the township, and care should be taken by declaring it a forest reserve, or some other means, to preserve the trees here from ruthless destruction. It is possible Stansbury may at some future day be a resort of Adelaideans seeking a retired watering-place, which they would here find combined with the boon of almost invariably cool nights. If, however, it were only for the sake of local residents, the timber in question should be preserved.

Salt, wood, and gypsum are or will be articles of considerable export from Yorke's Peninsula. The first has already been shipped in some quantity. It is obtained from the lagoons, being scraped into heaps off the surface. In its raw state, however, it is very strong, and some process for refining it would, I should think, add greatly to the valne of the product. Gypsum is obtained from the same lagoons. It is underneath the salt in beds of varying thickness in the form of regular diamondshaped crystals, quite transparent when broken thin, and very pure. M. Tocchi and three men have been working for the Yorke's Peninsula Plaster and Cement Company for some months, and have about 150 tons at King's Lagoon washed and ready to send away.

The carriage of sheaoak to Port Adelaide for firewood is an increasing trade, and one which can be carried on to the advantage alike of those engaged in clearing the land and consumers on the other side of the Gulf, whilst it affords a large amount of employment to small coasters, or back freight to the regular trading ketches. The wood is purchased on the beach from the farmers at from 5s. to 6s. per ton. Many thousands of sheaoak pick-handles have been supplied to the Wallaroo mines, and much of the timber could be split for wheel-spokes, but the dearth of labour is a hindrance to anything of that kind, and for the same reason a great deal is drawn together in heaps and burnt instead of being cut up and carted to the shipping-places. In riding from Lake Sunday Station I had an opportunity of getting a general view of the country between that and Yorke Valley, the road being tor the most part along rising ground. From the centre, towards St. Vincent's Gulf, there is a wide belt of mallee-scrub extending the whole distance from Moonta to the northern end of Penton Vale. On each side of this towards the coast is more or less good land available for agricultural and pastoral farms in combination, which is or will be the prevailing system among the settlers of the Peninsula. After riding 20 miles, passing several wells of good water, I reached

GUM CREEK,

a second station of Messrs. Anstey & Giles, which is distinguished by a few clumps of gum-trees, the only ones on the Peninsula ; while underneath them are two beautiful wells, which afford an abundant supply of water, while they are only a few feet deep. The Overseer's house is a neat stone building with an excellent roof of thatch made with native rush, the timbers being of pine, as straight almost as sawn timber. In the garden are apples and other kinds of fruit trees. At Curramurka, a few miles off, the are some wonderful caves. I saw piece of the stalactites, and heard a glowing description of the largest of the caves, which I should have endeavoured to visit, but Mr. Paddock, the Overseer, being away I was unable to secure a guide. I therefore pressed on, and after passing through some very nice country, undulating ar lightly timbered with sheaoak on black grass hills, seeing hundreds of kangaroos and several emus, came to a wire fence which divides Gum Flat from Mr. Samuel Rogers's Yorke Valley Run. Instead of taking the direct course to the valley I branched off towards Point Pearce, and after a few hours ride reached the station of the

BOORKOOYANNA NATIVE MISSION.

The buildings are all of stone, situate in the middle of a small plain of which Boorkooyanna is the native name, Boorkoo signifying a small shrub which grows there, and yanna plain. It is within about three miles of the sea, and in the sandhills a plentiful supply of fresh water is obtainable. There were 18 in the school or working at the establishment at the time of my visit, and two had gone away to see their parents. The institution, which is under the management of the Rev. W. J. Kühn, is conducted mainly upon the principle of self-support, and an important part, though by no means the whole, of the work is sheepfarming. A commencement was made with 100 ewes five or six years ago. and now there are about 1,300, some 400 having been sold for £142 after last shearing, which yielded a return for wool of . £317. The Mission originally had one square mile, which has been all enclosed with stake and brush fence; but three years ago, the flock having so far increased as to require more grass, the Surveyor-General visited the place, and shortly afterwards the Government granted the use of 'The Point,' which has an area of about six square miles, and is enclosed by simply one fence run from beach to beach. The whole of the work on the place is done by the natives under the guidance and instruction of Mr. Kühn, no white labour being employed. They received this season £18 for shearing, being paid at the rate of £1 a hundred, and their work is acknowledged to be better done than the ordinary shearing in surrounding stations. Six of the young men are now employed at a weekly payment of 5s. beside their rations, and others can get employment at occasional times if willing to undertake it, the handsome return from the sheep last year having enabled this system to be adopted. The wages are for the most part spent in clothes, and the appearance of the young people on Sunday particularly is a source of satisfaction to the wearers, as well as having the effect of emulating the other blacks to improve their condition by the same means. The girls are employed in the ordinary household duties, taking it in turns to cook both for themselves and for the superintendent's house, all of which duties are performed'in a highly creditable manner. They make their own clothes, and also earn something by making rush mats and baskets, which are sold at the Wallaroo townships. Of course the benefits of the institutions are not confined to pure aborigines. Indeed, most of the inmates have a good deal of white blood in their veins ; and while on the one hand they are raised above the normal state of their tribe, they, are still placed under disabilities which such institutions as the one I am describing help to lessen or eventually remove. The younger children are taught for a few hours daily, and all those who have been some years at the station can read and write and cipher. Same of the copybooks would be no discredit to white children of the same age. They have a good schoolroom, 40 teet long by 18 broad, and a dormitory each for boys and girls 18 feet square and well ventilated. Saturday is always made a free holiday, when the boys all go either fishing or hunting, kangaroos being plentiful in the scrub aud fish on the coast. There is an island about two miles from the point where penguins abound, and another which is thickly inhabited by shags. In olden days the blacks used to swim over to this point for the sake of the eggs which they were able to obtain at certain seasons in abundance, and of which they are particularly fond. The young natives, however, have almost given up the art of natation, and none of them now care to go except 'along boat.' The aborigines of the Peninsula, who number between 100 and 200, are the remains of two tribes, distinguished now as the Peninsula and the Wallaroo mob, and they together with the Crystal Brook mob have friendly intercourse, meeting occasionally by invitation and arrangement of the respective kings. They frequently attempt to get the young people away from the station, and though they sometimes succeed, it is satisfactory to Mr. and Mrs. Kiihn to find that in many cases their allurements have not been sufficient to induce the children to leave their comfortable home and return to savage life. Unfortunately about two years ago a sickness in the shape of chest complaint carried off several of the children, and the old natives in consequence took several children away. A short time ago one of the girls was married to one of the young men rejoicing in the title of Jack Wilson, and they are living in a comfortable cottage on the land, Wilson being one of the regularly employed hands. Another marriage is expected to come off shortly, and a cottage is m course of erection by the blacks themselves to provide the necessary accommodation. Furniture is not expensive, as the mallee and pine in the neighbourhood afford material for most of the requisites. As with the other stations, Government rations are supplied to the sick and aged, and blankets to all who apply once a year. A service is held every Sunday in the: schoolroom, and the young natives join in the singing. In the afternoon they have Sunday school, and most of them have a fair knowledge of Bible truths, while several have been admitted to the church. At present cultivation of the land has not been attempted, but this season a small piece now being ploughed is to be sowed and cut for hay, to supply the horses that, are required for the use of the station, and perhaps a small quantity may be saved for grain. The appearance of the place and the financial results altogether reflect credit on the superintendant, and must be satisfactory to the ladies and gentlemen at Wallaroo town-ships who originated and carry on the mission. The value of the work is not to be judged by the number of the inmates. Although the race may be fast dying out, yet while any of them are left it can be no more than right that they should have a refuge where in time of need, through sickness or other cause, necessary aid may be given to the adults, and where the young ones who are thrown upon the world may have somewhat of the care which is bestowed upon other orphan or neglected children.


S0THERN YORKE'S PENINSULA,

Thu 19 Mar 1874, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900)

By our Special Corresnondent.

YORKE VALLEY.

To above designation may appear somewhancongruous in describing the following place but it was used in the first instance, and still continued, in contradistinction from the Wallaroo district, which is usually undrstood by the term Yorke's Peninsula alone.

By this name is known a tract of country included within the Hundreds of Maitland and Kilkerran, the former being the name also the township which has been laid out in a central position about midway between the coasts of Spencer's and St. Vincent's Gulf. The surrounding country consists of not one, but a number of valleys and hills. The soil is of a rich Bay of Biscay charter, equal, I should say, in quality to any the colony. There were about 1,800 acres in crop last year, and the average yield will probably be from fourteen to fifteen bushels per acre. Already a number of settlers have built themselves stone cottages, although they have had but one season the land, and there is a large quantity of fallowing done for next season. The land is timbered in belts and patches with heavy mallee scrub, but a great portion of it which is taken up was free from that obstruction. The work of breaking up the virgin soil is formidable enough nevertheless, the wavy black grass rendering it impossible to work a single plough with less than four good horses. What is known among the Farmers as ' black grass' will be better understood by the uninitiated if I state that it is a kind of flat rush which s^ows in clumps or tussocks, the rootlets of which are so tough that when a strong team of horses are at work the plough coming in contact with an extra heavy clump is sometimes literally torn asunder. This must be something like the breaking up of the American prairle, which is generally performed for the settlers at so much per acre by men who make it their special business, and have teams and implements suitable for the purpose. The Produce of last year over and above that required for seed has been mostly shipped to Parara, which is distant from 15 to 20 miles, the length depending upon the part of the area from which the wheat has to get and there being only one track through the mallee scrub, and that is the old one from Mr. Kogers's station at the south end of the valley. A direct road has been surveyed from Maitland Township to Ardrossan on the coast, the length of which is 13.5 miles. This is now being cleared, as being at present dense mallee scrub it is totally if valuable. Some of the farmers on the nonthern part of the Valley have taken their wheat to Moonta, a distance from 25 to 30 miles, and it is probable there will always be a portion of the produce that will find its way to that market. Oakdene, the head stion of Mr. Samuel Rogers, J.P., is in a somewhat central position in the main valley, and on either side of it are two wells 150 and 160 feet deep respectively. One of these has been reserved on the guarantee of several of the setttlers to maintain it in good order. It is not being worked by horse-power night and day for which the settlers pay £4 10s. per week. A great number of cattle are watered there at every day, and the well is sometimes dried ; but the springs are so strong that after a very short stoppage the pumping can be resumed. For drinking water most of the settlers go to Point Pierce, a distance of some 10 miles and more, where they obtain good fresh water from shallow wells in the sand. They hope, however, next year to store a sufficient supply from the rain in the tanks and dams which they are constructing. The subsoil is of such a nature that in most places merely scooping out wateholes is sufficient. There are men who do this work, having the necesaary appliances, at 7.5d. per cubic yard, and but for the difficulty and expense in obtaining horsefeed it would be done at a considerably lower rate. A number of very large reservoirs are being and have been taken out for Mr. Rogers, who has recently begun farming on a considerable scale, and has erected a very fine stable about 50 yards long, roofed with galvanised iron. Excellent straight posts for sheds well as fences are obtained from the mallee in the neighbourhood. At Oakdene there were geraniums and other fowers, both in pots and in beds, that would do credit to an Adelaide garden; but very little had been accomplished in horticulture. Several of the settlers have planted fruit trees, and believe that they will do well. The township of Maitland contains two smithies, and a store in full operation, an hotel built but not yet opened, a butcher's allotment, and one or two private cottages. There is some very good land to the south of that already occupied. I believe it is surveyed, and many friends of settlers are anxiously awaiting its being thrown open. In other directions there is some second if not first class agricultural land which will sooner or later have to be surveyed. The next place I visited was

YARROO,

the residence of Mr. Wm. Fowler, an old resident on the Peninsula, formerly at Moorowie, already referred to. Five years ago Mr. Fowler decided to remove to the site of his present homestead situate in the midst of his winter run, where he has several thousand acres of freehold land, which he secured before the credit system came in force. In getting to the spot from Maitland the traveller has to pass through some 25 miles of almost unbroken mallee scrub, and having to follow the one track, which is the only feasible way save to an experienced bushman, the distance is rendered much greater than it would be if a straight cut could be made across the country. Mr. Fowler's house, which is substantial and commodious, is situated in an opening in a range of bills a few miles distant from the coast, and though the gully a beautiful view is obtained of the Gulf, a belt of scrub intervening and giving variety to the landscape, while the houses at Port Wakefield are viaible in the morning and evening, when the sun's rays fall obliquely upon them. Mr. Fowler had last year 1,000 acres under crop with wheat, and reaped nine bushels per acre, the crop having been merely harrowed in. The previous year his average was nineteen bushels. This year the land will not be cropped, but simply left to grow whatever it will, and fed with sheep, by which means the grass and tussocks will be thoroughly rotted before being ploughed the second time. A large quantity of fresh land is, however, either already fallowed or being ploughed for sowing this season. The spot which Mr. Fowler selected has been vastly changed, and presents evidence of wise and liberal expenditure. Although this is only the fifth year since the garden was planted, there are pine and poplar trees twelve or fourteen feet high ; fruit-trees of all kinds of nearly equal growth, and already beginning to bear; while of grapes there are plenty, which, like the other fruit, are of fine quality. The flowers, of which Mrs. Fowler has some choice specimens, present a not less flourishing appearance, bearing in mind the advanced stage of the season. The plan adopted in preparing the garden was subsoil ploughing to the depth of 18 inches, and the result tends to establish the superiority of that system over hand trenching. It loosens the soil so as to enable the roots of the trees to easily penetrate to a sufficient depth without burying below the surface top mould, which is so valuable to the early growth of every plant. Besides the more ordinary kind of fruit trees there are orange trees in almost as forward a state as those previously referred to, and that without any artificial watering. In the farmyard are stables for about 30 horses, the timber in the locality affording excellent material for all kinds of sheds as well as fences, the latter being formed of stakes driven in the ground, and then the long supple mallee sticks laced between them, thus affording a sheep-fence which is unsurpassed and inexpensive, the work of making them being generally done by the blacks, who if they found in every one as good friends as Mr. and Mrs. Fowler would have very little cause to complain. A fine substantial stone barn has been built, capable of holding several thousand bushels of wheat, and built in the slope of a hill, so that wheat may be both taken in and out with a minimum of labour. The side walls are sufficiently strengthened by buttresses so extended as to form, by the extension of the roof, commodious sheds, which are used for various purposes. Eight reaping-machines are used it harvest time. A smith's and a carpenter's shop are permanent adjuncts to the establishnent. The land not cropped is used for grazing purposes, and the fine Lincoln sheep to be seen around the homestead are in hemselves a beautiful sight. The whole of the water for every purpose is obtained from either cement tanks or reservoirs — chiefly the latter — of which there are a large number in all parts of the ground, and so situated that from a moderate shower several thousand gallons of water are secured. Yarroo is on the route from Port Wakefield to Yorke Valley, and to those who are in the habit of travelling in that direction the genial welcome and hospitable entertainment of Mr. and Mrs. Fowler are so well known as to render it a favourite place of call.

KULPARA

Is a small township, which, is to be after April next the station from which the branch mail will start to Yorke Valley and the southern townships of the Peninsula. In the hundred which bears the same name there is a good deal of cultivation at open places, the largest of which is known by the name of 'The Cocoanut,' while some distance beyond, in a southerly direction, the Kalkabury Area plainly shows itself. The cultivation there has not been very extensive, a large portion of the land being covered with scrub. What has been under crop has yielded well. The average of this and Kulpara Hundred will probably not be less than 12 bushels per acre. Water is a vary scarce commodity. There is none but what is caught and stored, and the inhabitants do not appear to have made sufficient provision for a dry season such as the last, and are now many of them carting from Kadina and the Hummocks. There is a Government dam at Kulpara, which has still a moderate supply, but the use of that is very properly restricted to bona fide travellers. If it were not so the supply would soon disappear. The line of the Port Wakefield and Kadina Railway I crossed between Kulpara and Mr. Fowler's, through whose ground it runs for some distance. From the top of the range, which is a kind of spur from the Hummocks, there is a clear view of Green's Plains, and Moonta and Kadina may be seen beyond.

THE PARARA MINE AND ARDROSSAN.

This mine is situated a short distance from the beaten track between Clinton and Parara, at the head of a small gully surrounded on three sides with mallee scrub. There are six cottages, besides the smith's shop and Captain Tregoweth's residence. The number of men in the employ of the Company is twenty. A considerable pile of stuff has been turned out from the mine, and the place has a promising appearance. The Company have endeavoured, as far as possible, to avoid heavy expenditure above ground, but it was necessary the men should have places to live in, so they have either built or supplied the timber for several of the cottages. They have also taken out two large tanks to secure a supply of water, and when they once get filled they will have abundance to last through even a dry season. The main shaft has been taken down 30 fathoms. At the 20-fathom level some rich ore was obtained, and it is hoped that in a short time the lode will be 'fit to save,' but that happy stage has not yet been arrived at. There are a few tons of dressable stuff at the surface, containing for the most part grey ore with a little yellow. The men have been engaged during the last few days in timbering the shaft, which is going down the course of the lode with an underlay of two feet in the fathom. Whenever the mine yields payable ore the cartage will be a very inexpensive affair, as the site of Ardrossan is only distant from one and a half to two miles. A township has been laid out there by the Government, and it is presumed a jetty will be erected, as until that is done the township can be of no service whatever as a shipping place. In the absence of sheep, which are very scarce in the neighbourhood, the miners obtain large quantities of crabs from the coast. I saw two of them returning with half a sackful, which they had caught while I was looking at the mine.

GENERAL.

In what I have written of my few days of travel from Edinburgh to the northern end of the Peninsula, I have not attempted to give a detailed account either of the settled or the unsettled land of Yorke'a Peninsula, which is a tract of country nearly equal in extent to the whole of the settled districts north of Adelaide as far as the Burra. A portion of this is no doubt of a nature that will never he fit for anything other than sheep-feeding; but there are many hundreds of miles, generally between the scrub. and the sea-shore, of a fair arable nature, which will sooner or later be peopled with an agricultural population. The southern end, at the Troubridge, Area has already established a reputation as an agricultural district, although what has been brought under crop is but a small portion of what is still left to be subdued. Standing on elevated points one may see clearings and stubble-fields all around, but still they are surrounded with sheaoak forests. Dummyism has had not a little to do in retarding cultivation, as many square-mile blocks of the best of the land have been taken up and used for nothing but sheep-feeding. As long, however, as the improvements were made and the men resided on the land there was no impeaching their position, and many of the agreements have actually been concluded and the fee-simple of the sections obtained. There was no mistaking the dummy blocks taken up under the old Act, but with the present law and compulsory cultivation the distinction is less palpable, although the system has not been altogether extinguished. Postal facilities have been extended to meet the wants of the increasing number of settlers, and after this month there will be a mail twice a week to and from Kulpara, and thence connecting with Adelaide and the Wallaroo townships. The mail will arrive at Weaner's Flat on Wednesdays and Saturdays at about 2 o'clock, and from thence there are branch, services to Edithburgh, Penton Vale, and Oyster Bay, and the Peesey Range. There is also a mail once a week across the Gulf from Glenelg, which has been secured after a long and arduous struggle by the advocates of Edithburgh, and with anything but a head wind the communication by this means is considerably faster than by any other. On the other hand the land service, though, taking longer, is certainly more reliable. A stir is now being made to obtain the benefits of telegraphic communication, which, in view of the proposal of the Marine Board, there should be little difficulty in accomplishing. The construction of a line from Kulpara or some other point on the existing line to Cape Spencer would be an inexpensive work compared with the other schemes which have been mooted for tbe purpose of obtaining early intelligence of ships entering he Gulf, while the wire would pass through settled country where danger of injury and expense of repair would be reduced to the minimum, besides the important facilities that would be afforded to a large number of settlers. The most direct route would be via Yorke Valley and Weaner's Flat; but he people at Edithburgh would not be satisfied without at least a branch, and I believe they advocate the line being taken along the eastern coast, which would accommodate Parara or Ardrossan, and Stansbury, Oyster Bay, both places at which large and annually increasing quantities of wheat will be shipped. The reply of the Treasurer to the Marine Board's recommendation for the building of a lighthouse at Cape Spencer seems to indicate that some time will elapse before that is accomplished, but that will be no reason why the telegraph should not be extended very shortly, at least to the settled districts of the Peninsula, so affording immediate communication to that part of the country, while it will also be an important step towards the accomplishment at a future date of the other object.


THE YORKE'S PENINSULA STRIKES. THE MOONTA MINES.

Fri 10 Apr 1874, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

A Moonta ring meeting was held on Wednesday, April 8. Mr. Prisk, who again presided, opened the proceedings at 10 a.m., remarking that be was pleased see so many people present, and trusted that they would as usual pay strict attention to anything that might be said....


THE YORKE'S PENINSULA PROCEEDINGS

Tue 14 Apr 1874, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

My first impression in entering Moonta was an appalling sense of a terrible waste of human and mechanical power. The smoke of a score or more fine chimney stacks surrounding the town has ceased, and the powerful machinery within the -well-built engine-houses, instead of being employed in preparing valuable produce to freight the shipping at Port Wallaroo or to employ hundreds of smelters, is all idle and useless....


THE LATE YORKE'S PENINSULA STRIKES.

Tue 21 Apr 1874, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

Moonta. Monday morning, April 20. Yorke's Peninsula now seems to have returned to its normal condition of tranquillity, and but for the hearty demonstrations which take place as the delegates who have advocated the cause of the miners return to their homes nothing at all unusual would be noticed.......


THE LANDS ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Thu 13 Aug 1874, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

The debate in the Assembly on Wednesday upon Mr. Pearce's motion recommending the Government to immediately survey and open for selection all the best agricultural land on Yorke's Peninsula was a thoroughly practical and satisfactory one. Members for the most part resisted the temptation to throw themselves into the breach between employers and employed, and discussed the main question upon its merits. Even when they diverged from this rule their remarks were characterized by a moderation which contrasted favourably with the warm and ill-timed utterances of the previous day. For the judicious and business-like tone of the debate full credit must be awarded to the mover, who in his opening speech steered clear of the irritating topics into which it would have been-easy for him to have drifted, and only referred to the disagreements between the Directors of the Peninsula mines and their workmen in so far as it was necessary to illustrate his argument. He repudiated the idea of having simply brought the matter forward as an expedient for meeting a temporary emergency. A recent visit to Moonta had convinced him that there were numbers of men there possessed of sufficient capital to enable them to enter upon farming pursuits, and his anxiety was to facilitate their doing so. Indirectly the throwing open of fresh lands on the Peninsula would have the effect of relieving the strain upon the labour market, but he disclaimed the idea of wishing to transform unemployed and penniless miners into free selectors. Acting in full accord with the lion, gentleman's expressed views, Mr. Townsend proposed the expungement of words which specifically connected the motion with the fact that men were in want of work on the Peninsula, and the amendment was agreed to without a division on the distinct understanding that the House wished to be clear of the suspicion of interfering in a matter in which its special interference, at all events at present, would be as impolitic as it would be uncalled for. Upon the principle of the motion there was no difference of opinion. The Government were able to prove their unqualified concurrence in it by pointing out that orders for the survey had been given a week ago, and were to be executed forthwith. The promptitude displayed by the Commissioner of Crown Lands in this instance ought in common fairness to be regarded even by his opponents as a set-off against some of the short comings which are so lavishly charged against him. The minds of two or three of those gentlemen, however, seem so utterly jaundiced that they fail to see any redeeming features in Mr. Everard's administration of the Lands Department. Where they find it impossible to censure they have not even the, candour to damn with faint praise, or the self-control to be silent, but proceed at once to rake up proofs of past misdoings. Such a style of criticism is not only ungenerous, but it is indiscreet on the part of those who resort to it. Generally speaking they are members who hope to hold office, and who, when on the Ministerial benches, will find the inconvenience of having praise withheld when they feel themselves entitled to it, and the worst possible construction placed indiscriminately upon the whole of their actions. By the majority of the speakers on Wednesday, however, the readiness shown by the department to meet the wishes of the people at Moonta so-soon as expression had been given to them was cheerfully recognised. _

While deprecating the tendency shown in two or three quarters to withhold from the Government the credit which was undoubtedly due, we willingly admit that a good case was made out for a reform in what appears to be the ordinary method of offering land for selection. It is no deubt a fact that there has been a special pressure upon the Survey Office, and that considerable difficulty has been experienced in getting a sufficient quantity of land open for selection, but this does not justify or in any way account for the practice, loudly complained of on Wednesday, and then not by any means for the first time, of having a few sections put up here and a few there all over the country. To assume that they are thus put up in driblets because they are surveyed in driblets would be to presuppose an utter incompetency on the part of the Surveyor-General to make the most of the staff at his disposal. We are not prepared to accept that view, and yet in repudiating it we are left without any reasonable explanation for this system of offering land in fragments. The impolicy of adopting such a course is obvious. It puts it out of the power of intending selectors to inspect more than a tithe of the land that is advertised at one time, and inevitably leads to a run upon a few favourite blocks. The consequences are that the price at limited auction is carried to a ridiculously high figure, and that all the applicants, not excepting the buyer, have cause for profound dissatisfaction. Nor is this the end of the mischief, for the unsuccessful bidden, after failing over and over again to obtain the land they have had an opportunity of examining, reluctantly make up their minds to go to some other colony. That there is an exodus still going on of men whom we are least able to spare, and chiefly upon the grounds above set forth, it is impossible to deny in the face of the explicit statements made on Wednesday. Here, then, is a matter in which alteration for the better is urgently required, and there is sound wisdom in the advice tendered to the Ministry as to the propriety of having large areas in particular districts surveyed and put up at a time. We concur with Mr. Krichauff in thinking that in. the adoption of such a course lies a thoroughly practical remedy against the abuse of the limited auction principle. We are glad to find that the Ministry have it in contemplation to adopt a wholesale system of survey upon Yorke's Peninsula, and it is due to the country that they should follow it up by putting into the market at one time a large extent of land in that part of the colony. It is in the highest degree absurd tbat men capital and inclination to engage in farming in South Australia should be driven to inland districts like Horsham when there are on Yorke's Peninsula tend of thousands of acres of good arable land within a few miles of the sea-coast which only requires to be withdrawn from the pastoral lessee and surveyed to be rendered available for agricultural occupancy. The direction taken by the debate rendered it out of the question for the Government to reply to the strictures passed upon their conduct in the course of the previous day's vagrant discussion npon Yorke's Peninsula matters. This, so far from being a ground for regret, affords ample reason for satisfaction. The remarks made upon that occasion, however well meant, were altogether inopportune and it would have been a gross error in judgment for the Ministers or anyone else to have revived fee subject. The miners are evidently deerrrone as far as possible of settling their disputes with their employers without tiny ad cap'andum' appeals to public sympathy, and without proceeding to those extremities which would alone justify outside interposition. This determination on their part merits unqualified approval, and for the Executive or for the House to rush in, even to offer advice, would be nothing better than an act of midsummer madness. As to the employers, they are well enough able to take care of themselves, and nothing need be said on their behalf. The only matter that really called for explanation at the hands of the Government was the dispatch of a body of troopers to the Peninsula at a time when their arrival might have tended to irritate the populace. Even upon this point it seems to us the Ministry has a good defence, but it was better for them to sit silent under the stigma of having done an injudicious thing than to reopen a needless, not to say a mischievous discussion.


YORKE'S PENINSULA AS I KNOW IT

Tue 29 Sep 1874, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' News (SA : 1872 - 1874) Trove

All, that's the place where there’s neither water, grass, nor trees — only scrub, interminable horrible, dwarfs scrub, maintaining an incessant struggle for existence in the parched, scanty, hard baked soil….


OPENING OF THE LOYAL MAITLAND LODGE, No. 90.

Wed 10 Mar 1875, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881)

Starting from the Maitland Hotel after breakfast onTuesday morning, we passed close to Mr Rogers Yorke Valley Station, which lies down in the valley, and presents quite a picturesque appearance from the top of the hill. Passing on, the work of opening and closing sheep run gates commences. The country is rather hilly, but bad roads are not know and very little saud. Sheoak trees are very numerous in Maitland and as we got further down they became still more so. Arriving at a shepherd's hut we reposed a while, and then pressed on to Gum Flat. Between the hut land the Flat kangaroos are very numerous, running in herds of as many as thirty-five, some being very large. About noon we arrived at Duncan's Well, at which we enjoyed beautiful water, and which rises within five feet, of the surface. Farm houses and cultivated land are passed, and Gum Flat is made at one o'clock, where a survey party are camped. Some very large gum trees, are growing here, and, strange to say, not one is to be seen outside the Flat. On the hill beyond this is situated Anstey and Giles' head station, of which there are five buildings. At the station house there is a fine garden, with almond and other trees, and many plants. There is any quantity of fresh water in three wells on the Flat, and the tronghs are made of gum trees, cut down the centre. Farm laborers are badly wanted on this station. The blacksmith of the PentonVale station is at present worktng here as a carpenter making sheep hurdles at £5 per hundred. He does not find any material, not even the tools. The mallee is carted on the spot, and he can make about 80 a week. Passing by the station buildings we found some stony country for a mile or two, and on our right was the first lake. The country then changes, becoming hilly with good roads, sheoak trees, and any quantity of black grass. For agricultural purposes the black grass country seems to be favorable, and the farmers speak highly of it. For miles the country is the same through which we passed previous to sighting Hardwicke Bay a beautiful view. A steady rain set in, and we soon got wet, with night approaching fast, but seeing a number of habitations, leaving us to believe that civilization and the comforts of the Melville Hotel were not far distant. The rabbits are very numerous here, and for many miles around. They seem very tame and are shot easily. Many years ago Mr Penton put some tame rabbits in the bush, thinking that he would be able, in a little while, to enjoy rabbit shooting ; but in a very short time they were extended thirty-five miles, and now they are a great nuisance and do a great deal of damage on the farms. At half-past five o'clock we arrived at the Lake Sunday Head Station. Here there is also a nice garden, and any quantity of fresh water; A sharp shower then set in, and we found we had yet seven miles to travel. Crossing Lake Sunday and rounding brush fences we had a really pretty drive. There are many lakes, and most of them are surveyed with the land, and fenced in, and a well formed track around them.

Cold, wet, and tired, we arrived at the Melville Hotel at half-past six o'clock. The tea table was literally crowded, and there was only one spare bedroom in the house. Great excitement prevailed, and any amount of business was doing. A jolly landlord and landlady, are found in the persons of Mr and Mrs Rossiter, and the best of accommodation afforded. A large room has recently been erected adjoining the hotel, and opposite there is a large General Store and Post-Office. Next the store three allotments of land have been sold for business purposes, to a blacksmith, wheeright, and a machinist. There is also a saddler, carrying on a large business. Mr S. E. Nixon has a studio erected at the back of the Melville Hotel, and is well patronised. A Police-Trooper, Mr Monument, is stationed at Weaners' Flat. A Roman Catholic Church, Wesleyan, and schoolrooms are erected here. Mr Rossiter of the Melville Hotel, is styled the "King'' of the place, which has three names, Weaner's Flat, Melville, and Yorketown ; and Mr J. Gottschalk is the "King " of Edithburg.

Sat 13 Mar 1875, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881)

Bidding adieu to Edithburg, at ten o'clock, on Thursday morning we started for Lake Fowler and then on to the residence, of Dr. Vonnida, which is situated on a very pretty spot, and close to Lakes Fowler and Diamond. The Surgery is fitted up well, and in it there is a beautiful assortment of specimens and curiosities from Strangway's Springs. Sliding Rock, Moonlight Creek, and other places near the Blinman :-Native chisels, knives, boomerangs, swords, waddies; and all kinds of net work. Dr. Vonnida was presented with two addresses from the Oddfellows and Foresters on leaving the Bilnman, where he was highly respected. A sold and silver medal, together with a scarf, was also presented him by the Orders, of which he is a member. A valuable doublebalanced chronomoter gold watch with an inscription inside together with an address numerously signed was also presented him by a few friends.

Leaving his residence in the afternoon, we made Weaner's Plat, and then on to King's Lake. This lake is leased by a company in town, for the purpose ot working gypsum, of which there is abundance in the lake; in fact, in all the lakes, gypsum can be raised, and the only apparatus required is a few tools and a trough. It runs from one inch to eighteen inches in thickness, crops up nearly on the surface of the lake, and is very clean. After being raised, bagged carted to Salt Creek, and from thence shipped to town, it is worth 27s per ton. It is then manufactured into Plaster of Paris, and sold at 2d per lb., or £12 per ton. For the material there is always a ready market, and there are any number of lakes which might be worked with profit. It could also be manufactured into Plaster of Paris on the side of the Lake just as well as in town. One hundred years would be taken to work the Lake out, and then it would be ready to commence again, as it forms very quick. It is worked out in beds. On the side of the Lake there are three or four tons of gypsum in one heap, and about fifty bags ready for shipment. From the Lake we go on to Yorketown, and there met and spent the evening with several travellers, and other gentlemen.

Starting from "Weaner's Flat at seven o'clock on Friday morning, with a sharp drizzling rain, we arrived at Gum Flat at 9.30. The Surveyors have finished their work here, and have gone further on. Leaving the Flat at eleven o'clock, we soon arrive once more at Duncan's Well, and then take a different route more inland on to Giles' Station, Spicer's Flat. Here the surveyors are camped. From Spicer's Flat we went through the runs, and then round to Mount Rat, where there is a beautiful well, and plenty of good fresh water. The road from Spicer's Flat to Mount Rat is a very bad one, six miles of large boulders to travel over, and forcibly reminded us of the lines: -

" Rattle his bones over the stones," &c.

A short distance from Mount Rat there is another place famous for its water and caves Currymurka. Some of the caves run under the road, leaving just the limestone crust to travel over, and a depth of 130 feet below. On the road there are many holes which lead into the caves, and when travelling across, the sound is likened unto that of many drums. In course of time it is expected the road will cave in, as the limestone crust is crumbling away fast. Passing over the so called Mount we saw some beautiful country, between it and Rogers' Yorke Valley Station, arriving at Maitland hungry, tired, and terribly sunburnt, at four o'clock p.m. Bills are posted up throughout the township calling a meeting to be held at the Maitland Hotel, to take into consideration the question of a railway from Moonta to Ardrossan. Great anticipations are held by most people of Ardrossan becoming the shipping port of the Peninsula, and instead of breadstuff's, &c., coming through Kadina, everything will be landed at Ardrossan, and so smother Kadina. On Saturday morning, at eight o'clock, we started on our homeward journey, through the Bridle Track, then on to Moonta Mines, and from there to Port Wallaroo, having spent a pleasant week.

I would strongly recommend travellers and others visiting the southern part of the Peninsula to take the road, from the eastern corner of the Moonta Cemetery, in preference to the Penang or Kalkabury roads. There are about thirty-five sandhills between Moonta and Maitland. From Maitland to Weaner's Flat, I would also suggest the Mount Rat road in preference to the Mail track, as water can be obtained at the Mount, and on the other road, there is a long stage -over thirty miles-and not a drop of water. The distance is the same taking either track. Gum Flat is the first stage made from Maitland-about thirty-five miles, the next, Lake Sunday, about twenty miles from Gum Flat. The distance to Yorketown from Lake Sunday is about five miles, and from Yorketown to water's edge -Edithburg- thirteen miles a radius of about fifty miles in different directions fresh water, can be obtaioed. At Lake Fowler a trough is fixed close to the bank on the side of the lake, and from the bank water oozes continually into the trough. At other places there are wells ; and although so close to the salt lakes the water is not even brackish.

Down the Peninsula, a great deal of excitement prevails, each township fighting against the other. Oyster Bay is to be the shipping port, so is Salt Creek, and so is Edithburg, but Salt Creek has no water ; Oyster Bay a little and Edithburg more and a jetty besides. The inhabitants are strongly advocating a separate district, and hold hopes of gaining it. They say that their district is an important one, being one of agriculture, and that mining and agriculture are widely different, so they want a division, and are going to advocate strongly for members to represent the interest of agriculture only. Election matters were not thought much of until Mr Duncan announced his intention of standing, and then excitement prevailed. Had this not been the case it is confidently asserted by residents that very few votes, if any, would have been recorded. The great and most important want at Edithburg is a flour mill. One is in course of erection at Yorketown, and one is badly wanted at Edithburg. At Yorketown the farmers are keeping their wheat back from the market. At Salt Creek a Government land sale has recently been made -- township of Coobowie, One allotment, quarter of an acre, seventeen perches, corner of main street was sold for £62 5s ; another £61; one man offered £8 for a piece of ground eight foot square to sink a well. On the whole, allotments in the town of Coobowie sold well. Mr Kossiter, of the Melville Hotel, has bought a good sight in the new township, on which he intends erecting a large public-house, and other buildings are in course of erection. This town will be, in a short time, a very important one.


THE POLL AT SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 20 Mar 1875, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

Sir—Why did but one-fourth of the ele store on the roll at Edithburgh exercise their right of voting? This question has been asked frequently after the late contest, and may be easily answered....



OFFICIAL VISIT TO YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 22 Jan 1876, South Australian Chronicle and Weekly Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1868 - 1881) Trove

On Sunday evening, January 16, the Governor Musgrave returned to Port Adelaide from Yorke's Peninsula, where she had been with the Hod. E. Ward (Minister of Agriculture and Education), Mr. J. A. Hartley (President of the Council of Education), Mr. M. Salom, and Messrs. J. J. Duncan and J. Richards, members for the district. We have been favored by the editor of the Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser, with the following particulars of the trip :—

The party left Adelaide on Wednesday last, and on Thursday arrived at Moonta Bay where they were met by the Mayor and other gentlemen. Captain Hancock, Superintendent of the Mines, courteously placed his waggonette at their disposal. An inspection was made of the sites proposed at Moonta for the erection of a schoolhouse. The opinion arrived at was that a site near to the Roman Catholic Church, on the hill between the mines and the town, was the most desirable situation, it being bold and commanding, and although it is leased for mineral purposes, this will not create any practical difficulty. The party then proceeded to Kadina ,and on Friday morning visited the various sites proposed, for schools at Kadina. One was agreed upon to be nearly opposite the Bank of South Australia, and another was recommended at the Wallaroo Mines, on the Devon Consols sections. The party then drove down to Port Wallaroo, and visited the various public buildings there. They were delighted with the Institute, with its noble hall and convenient library and retiring rooms. They also inspected the Hospital and Smelting Works, with all of which great satisfaction was expressed. They were unanimous in the opinion as to a site for a school on the hill in front of the Hospital, the President stating that it was the best site on ths Peninsula. The Fuse Factory was also visited, and great interest expressed in the proceedings there. The party then made for Maitland via Kalkabury but lost the track, and had to camp put about a mile and a half to the north of that township, in some mallee scrub. Next day they reached Kalkabury early, and enquiries were made as to the school requirements, but no arrangements were made, as the place is at present without a settled population. They then proceeded to Maitland, where Mr. Hartley visited the site reserved tor school purposes at the southeast corner of the township. He also accertained from the residents that they would be willing to assist in ithe erection of the buildings by contributions of materials and cartage and that there were nearly a hundred chiidren of school-going age to be found in the vicinity of the township. He also intimated that where local help was given the Government would give priority to claims. While the President of the Council was thus engaged, a deputation of residents waited upon Mr. Ward with reference to local wants, the most urgent of which were, the immediate construction of a jetty at Ardrossan, for which there is the sum of £2,000 on the Estimates ; the construction of a dam at Clay Gully, to supply water for the teams; the construction of an easier approach to the site of the jetty ; and the clearing of a road from Maitland to Port Victoria so as to meet the requirements of the settlers in the Hundred of Kilkerran. The Minister promised to lay the matter before his colleagues at the earliest opportunity, and to recommend them for favorable consideration. He congratulated them on the character of the district, and on the fewness of their wants. After visiting Gum Flat where they were entertained by Mr. W. R. Paddock, the manager of Messrs. Giles and Smith's station, the party proceeded to Yorketown and Edithburgh, where sites for school buildings were examined. No decision was come to, the absolute settlement of the sites being left over until some future time. The party embarked on board the Governor Musgrave, which had come round from Moonta Bay, about half-past 6 o'clock, and reached the Semaphore about 11 o'clock on Sunday evening, after a pleasant trip.



SCHOOLHOUSES ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 22 Jan 1876, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

The inadequate provision for teaching the young in the populous districts of Yorke's Peninsula has led the President of the Council of Education to choose these regions for his first tour of inspection....


DISCOVERY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA AND THE ADJACENT GULFS.

Tue 7 Mar 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

"Flinders and his discoveries." we quote the following : — On the 6th March, 1802, Port Lincoln was
quitted, and a gulf discovered trending north.


YORKE'S PENINSULA

Tue 16 May 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

THE progress of settlement on Yorke's Peninsula is so surprisingly rapid that the country has, in some parts completely changed its aspects....


YORKE'S PENINSULA DIRECTORY

Fri 23 Jun 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

Fri 4 Aug 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

We publish this Directory In the hope that it will prove useful to our readers. At present it is very incomplete; but with the kind assistance of those Interested we hope to make it as nearly perfect as possible....


OUR LETTER HOME

Tue 11 Jul 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

At the date of our last letter political affairs were in a very disturbed state, and the prospect of anything like a fair attention to public business was remote and unsatisfactory....


OUR LETTER HOME

Tue 5 Sep 1876, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

The peace-loving and law-abiding people of the district have no special proclivities for POLITICS....


JOTTINGS ON A PEG HUNTING EXPEDITION TO YORKES PENlNSULA.

Fri 8 Sep 1876, Bunyip (Gawler, SA : 1863 - 1954) Trove

Hunting of various kinds is immensely popular in South Australia. First we have place hunting. Some needy political adventurer, by promising anything and everything, manages to gull the free and independent electors, and thus secures a seat in Parliament....


OUR LETTER HOME

Fri 23 Mar 1877, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

" The rain it raineth every day :" that is our experience of the last few days—as strange in this arid region as it is uncomfortable...


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Tue 8 May 1877, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The rapid strides which agricultural settlement has made in this colony since the liberalization of the land laws and the adoption of the system of credit and increased area is strikingly exemplified by the progress which is shown on Yorkes Peninsula....


DESTITUTION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Mon 25 Jun 1877, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

The subjoined correspondence has followed upon the complaints recently made to the Destitute Board by residents of Yorke's Peninsula of the treatment by the local Relieving Officer of persons alleged to be destitute...


NOTES OF A TRIP FROM YORKE'S PENINSULA TO YACKA.

Tue 10 Jul 1877, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

The morning fair ; the time fixed for starting eight a.m., readjusted to noon, punctually ; again readjusted by circumstances to one o'clock ; and with the latitude and longitude allowed on these occasions, an actual start at half-past one, with (surprising to relate) nothing forgotten....


ROADS ON YORKE'S PENINSULA. HARVEST PROSPECTS.

Mon 1 Oct 1877, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900)

Provincial Telegrams. By Telegraph, Moonta, September 29.

The members of the Peninsula Road Board commenced a tour of inspection of the district on Monday, and returned to Moonta on Saturday morning. They examined all the roads under their jurisdiction south of Moonta, calling at Maitland, Ardrossan, Minlaton, Yorketown, Edithburgh, Waterloo Bay, Stansbury, Port Victoria, and Kaikabury. The pole of the coach in which they were travelling broke while the party were traversing the Moorawie Swamp by the district road, so they were pre vented from reaching Peasey Bange and Point Turton. The roads at the southern end of the Peninsula, with the exception of those between Stansbury and Minlaton, are better than were anticipated. The residents generally expressed themselves satisfied with the Board's administration. Mr. Davies, the Chairman of the Board, found just before the party started that he was unable to accompany his colleagues.

At Minlaton, on the return journey, a deputation waited on the Commissioners to urge the expenditure of a sufficient sum to make possible a belt of land six miles wide crossing the road from Stansbury. The deputation consisted of the Rev. Mr. Rowe, Messrs. J. Calder, jun., W. Baker, Long, M. Kenny, Campion, and Mclnerheny. They represented that Stansbury was the natural outlet for this district, and that there would be a large quantity of grain this season, and the farmers were extending the area of cultivation. Freights were low, but cartage was high. Despite the drawback of bad roads, Stansbury possessed many advantages over Minlacowie. All the members of the deputation spoke.

The Commissioners replied severally (Mr. L. L. Furner being in the chair), and promised to give attention to the representations made. They were personally convinced of the necessity for the road referred to. They assured the deputation that the Board had given the southern portion of this district special consideration because it was not represented by local residents at the Board meetings. They were gratified to find that the roads were generally speaking in to excellent a state better, in fact, than the northern end of the district. The deputation thanked the Board and withdrew.

The Commissioners have gained a personal knowledge of the requirements of the districts, which will be valuable for future operations. The roads hitherto formed have stood admirably, the limestone in the neighbourhood of Yorketown making excellent road metal. The Superintending Surveyor, Mr. Jones, C. E., under whom all the roads are, pleasantly arranged the whole details of the trip. The work has been most satisfactorily performed, and very economically.

The crops at Weetultie are backward, except in one or two instances. They will want rain to make them productive. At North Maitland there are some splendid paddocks of forward wheat. They do not want rain. The late-sown crops want a continuance of the present moist weather on the Ardrossan route. A few crops are late and some are very promising. No further rust is reported. All round the district of Yorke Valley generally the wheat couldn't look better. The farmers are busy weeding the wheat and are in good spirits. At Urania (southern end of Yorke Valley) there are fair crops, with a few exceptionally fine. At Mount Rat the wheat is good and medium, with a few occasional sickly patches. Cultivation further south is healthy. At Minlaton rust has been discovered in one crop, which is said to be self-sown wheat. From this point south the farming prospects are excellent. A very large area is under cultivation, and it looks clean and healthy, promising a fair yield, especially between Yorketown and Stansbury, where some crops are quite equal to the best in Yorke Valley. Not a word of rust is said anywhere, except as mentioned above, nor is any doubt felt respecting the prospects. The season is also excellent for grass, and the cattle everywhere are in splendid condition. Penton Vale is looking beautiful, as is also all the Hundred of Dalrymple. Curramulka is also in a good state. At Wauraltie the crops are rapidly improving, and the same may be said of Kilkerran. At Kalkabury settlement all the cultivation is looking healthy.


OUR LETTER HOME

Fri 30 Nov 1877, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

Since our last letter home the work of LEGISLATION in the colony bas gone on steadily, and good progress has been made by the Ministry that had just taken office when the last mail left....


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Fri 7 Dec 1877, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

Nearly everybody is now well acquainted with the topography, general features, and capabilities of our Northern Areas; but I think comparatively few have anything more than a very vague idea of the extent and importance of the agricultural settlements on the once considered arid Yorke's Peninsula....


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Fri 7 Dec 1877, The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922) Trove

Readers of this journal will remember that about seven months since we despatched a " Special" to Southern Yorke's Peninsula to report upon the settlement which was then taking place, and the wants and prospects of the settlers in that district....


OUR LETTER HOME

Fri 25 Jan 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

We were congratulating ourselves on the absence of strong hot winds, and Ihe blazing heat which we sometimes experience during our Australian summer....


SUMMARY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA NEWS.

Tue 14 May 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser and Miners' and Farmers' Journal (SA : 1875 - 1878) Trove

A Post-ofiice has been opened at Port Vincent. Moonta Mine shares were sold in Adelaide on Thursday last at £9 14s. A consignment of new books for the Wallaroo Institute has arrived from London....


FARMING ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 25 May 1878, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

"Whilst travelling over a long stretch of the southern part of Yorke's Peninsula our Special Reporter observed a marked extension of area under cultivation, not only in the district of Parawurlie, but also in those of Maitland and Kilkerran....


NOTES ON SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 25 May 1878, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Having been commissioned to pay a special visit to various parts of Southern Yorke's Peninsula to report upon the progress of settlement there, I left Adelaide on Tuesday, May 4, in company with two members of Parliament who were en route for Warooka and Maitland, and took passage by the Ceres to Stansbury. The trip across the Gulf was a quiet one, devoid of any incident except what was described as a race between the Ceres and the Wakefield, in which our steamer had the best of it. She towed a vessel down the river to the lighthouse, and while doing so was passed by the Wakefield, which obtained fully a mile start in the open Gulf. When the ship was cast off our skipper gave instructions to the engineer to put on more steam, and made a mild wager with one of the passengers that he would reach Stansbury before the Wakefield, which he accomplished pretty easily, as we had landed and reached the township when the Wakefield drew up alongside the jetty. We only lingered for a brief space at Stansbury, but long enough to see that several new buildings are in course of erection, and tbat the pleasantly-situated township has made some progress since last season.

Driving to Yorketown, we arrived in time to observe the masons at work on the new school, and to hear complaints against the site selected for the new police station. The inhabitants wish their public buildings to be placed on the street fronts, but the authorities seem to think that a "back slum" is a fit position for the building which is intended to sustain temporarily the majesty of the law. New stores are going up at Yorketown, and generally the place looks healthy and thriving. Before we reached Yorketown we visited the lagoon, where the salt works are erected, and inspected the vat wherein an unfortunate man was scalded to death a few days previously. From information that we gathered of the manager it appeared that the man was working in the night skimming salt from the boiling brine, and being half asleep tumbled into it. and was immersed up to his neck. He quickly scrambled out, but was in great suffering, and desired to be "removed at once to the Adelaide Hospital. There was not proper accommodation for him at the saltworks, but his removal appears to have brought the censure of the Jury upon a local medical man. From what we could gather there were others who also deserved censure in this matter, as although tbe man's life could not bs saved he might have received more attention than he did during his last moments. The saltworks, though conducted on a comparatively small scale, may be regarded as a success, having been established two years, during which period some 350 tons of salt have been refined and sent to market, realising about £4 per ton.

From Yorketown on the following morning we drove to Moorowie Station, where we were most hospitably entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Phillips, and thence made our way across the swamp, to Warooka. The "swamp" ie a dismal tract of country, over which at no very distant period the sea must hare flowed from Hardwicke Bay to Sturt Bay, on the opposite side of the Peninsula, thus converting tbe foot of the Peninsula into an island. Sand hummocks have been thrown up on each side, and the water has disappeared from the swamp, which is about I5 miles long by two or three miles in dreadth. It is composed of salt sludge upon which a very rank herbage exists, and when fresh water falls upon this dreary waste it is quickly converted into brine, so that no living thing can find any sustenance on the swamp. Every person who lived on the fine lands of the Peasy Ranges and beyond had to cross this slough of despond, and many are the stories which are told of misadventure in doing so. Fortunately a sum of £1,900 was granted by the last Parliament for making a road of abont two miles across, and the work is now in satisfactory progress. It will lie a great boon to the settlers when the road is completed, and there is some talk of a public demonstration being held in celebration of tbe event. McCabe's hotel at Warroka is a new and substantial building, which must be of service to the travelling public, and I need not speak of the gathering which took place there on the 15th. One of the principal requirements of Warooka is a school or a teacher, as it appears that if the Council of Education appointed a teacher the use of a chapel would be given for school purposes. Warooka was, only a year ago, according to Mr. Ward, a place on the very outskirts of civilization, but one would not imagine this to see the signs of prosperity that are growing up on all sides, and the quantity of land that is being cleared and put under crop. The progress of the settler south-westerly is blocked by natural barriers, the country in tbe direction of Cape Spencer being dense scrub, unfit for cultivation. There is a good deal of excellent land, however, beyond the Peasy Ranges, where tbe finest wheat in South Australia is grown, and settlement is going on very fast towards the northwest coast right up to Corny Point. The representatives of several Adelaide business firms have their square-mile blocks in this locality, and besides fulfilling all the conditions of fencing and cultivating, they are looking round for more land to make up the thousand acres each which the new Act permits them to take up. To give access to these new settlements some miles of bush road require to be cleared, and there are a few stony places on the road already made that would be tbe better for some attention from the District Road Board, The steamer. Glenelg continues to make weekly calls at Point Turton, Minlaeowie, and Port Victoria, carrying implements and stores to the farmers and returning laden with wheat. The approach to the Point Turton Jetty by a roadway cut on the hillside is dangerous, and should either be fenced or made wider. A crane would be a great convenience on tbe jetty. Good crops were obtained in this neighborhood last season on land which had been cropped one or two seasons previously, but, as might have been expected, very little grain was got off the newly-cleared land owing to the prevalence of black grass. During the hot weather a bush fire raged for a week or more, and extended from the sea coast up to and over Para Wurlie Hill, so that the landscape, which in its normal state affords a picturesque stretch of waving green foliage, is now browned and in places blackened with burnt sbeaoak, ti-tree, and mallee, and the charred remains of stumps at stated distances round the cleared paddocks and pieces of twisted wire upon the ground snow where the fencing was destroyed. Miles of bush and wire fence have thus fallen, and the work of replacing them will be an additional tax upon the financial resources of the settlers. Every evil is said to have its attendant good, and thus while the fire has been destructive to the fences, and even threatened tbe farm buildings, it has cleared many acres of dense scrub and black grass, which will enable feed to spring up for the cattle and sheep. The lambing bas been satisfactory, but the feed somewhat scarce, except on Hannay's section aud at Moorowie. The latter station supplies most of tbe settlers with sheep, and butchers come from Ardrossan, Moonta, and more distant places for Mr. Fowler's fat flocks, which are turned out in capital condition by Mr. Phillips.

As my companions were both bound for Maitland, where they had promised to attend a farmers' meeting in reference to overdue payments, &c, we left Moorowie on the morning of the 18th, and drove in the direction of Minlaton. Passing over some seven or eight miles of scrubby country, with limestone cropping up through the surface—but which, nevertheless, has been selected for pasturage—we got upon the main road, as indicated by the telegraph wires, and passed alternately through a quantity of cleared land, which was being ploughed or already sown, and the young crop looking green and healthy, and through some miles of dense mallee scub. Here and there in the mallee was a small clearing with a primitive brush fence and a " wattle-and-dab" hut, with humble surroundings necessary for a family. Children, borses, a few cattle, and a dog or two were to be seen on each clearing, and although the labor of grubbing the mallee is a herculean task there can be little doubt but that the advancing footsteps of the agricultural pioneer will in the course of a few years conquor the scrub, and convert the whole of this area into fruitful selections that will be covered with smiling homesteads and fields of waving corn.

Minlaton (or " Gum Flat") is one of the newest of the Peninsula townships, having been surveyed only a couple of years ago, and it already boasta of two places of worship; Baptist and Wesleyan, a State school, a fine Hotel (Mclnerney's) of 20 rooms, two large stores (Long's and Baker & Calder's), three blacksmiths shops, two or three other business places, and some private dwellings. Nearly all these are substantially built of stone, and the trade of the township is sufficient to induce the National Bank to make arrangements for erecting a branch there. Township and suburban blocks realised very high prices, and the agricultural lands in the neighborhood were sold at £3 10s. to £5 10s. per acre. Minlaton is centrally situated between Stansbury, Minlacowie, and Port Rickaby, so that ito products can be easily shipped from either of these ports, where there are jetties. A bad piece of sandy road exist between Minlaton and Stansbury ; but the Moonta Road Board has passed a sum of £3,000 for making it, so that in a very short period the Minlatonians will be able to get to their principal port with any description of loading. One of the drawbacks of Minlaton, in common with other inland-townships on the Peninsula, is a want of fresh water, but this difficulty will be met in course of time by the construction of tanks and dams, and in certain places fresh water is to be obtained by sinking wells. The yield at last harvest in this district was from 10 to 15 bushels per acre, and an excellent sample of grain was produced. As there are a number of families about here the delay in opening the State school, which was finished some three months ago, is causing dissatisfaction and "uncomplimentary remarks upon the Council of Education.

A few miles further on we reached Wauraltie, due east about 20 miles from Wauraltie Island, situated in somewhat poor country, but which has nevertheless been selected, and crops of seven to ten bushels to the acre taken off the best portions. A solitary store and post-office and one or two small dwellings make the Township of Wauraltie. Passing onwards we rose the hill towards Mount Rat, where the land improved, and a beautiful view was obtained of Spencer's Gulf, and Para Wurlie was clearly seen some 40 miles in the rear. Beyond Mount Rat the character of the country and the nature of the soil changed so remarkably aa to excite expressions of wonder and admiration from our party. Gently sloping hillocks on our left shut out the view of tbe sea as we followed the telegraph line through a picturesque piece of woodland that any English gentleman would be proud to own as one-of the brat bits of his parkland. Handsome aheoahs, tallpeppermint-, native pines, and other trees of varied brand foliage grew so luzuriantiy that a heavier class of soil was indicated by their presence on the hillsides and hollows, while the sturdy appearance of the dense mallee forest that stretched far away on our right showed where a heavy expenditure would be required for dealing, but where the agriculturist might be rewarded for his enterprise by possessing soil that with care would be comparatively inexhaustible. In the centre of this oasis we came upon the homestead of Mr. R. Cottrell, the late member for West Adelaide, and were taken by that gentleman over his farm. It consists of nearly 80o acres of splendid land, for which he pud from £4 to £6 10s. per acre, and several pounds more for clearing. His neighbors also paid a similar price for their holdings. Although but two years resident in the locality, Mr. Cottrell has built a commodious and substantial dwelling under the shelter of the hill, and erected a cottage and heds on the farm below. He has some very large ricks of hay, and has taken crop off one of the paddocks, but his principal attention appears to have been given to a work which cannot fail to be a large source of profit to him in future years, and that is the conservation of water. Being aware of the difficulties under which other settlers labor for want of the liquid element, and perceiving from the situation of his farm that he possess a large catchwater area on the high ground above him. Mr. Cottrell has wisely caused races to be cut to ths place where he has effected his storage. This he has done, first by building a goodsized tank of stone puddled at the back with clay, which is situated midway between the farm cottage and the stables and sheds, and which supplies water for general purposes. Some 50 yards lower down on tbe slope is a dam two chains long by more than half a chain in width and 12 feet deep in tbe clay subsoil, where the bulk of the drainage is received; from thas dam when it is full a by wash carries the water to another dam of similar size and construction in the adjoining paddock; and both dams are covered with thick brushwood to prevent evaporation and keep the water cool in summer. In this manner Mr. Cottrell has already conserved at least three years supply, and he estimates that he has storage capacity sufficient for six years' use, and that the dams will be filled by the coming winter rains. What Mr. Cottrell has done in this respect is deserving of the attention of every settler in the district, as the same plan might be carried out to advantage en many of the holdings where the same subsoil exists.

From From Mr. Cottrell's to Maitland we travelled in the gloaming, and I was therefore unable to form any idea from personal observation of the nature of the county we passed through. Reaching Maitland at half-past 7, we found the farmers assembled about the hotel, waiting in groups for the arrival of our party before commencing their meeting. What took place at that meeting was duly reported, but we could not help being struck with the odd character of the proceedings, and the peculiar termination that was given to the meeting by the Chairman producing a telegram, which he had received hours before from Mr. R. D. Ross, M.P., stating that the Government would grant tbe concessions asked by the farmers, and that overdue payments might be deferred by making personal application to the Minister and paying interest on the sums that were allowed to remain in abeyance. From what was said at the meeting it appeared as though the majority of the farmers had suffered greatly by a very severe frost on the night of the 19th November last, and by red rust during the past and previous seasons. We could not help, however, being amused at the idea of one of the principal speakers being a man who boasts that be clears £2,000 a year by farming in that neighborhood, and who "did not care very much whether the Government did or did sot grant the concessions asked for!" At another meeting held subsequently in the same room other wants of the district were discussed, which will no doubt be pressed upon the attention of the Government in due course.

Maitland is another township which has made rapid progress since the town allotments were sold four years ago. It now comprises four places of public worship— Episcopalian, Wesleyan, Independent, and Roman Catholic—a State school, a branch of the Bank of South Australia, two large hotels—Driscoll's and Pearce's, the latter being a new two-storied structure containing 20 rooms, erected at a cost of £2,000— and a number of stores and dwelling-houses. Overlooking the Gulf on the west, and the fertile fields of Yorke Valley on the east, Maitland is exceedingly well situated, and must in time become a place of importance.

Leaving Maitland on the morning of the 20th, we crossed Yorke Valley, and on the south-easterly side of the ranges met with miles of poor scrubby country that will always remain a waste, as the limestone shows itself upon the surface. This continued till we reached Ardrossan, where the steamer Wakefield was lying at the jetty.

Ardrossan as a port of shipment for the Hundred of Maitland, Tipara, Clinton, &c. will always be a place of some consequence to farmers and the trading community, while it also possesses seaside attractions to visitors from the metropolis. Its principal buildings are two churches, a State school, Freeman's mill, Darling's grain store, and Smith's and Francis's hotels. The last named is a handsome structure of 20 rooms, which will be completed and finished about a month hence, at a cost of nearly £4,000, and is intended for the accommodation of families. The jetty at Ardrossan is a source of great annoyance to the inhabitants, because it requires an addition of more than a thousand feet to enable the steamer to get alongside on all occasions. We were conveyed in a dray to a boat, which took us out to the steamer, and cargo, except during a very high tide, has to be removed to and from the Wakefield in the same awkward fashion. When the trucks are loaded they run off the shore end of the jetty in consequence of the rails being out of order, and the shoot intended to facilitate the shipment of grain is too narrow to admit of the bags sliding down, and is therefore never used. It would be well if these drawbacks to the development of the tirade of Ardrossan were removed, and it is absolutely necessary that the jetty ahould be lengthened if the money already expended upon it is sot to be thrown away. The Wakefield is a very comfortable boat, and after a "pleasant return journey of five hours' duration we again set foot ashore at Port Adelaide.


SUMMARY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA NEWS

Tue 6 Aug 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922) Trove

Mr. Henry Lathlean, of Moonta Mines, died suddenly on July 11th. Several navvies have been set to work on the Kadina and Port Wakefield Line. Spurious two-shilling pieces are in circulation at Moonta....


SUMMARY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA NEWS

Tue 3 Sep 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922) Trove

The telegraph line is to he extended from Maitland to Ardrossan. The Moonta tradesmen have decided to close their establishments at ten o'clock on Saturday nights. The crops in all parts of the Peninsula, look well, and present indications promise an abundant harvest....


OUR LETTER HOME.

Tue 6 Aug 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922) Trove

We are at last beginning to think that we have reason for feeling a little more settled. The European Congress having brought matters to a satisfactory issue, and peace once more being established, we are not without hope that colonial affairs will take a change for the better....


SUMMARY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA NEWS

Fri 4 Oct 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922) Trove

A cast-iron screw-pile jetty is to be erected at Wallaroo. The Minlaton people intend to erect a Mill.
A bed of oysters has been discovered at Wallaroo. The Kadina and Port Wakefield railway is nearly finished...


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTRUAL SOCIETY.

Mon 14 Oct 1878, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The third annual Show in connection with the Southern Yorke's Peninsula Agricultural and Horticultural Society was held at Stansbury, on Thursday, October 10. In spite of the inclement state of the weather the Show was a great success....


OUR LETTER HOME.

Tue 5 Nov 1878, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922) Trove

Again the colonies have had their attention drawn towards the very unsettled state of European politics, and we have been for the past week or two in that state of expectancy in which we should not be surprised to hear at any time that England had become involved in war, by which we, as a necessary consequence, shall more or less be affected...


TO ARDROSSAN AND BACK.

Wed 30 Apr 1879, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881)

We left Kadina for Ardrossan at 1.10 p.m. on Tuesday 25th inst. Our party consisted of four, all on pleasure bent. Passing through Boor's Plains we reached Kalkabury at 5 o'clock, leaving there when half an hour had been given to recruiting the strength and spirits of both man and beast, we followed the direct cut road to Ardrossan and bowled along at the rate of 9 miles an hour, being anxious to reach our destination speedily, as night fall was coming on....


HOLIDAY TRIP THROUGH YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Tue 24 Jun 1879, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951) Trove

"All Work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." Believing thoroughly in the truth of this aphorism, I applied, and was fortunate to obtain a fortnight's leave of absence from the office, and all its cares and troubles and anxieties, The next question was, where shall I go?....


A HOLIDAY TRIP THROUGH YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Fri 27 Jun 1879, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951) Trove

Having seen all tliese curiosities I returned to the Mine Office, and found the Captain had returned. On saying -who I was, and that I was down on a holiday ramble, and that I "was desirous of learning something about the world-famous Moonta Mines, he at once entered into my plans....


THE PRINCIPAL PORTS IN ST. VINCENT GULF, LOWER YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 18 Oct 1879, The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881) Trove

We must own that although the ports in Spencer's Gulf are superior as regards their facilities for shipping, there are none of them, so admirably adapted for watering places, as either Stansbury, Edithburg or Ardrossan....


SHOWS. CENTRAL YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 23 Oct 1880, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

The third Show under the constitution of this Society was held at Minlaton on Thursday, October 14. Originally this Society embraced the towns of Edithburgh, Yorketown, and Minlaton, but the two first towns seceded from the amalgamation, and the inhabitants of Minlaton retained the original name and constitution....


THE THREATENED EVICTIONS ON YORKE'S PENINSULA..

Sat 17 Dec 1881, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

Through the action which is being taken by the authorities with reference to some of the mines on Yorke's Peninsula, there is great danger that the colony may lose a large number of persons who have in past times been, and who would probably in the future become, of very great service to it....


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 12 Aug 1882, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1881 - 1889) Trove

In company with another I left Edithburgh on Monday morning, July 24, in order to visit some friends in the hundred of Carribee, the last and most southerly settled portions of Yorke's Peninsula....


YOEKE'S PENINSULA.

Fri 29 Sep 1882, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951) Trove

Great alarm is felt in consequence of the continued dry weather, our tanks and dams have little or no water in them, and if we are not favored with a good fall of rain soon, our crops will also fail....


NOTES OF A TBIP TO THE PENINSULA.

Tue 31 Oct 1882, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951)

By a "Visitor.

Starting from the Port at 10 o'clock on Tuesday morning by the steamer Wakefield, I arrived at Ardrossan at 3 in the afternoon, and found on the j^tty the friends 'whom I had gone to see awaiting me. We started shortly afterwards for Maitland, a distance of fifteen miles, and reached our destination towards evening. The time of my visit Wa9 particularly favorable, not only for seeing the country at its best, but also for two special events of great interest and importance to the residents of the district.

The first of these was the annual show— agricultural, horticultural, and Agricultural all combined. To one who, takes a lively interest in all these departments of the products of the soil, and had only a short time before seen the show in the first two of these Hues held at Kapunda, the occasion was full of interest to me, and I inspected carefully all that was to be seen. Taking Kapunda as a standard of comparison, which need not be either "odious" or invidious, I should say that, as a whole though on a smaller scale, the Maitland Show would have nothing to be ashamed of. la flowers it nu, of course, greatly inferior to ©urFiurieultura! tihon i in vegetables poultry eggs, and butter, and some other exhibits it was quite equal to Kupunda in draught entires it was superk .ut thoroughbreds were poorly represented oy only one horse -r whilst roadsters were not represented at all, and the show of hack* was but middling. There were some good exhibits in young draught stock; also in cattle and sheep ; whilst agricultural implements, as was proper, made a fair appearance, amongst which I was pleased to notice that our townsman, Mr. Cameron, was duly represented. The attendance was large from the surrounding district, as it is the great annual holiday, the number being estimated at about 1,000.

In the evening there was an entertainment held in the new Institute Hall, which was then used for the Second time. This hall is a credit to the place, and will be a great convenience. It is capable of seating from 400 to 600, and was crowded in every part, even where standing room was available. The entertainment was of the usual kind, the comic element some what prepoudering ; all very good indeed, and was thoroughly enjoyed by the large assemblage.

On Wednesday I started, in the company of my friend and his wife on a tour round the district for the purpose of visiting some old friends from this neighborhood, intending to see the Aboriginal Mission Station on the way, and to make Port Victoria fifteen miles direct from Maitland in the evening,, and to stay there for the night. In this, however, we were disappointed, but in a way very pleasing to ourselves, and I think not without pleasure to others also. We arrived at Point Pearce (the Mission Station) about 5 o'clock in the evening, where we were kindly received by the manager and his wife, and requested to be shown over the establishment. We soon found that it was a special occasion of great interest at the station, for they were to hold a Band of Hope meeting, at which all the natives would be present, together with some friends from a distance, who were to take part in the entertainment. This was, indeed, most interesting, and we were easily prevailed upon to remain for the night that we might see and take part in the proceedings. My friend being a gentleman of importance, and well known in the district, was requested to preside, and delivered an excellent opening address appiopriuteto the occasion, which was most attentively listened to by all present; the lady was pressed into the service, and played most of the accompaniments ; whilst I also, by request, gave a short address, expressive of sincere sympathy and good wishes. It was, indeed, a pleasant sight to see so many natives, about filty of all ages, looking happy, well clothed, and evidently well fed and cared for, and, above all, most intelligent, and deeply interested in all that took place, some of tiieui taking part, the most noticeable being a duet by a man and his wife, in which he played an accorapsnient to her song on the violin, and did it tastefully and well. I shall reserve for an early future occasion a fuller and more instructive account of this mission station, which, I believe, will be generally interesting.

Maitland is finely situated on high ground, forming the central ridge of the Peninsula, with a beautiful view of Spencer's Gulf, ten miles straight across in the distance. There, as well as here, the crops are the subject of deepest interest, and the farmers as a rule feel well satisfied with the prospects. There is a wide difference in the appearance of different crops, sometimes even in adjoining paddocks— 'the result of different methods of farming, so that some are very poor, whilst otheuane as beautiful and promising as the eye could look upon. Some paddocks will riot yield raon* than three or four bushels to the acre, whilst much of it is expected to give from 15 to 20 bushels, was except ioually good patches even more than that. We were told by a most intelligent and euthusinstic farmer that with the saving of labor, and the facility for cultivating scrub land by means of mulienizing, and the use of the stump-jumping plough and scarifier, even so low a yield as four bushels per acre at 15s. a bushel would well clear all expense, i This most useful invention, the stump-jumper twin sister in simplicity and utility to the reaper—we saw at work, which is the only way to thoroughly understand it.

On the following morning we went to Port Victoria, on the western side of the Peuinsula, where we saw some old Kapunda friends, who were glad to see us ; and, after resting there, returned to Maitland, over an excellent road and through a pleasant country, consisting of continuous farms on either side with the primeval scrub for the background.

On Saturday morning I had to set my face homeward, though somewhat reluctantly, and after a pleasant passage, landed at the Port at 4 o'clock. Thus ended a short but exceedingly pleasant holiday trip, in which I hope some of my readers will have accompanied me with interest and shared in my pleasure.


ROUND THE CROPS.— No. I.

Wed 26 Sep 1883, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

At 9 o clock on Saturday morning we found the James Comrie waiting for us at the head of Largs Bay Jetty, and we were soon welcomed by our old friend Captain Bartlett, who has so long commanded that well-known trader....


ROUND THE CROPS. No. Il—MIDDLE YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 29 Sep 1883, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

With a beautiful fresh morning, slightly clouded, but without rain, we left Yorketown Monday morning early, and taking the direct road to Minlaton were soon past the collection of salt lagoons of which Lake Sunday is the principal one hereabouts....


SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Thur 29 Nov 1883, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

Probably there are few portions of the colony so seldom visited, and, therefore, so little known as the extreme southern and south-western districts of Yorke's Peninsula.

Now and again, at long intervals, brief items of information appear in the Adelaide papers having relation to the course of events among the comparatively small and widely-scattered population of that region, from which it is easy to infer that on the whole there is not much excitement of any kind to ruffle and disturb the normal quietness and calm of their life. Recently business engagements led me to the Peninsula, and, having a few days to spare, I determined to spend them in paying a long-promised visit to a few friends in that out-of-the-way corner of the colony. Before doing so I was led to understand that I should have plenty of sport, as kangaroos were numerous, and on many points of the coast there were capital fishing grounds, and in this I was not disappointed. Leaving Adelaide about 8 o'clock in the morning I went to Largs Pier and soon found myself and what little impedimenta I took with me on board the new steamship Warooka. The day was fine and the sea smooth, and in about three and a half hours after leaving Largs Pier we were alongside the jetty at

Edithburgh. This township, although very small, aspires to be a fashionable watering place, and during the summer season is said to be crowded with visitors, most of whom come from Adelaide in quest of health and to get out of the reach of the heated atmosphere and pungent odors of the city. The township consists of a couple of hotels—the Edithburgh, a two-storey well-built place, with a balcony, from which can be had a fair view of the surrounding district, and the Troubridge, a few stores of inferior construction, a couple of blacksmiths' shops, a Wesleyan Church, an institute the grounds of which are in a slovenly condition, a State school only partly finished, the National Bank premises, and a few private dwelling-houses. The civic affairs of the place are managed by a full-blown corporation. The climate of Edithburgh is most salubrious, and it would be difficult, if not impossible, to name any other portion of South Australia where the air is so finely moderated by sea breezes and the temperature is so uniform all the year round. Situated on high ground, with the tea on three sides of it, hot winds are almost unknown, and sleepless nights be-cause of the heat are never heard of. The most prevailing wind in summer time is that from the south-east, which generally springs up at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and the remainder of the day is very pleasant. The coast about here is most romantic, and the fine bold cliffs on which the township is built strike the new arrival by steamer at once by their rare beauty. When the tide is out there is plenty of opportunity for the naturalist to acquaint himself with the numerous forms of marine life which abound in every direction. Of Echinoder-mata there is an almost infinite variety, and the little nooks and corners of the many caves under the cliffs close to the township, especially on the northern side of the jetty, are nothing less than perfect marvels of sea-life. Of Echinidea, the psam-mechinus esculentu and Spatsogus purpurens are quite common, while of the Asteridea, the Solaster pap poeus, Astrogonium phrygianum, and Asterias rubens specimens may be picked up anywhere, whilst the tame may be said of the various forms of Holothuridea. There is also plenty of sport for the fisherman, and almost any quantity of schnapper, whiting, mullet, garfish, and tommy rough can be hooked up in a very little time by an expert angler. Scores of baskets of these fish are sent off by the steamer to the Adelaide market three times a week, and yet " there's more to follow." The supply seems inexhaustible. It is no uncommon thing to see as many as a dozen fishing smacks doing business in these waters, and their white and brown sails darting hither and thither, or lazily gliding along with the tide, help to make up a pretty picture. Five miles southeast of the jetty is

Troubridge Island, where the lighthouse is erected. Three keepers with their wives and families reside there, and according to all accounts manage without much difficulty to get through the average amount of quarrelling and social unpleasant-ness incidental to most small communities. A week or two ago nearly all the members of the Marine Board visited the island in the steamer Governor Musgrave, for the purpose of investigating and if possible settling some apparently trifling dispute. The island is connected by telephone with the Edithburgh telegraph-station, and this is found to be of considerable convenience, as all the ship-ping to and from Spencer's Gulf, Wes-tern Australia, and England pass close by ; and as Marion Reef, near the island, has been the scene of one or two shipping disasters the utility of easy and through communication is evident. With care and fore-thought on the part of the

Edithburgh people and their municipal representatives their little town could be rendered very attractive, and would soon become extremely popular among pleasure-seekers. Unfortunately, there is no beach close to the township, and bathing is rendered difficult to most people and dangerous to all, because of the rough nature of the coast and the great depth of water. What is wanted is the clearing and fencing in of one of the many small bays for bathing purposes. The building which at present does duty for a bathing house is not suitable for that purpose. There is absolutely no protection against sharks, octopi, and stingrays, which are known to swarm about here. It is also too near the jetty to be pleasant, and its unsightly shape and size are not suggestive of comfort or convenience. The corporation should also pay some attention to the appearance of their streets, which were certainly not clean at the time I visited the place. The town was more like a huge farmyard than anything else, where horses, pigs, cows, and poultry were allowed to wonder at their own sweet will. This state of affairs by no means adds to the attractiveness of the place ; nor does the present high rate of fares by the steamer, which are simply prohibitive, induce Adelaide people to visit Edithburgh as a place of holiday resort. If the directors of the steam-ship company want to discourage traffic they cannot do better than keep to the present fares all though the summer. In anticipation of a good season this year, Mr. J. Gottschalck has built a large boarding-house of fifty rooms, about a quarter of a mile south of the township, near Sultana beach. The venture is a very risky thing, and Mr. Gottschalck deserves success for his spirited enter-prise. I noticed most of the crops about Edithburgh were promising well for the harvest, and the farmers generally were in good hopes. Hay harvesting was in full swing, and the yield was said to be better than for several years past. Between Edithburgh and Yorketown there is a splendid macadamised road, and along the whole distance, ten miles, on each side of the road the wheat crops were looking first-rate. Most of the farmers to whom I spoke said they expected to reap an average of about ten bushels to the acre all round. Some of the paddocks they said will go over that amount, but others, where the crops are inferior, will yield less. Red rust and take-all have scarcely made their appearance in this part of the district. Some of the paddocks have, however, got very dirty, and in many cases what was sown for wheat has been cut for hay. Yorketown is considerably larger and a much more pretentious place than Edithburgh. The two hotels are well kept, clean, and very comfortable. The stores are large and substantial, and most of the dwelling homes stand in the centre of well-arranged flower gardens. The town is admirably laid out, and its clean and orderly condition reflects credit on the authorities. The courthouse is a handsome building, and so also is the post and telegraph office. Mr. Mathews, the local postmaster, is an intelligent and enthusiastic naturalist and botanist, and devotes most of the little spare time he has not only to storing bis own mind with useful information, but in seeking to cultivate in the minds of others a love of science for its own sake. To judge of the morality of the place, from the number of churches one is led to suppose it must, or ought to be very high. There are six places of worship—Roman Catholic, Anglican, Wesleyan, Baptist, and two Lutheran. The State school is a plain neat building, and has accommodation for about eighty children. The local flour mill is reputed to have beaten Adelaide flour out of the market, and Mr. Nankervis, its owner, has spared no expense so as to produce a good article. The town generally has the appearance of comfort, is compact, and contains the largest population of any place on the peninsula south of Moonta. It is also centrally-situated, and most of the surrounding country is of average quality. A few fruit and vegetable gardens have been started in the immediate neighborhood, and so far have succeeded well. About five miles east of Yorketown lies Penton Vale, an agricultural area, in which is situated the village of Oaklands. Not much of this district has been laid under cultivation, but the few pad-docks to be seen look well, and about ten bushels per acre are expected. Most of the land about here is used for sheep-grazing, and is owned by Messrs. Anstey & Giles, who are old settlers. Leaving Yorketown I started for Warooka, a small but thriving township fifteen miles to the westward. The road is metalled nearly the whole way, and for about half the distance lies through land of fair quality. The farmhouses are for the most part good substantial buildings, and there is an appearance of permanence about them not seen in many districts. A peculiar feature of the country about here is the great number of salt lakes. I saw dozens of them. They vary in size from half an acre to upwards of two hundred acres. They are all shallow, none of them being more than about a couple of feet deep, and in summer time, when the water has evaporated the beds of the lakes are covered with a deposit of salt and gypsum which can be easily utilised for commercial purposes. A singular thing about these lakes is the fact that almost invariably the western banks are comparatively steep and broken, while those on the east are flat and shallow. They cover an aggregate of thousands of acres, and although in most cases the land is cultivated to their very edge they can be put to little practical use. Before reaching Warooka the traveller by making a short detour can pass through Moorowie station. This is the property of Mr. William Fowler, of Yarroo, Kulpara, and was for many years his residence. The home-stead has been long occupied by Mr. Geo. Phillips, the manager of the station, During last winter some new ground on this station was broken up, ploughed, and sown, and the crop was looking splendid, and far better than anything I saw during the whole of my trip. Mr. Phillips expects to reap at least twenty bushels an acre, and rather more than this may be obtained from the best of the ground. The extent of this good soil is, however, limited, and the average of the whole 500 acres sown will probably be about fifteen bushels. The whole country about here when I saw it was well grassed, and all kinds of farm and station stock were looking in first-rate condition. Between Moorowie and Warooka lies the "Big Swamp." This is a flat miserable piece of country, about four miles wide from east to west and six miles from north to south, of rough limestone formation, with patches of saltbush growing about. In winter it is said to be nearly all under water, and crossing it at that time of the year in the face of a gale of wind must be a treat. From the geological appearances there can scarcely be a doubt that at no very remote age what is now known as the "swamp" was simply a narrow strait between Hardwicke Bay on the north and Sturt Bay on the south, through which the sea found its way. All the land here is useless. Getting on to Warooka the aspect of the country changes wonderfully, and I again saw some capital wheat paddocks. The township is well situated on a ridge of the Peasey Ranges, commanding a very ex-tensive view in every direction. There are a public-house, a store, post-office, two village blacksmiths, a State school, a good sized and handsome Roman Catholic Church, a small Wesleyan Chapel, and a police-station. The view of the surrounding country, with the sea, the shipping, and Point Turton jetty is picturesque. The Warookaites are justly proud of their city on the hill, and woe betide the unfortunate visitor who fails to appreciate and express his admiration of the place. A large portion of the farming and about here is the property of Mr. J. Day, of Edithburgh, and the crops about the township will not be less than from 10 to 12 bushels per acre. I saw some self-sown hay crops on the slope of the hill which reached a couple of tons per acre. About 10 miles west of Warooka, in the hundred of Para Wurlie, lies the estate of Mr. H. R. Fuller, tie present Mayor of Adelaide. There is very little cultivated ground on the way thither, but the country is well grasped everywhere. Most of the timber is sheaoak and ti tree, but mostly stunted ; in fact, fine timber is not to be met with on any part of Southern Yorke's Peninsula, Mr. Fuller has spent thousands of pounds on his property, and the homestead, stables, woolshed, and other buildings are all of the most substantial character. Close by is what is spoken of as Ward's Folly, where Mr. Ebenezer Ward spent money very liberally, and reaped for himself and those who assisted him little in return. Not much wheat has been sown here, but what there is is expected to turn out favorably. Proceeding still further westward the country becomes very inferior, and is mostly lime-stone with a thin coating of sandy soil. Small odd patches of cultivated ground are met with, but settlement on an extensive scale is not to be met with. From here to Daly Head, the extreme point on the western coast, no settlement of any kind has taken place, but across the Parawurlie swamp, and through Levens on to Corney Point a few farmers have taken up ground along the northern coast, and some of it looks extremely well. One poor settler, tired of the constant failure of his crops, which had become monotonous and wearisome, has put up a signboard on the roadside to the following effect:—" Notis. —This land is For Sail." As this block is close to Coutts' lake, a ti-tree swamp covering an area of about fifty acres, all that is wanted to make it "sailable" is some one to come along to raise the wind, and the thing is done. At Orrie Cowie is Mr. Hannay's head station. Here there is any quantity of fresh water, but the ground is more suitable for sheep grazing than for agricultural purposes. At Levens the cultivated sections run down to the beach, whence the wheat is shipped in boats and small ketches and sent round to Port Adelaide. Farming here appears to be carried on under great difficulties. The country is "coasty," and sheep and cattle have to be sent away to the Peasey ranges during a portion of the year, as otherwise they would die off. One of the neatest homesteads in this district is that of Mr. H. Glover. Every thing here is in "apple-pie" order, and the little garden in front of the house was quite gay with flowers when I passed through. Mr. Glover has named his farm " Elim," in allusion to Numbers xxxiii. 9, "The children of Israel pitched their camp at Elim, because there were there three-score and ten palm trees and twelve wells of water." This modern Elim has no palm trees about it, but the wells of good clear fresh water are there. Firmly braided with rafters of oak, the house of the farmer Stood on the side of the hill commanding the sea; and a shady Sycamore grew by the door, with a woodbine wreathing around it. Rudely carved was the porch, with seats beneath; and a footpath Led through an orchard wide, and disappeared in the meadow. Further down, on the slope of the hill, was the well, with its moss-grown Bucket, fastened with iron, and near it a trough for the horses. Shielding the house from storms, on the north, were the barns and the farmyard : There stood the broad-wheeled wains, and the antique ploughs and the barrows; Here were the folds for the sheep; and there in his feathered seraglio, Strutted the lordly turkey, and crowed the cock, with the self same Voice that in ages of old had startled the penitent Peter. Bursting with hay were the barns, themselves a village: in each one Far o'er the gable projected a roof of thatch; and a staircase. Under the sheltering eaves led up to the odorous corn loft. There, too, the dove-cot stood, with its meek and innocent inmates Murmuring ever of love; while above in the variant breezes Numberless noisy weathercocks rattled and sang of mutation." From Elim to Corney Point, in the hundred of Carribie, is about ten miles. Most of the country is taken up under the Scrub Lands Act, and there are some good average crops on that which is cultivated. It is expected that the yield will be from eight to ten bushels. Further inland the ground is very inferior and utterly unfit for cultivation. There is a post-office at Corney Point, kept by Mr. J. Y. Barclay, who has a farm of about 400 acres. The wheat crop appeared thin and short, but the hay harvest turned out well. He has a small paddock laid down with lucern, which seemed to be succeeding admirably. Mr. Barclay is a well-read man, and has evidently found time among his many engagements to acquire a considerable amount of information. The mails from Adelaide for Carribie pass through Edithburgh, Yorketown, and Warooka, and arrive at their destination once a week only, on Sunday mornings, and are dispatched the same day at about 2 p.m. Every Sunday afternoon Mr. Barclay conducts a Church of England service in his house, which is attended by most of his neighbors.

At the Point is the lighthouse, a brick and stone erection, in the tower of which is a fixed dioptric light of the third order. The head keeper and his assistant (Messrs. Dagwell and Christie, respectively) have their residences adjoining. Mr. Dagwell was for many years harbormaster at Glenelg. Shortly before my visit to the Point a large whale 50 feet long was found one morning stranded two miles south of the lighthouse. The skeleton was preserved, and has, I believe, been bought by the Government. During the time the whale was lying on the sands a lot of people went down from Yorketown and Warooka to see it, and the place became unusually lively for a few days. The number of empty whisky bottles still lying about at the scene of the "wreck" is uncommonly suggestive. The coast, from the lighthouse as far as Daly Head, is high and bold, and from there to West Cape, and round by Cape Spencer, opposite the Althorpe Islands, to Rhino Point, it is bolder still; in places the scenery is grand. In the hundred of Warrenben there is no settlement of any kind. The country is unsuited for it; there are thousands of acres literally covered with lime- stone, and that district is about as poor as it can well be. Coming round to the hundred of Coonarie, the only piece of settlement is at Point Davenport. Five or six families have taken up ground there, but the soil has a hungry look, and the few paddocks I saw gave but little promise for the harvest. The whole district is most forbidding, and it is surprising that any sane person should have ever dreamed of pitching his tent among such miserable surroundings. With one or two friends I had a capital day's sport among the kangaroos, which are numerous here. Point Davenport was surveyed in allotments for a township some time ago, but few, if any, were sold, and nothing is seen of the proposed town of Nugent but dozens of surveyors' pegs and cuttings. Proceeding by the south coast eastward for about twenty miles Tucockcowie in passed through a small station formerly owned by Mr. W. Gilbert, of Pewsey Vale, but now in the hands of Messrs. C. & J. Day, and Port Moorowie is reached. There is not much farming along the line of road. At Port Moorowie, and from there to Mount Melville, most of the ground is taken up, but the area of good land is extremely limited. The population is small, the farms are poor, and the paddocks are nearly all very dirty. Not more than five or six bushels will be reaped through most of the district, although three or four paddocks looked as if they would yield about eight bushels. There is a good jetty at Port Moorowie, which is used only for shipping wool and wheat. The village of Mount Melville has decayed considerably, and the little public school which was formerly conducted there has been closed. Honiton is about six miles farther to the eastward, and is situated in the middle of the Troubridge agricultural area. The Troubridge State school building does duty for both school and institute purposes, and the library, which was courteously shown me by the secretary, Mr. Wm. Correll, contains more than the average number of volumes of good, wholesome, sound literature. For its size it is certainly the best public library I have seen. The crops about here vary considerably. Some of the ground is poor, other portions have been badly farmed and worked out, and clean healthy crops are the exception. It is estimated that the average of the paddocks from Honiton, round by Troubridge and Wattle Points, and thence to Edithburgh, will not be above seven bushels to the acre, and some of the farmers expressed themselves doubtful of reaping even that quantity, although the rainfall this year has been considerably in excess of that for several years past. After staying a short time near Edithburgh to recuperate after my long ramble round the coast, I determined to return to Adelaide via Stansbury, and so availed myself of the opportunity of driving along the cliffs between those two places. I was advised to do this by several persons, all of whom described the road as one of the finest drives in the colonies. And it is, without exception, quite as pleasant and exhilarating as any I know of. The road lies on the top of the high cliffs all the way, a distance of about fifteen miles, passing through the small villages of Coobowie and Pickering. At the latter place is a small jetty, but it does not seem to be much used. Stansbury is a nice little place, has a beautiful, clean, hard, sandy beach, splendid bathing grounds, and a jetty a thousand feet long. The chief drawback to the place seems to be the want of deep enough water at low tides to allow the steamers to come close in. On the way to and near Stansbury are some good wheat crops, most of which should turn out not less than from twelve to fifteen bushels to the acre. About a couple of miles north of the township, Mr. F, Wurm, a well-known resident of Unley for many years, has a large area of ground laid out as an orchard and flower and vegetable gardens. The trees are young yet, but they appear to be thriving, and the vines are laden with fruit. Vegetables of all kinds are in profusion, and so also are the flowers. I returned to town greatly interested in what I had seen of the Peninsula, and much pleased and benefited by the outing I had. In some respects I was disappointed with the scenery, which away from the coast is rather tame. Of the whole peninsula it may be said there is not a hill worth speaking of, nor is there a permanent stream. I do not think it will carry a larger population than at present, and many people arc of opinion that it has seen its best days; that the farms will get into larger holdings by the small blocks becoming gradually but surely absorbed; and that much of the ground now cultivated will revert to pastoral purposes. When I was in the district westward of Warooka I made it my business to enquire what the people there did in the matter of attending schools and churches, because so far as I could see there were neither schoolhouses nor places of worship of any kind whatever. I was informed that the population was so small and widely-scattered that no place of worship could be erected. I learned, however, that the district is periodically visited by the Rev. Mr. Whitton, Anglican clergyman of Edithburgh, who spends a week at a time going about among the farms and wherever practicable, conducting services in the farmhouses. These labors appear to be highly appreciated by the people, but from the nature of the country travelled through they must necessarily entail a large amount of toil and real hard work on the part of that gentleman. In the way of day-school accommodation the residents are not so well off. They are too far from Warooka to send their children thither; they are too far from each other for them to unite and agitate to have a school built among themselves; there is no central place in which a school could be erected; and they are too poor to engage governesses. This is a serious state of affairs. Here are scores of children growing up without any regular school training, and in fact entirely destitute of education, except what little their parents can give them, which from the circumstances of the case must be of the most meagre and elementary nature. How to cope with this difficulty successfully it is all but impossible to say. Doubtless there are other portions of the colony as unfavorably situated as this one, and it may be regarded as inseparable from newly-settled districts. This fact does not, however, solve the difficulty. Something should be done, if possible, to remedy this un-desirable condition of things, and the educational system of the colony cannot be regarded as complete if it fails to reach large numbers of children. What seems to be the only feasible plan which can be adopted is to appoint travelling schoolmasters, to be paid fixed salaries wholly by the State. These should have charge of certain districts, each containing say about twenty families. On fixed days at regular times the teacher should visit certain houses and give instruction to the children. Before leaving the house lessons might be set for the pupils, to be prepared by the time the teacher again visited that place. This appears to me the only way in which children so circumstanced can be taught. There would be difficulties in settling the details of such a scheme, and some trouble would very likely be experienced in getting suitable teachers; but this should not prevent the making of some effort towards meeting this pressing need. O, for the coming of that glorious time When, prizing knowledge as her noblest wealth And best protection, this imperial realm, While she exacts allegiance, shall admit An obligation on her part to teach Them who are born to serve her and obey; Binding herself by statute to secure For all the children whom her soil maintains The rudiments of letters, and inform The mind with moral and religions truth, Both understood and practised, so that none, However destitute, be left to droop. By timely culture unsustained, or run Into a wild disorder, or be forced To drudge through a weary life without the help Of intellectual implements and tools— A savage horde among the civilised; A servile band among the lordly free.


A TRIP THROUGH THE LOWER PENINSULA.

Saturday 25 October 1884, Wallaroo Times (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1882 - 1888) Trove

Although Yorke's Peninsula cannot boast of scenery calculated to inspire one with poetry, still there is at the present-time of the year real enjoyment to be gained by a visit to the several towns that hare sprung up during the past eight or nine years. In the first place the roads are equal to those in any part of the colony, thanks to the efforts of the local Road Board, and besides this the country generally looks well. We left Moonnta on Monday last, via Arthurton and Ardrossan. There was one thing noticeable, from an agricultural point of view, large quantity of the land that was under crop last year has been allowed to remain for pasture. This was also observable along the whole route from Moonta to Editbburgh. There were doubtless two strong reasons for this. In the first place the land near to the main lines of road is generally that which is first selected, and as a consequeuce owing to the time it has been cultivated it has in addition to exhausting the soil, resulted in a plentiful supply of wild oats and other rubbish which necessitates feeding down or fallowing and in many cases both, in order to somewhat restore it. In the second place, the introduction of the stump-jumper has enabled the farmer to go back in the scrub and cultivate land that could not be profitably dealt with under the former order of things. And the numerous advantages accruing can be fairly realised by anyone who takes the trouble now to go through and witness the improved condition of the crops growing on the scrub land is compared with the best of those that have been produced on tbe bare, bleak plains that were first put under the plough. It is really astonishing to see the advancement that bas been made with the stnmp-jumping implements, no matter whether you visit the large establishment in the central towns where a large number of hands are employed, or tbe unpretentious smithy in the scrub, all are employed at stump-jumpers of one kind or another. One sees stump-jumping ploughs, double, treble, and four furrow; scarifiers of all sizes, and harrows the same; and in nearly every instance the maker can point out some particular feature which recommends his article before that of his feilow tradesman. But although it is only some half-dozen years since tbe stump-jumper became thoroughly known, so rapid has been the improvements that it seems scarcely possible that much more can be achieved in that timee. At

ARTHURTON.

There was nothing in the way of improvements to strike the eye, with the exception of the new roads that have been completed through the town ___ a thing that was much needed, especially in winter. Host Scott still flourishes as the central figure, and maintains the character of the all round man of the place. The country around looks exceedingly well___some of the crops being the best we met with during our trip. Coming to

ARDROSSAN

There are unmistakeable signs of activity, the chief feature being Mr C. H. Smith's large agricultural implement factory, in connection with which there is a peculiar interest, as Mr Smith, although his brother claimed the credit for being the inventor of the stump-jumper, was the first one to turn out the implement. He still flourishes as a leading manufacturer, and there is every prospect of his continuing to do so. The inhabitants, with the enterprise that characterises the residents of all the towns, have just completed a large Institute Hall. It is about a year since the undertaking was started, and we learn that the opening ceremony takes place on Wednesday next. Mr Palmer, formerly of Yorketown, is now in posession of the local mill, while the storekeepers generally appear to be busy. Altogether Ardrossan has nothing to complain of. After refreshing ourselves at Mr Kite's well kept hotel we started for

MAITLAND

Which we reached in time for tea. This town has manifested heaps of enterprise, and doubtless has accomplished more than any other town in the colony, in proportion to the number of its inhabitants. The Institute, which cost between two and three thousand pounds, is now nearly out of debt, In this matter the small towns certainly hare shown the larger ones the road, but unfortunately in some cases the lesson has been unheeded. The Maitland hotel has also had the large additions completed since our last visit, and now does much to improve the appearance of that portion of the town. All the local tradesmen, whether manufactures or storekeepers, appear to be busy, and although there is a good deal of "waiting till after harvest" still the majority of farmers and others appear to be on a pretty sound footing. The Corporation has done a lot of work, especially in the matter of improving the footpaths. On Tuesday morning we started for the tower end of the Peninsula, and the morning being fine Yorke Valley presented a grand appearance, with the far stretching wheat fields, and large blocks of pasture dotted over with sleek cattle and horses. Some miles to the southward we arrived at

URANIA,

Where there is at present only a school, and a blacksmith's shop. The former is under the able management of Mr Fox, and we were informed that the school, which is an excellent stone building, was erected by the inhabitants, the land being a gift from Mr Greenelade. The black smithing establishment belongs to Mr Carlaw, whose dialect denotes at once that he hails from north of the Tweed. We were Informed also that a general store is about to be erected; and that after that a post office is to be established. From this to

MOUNT RAT

The crops along the road do not look nearly so well as those of a year ago ; but we were informed that those back in the scrub were an improvement on the ones we saw. Mr Humberstone's hotel is the only building of importance, and this has lately undergone a thorough overhaul, and is now one of the most comfortable and commodious country hotels that can be met with. At

MINLATON

The new post and telegraph office and police station have very much improved the appearance of the place from an architectural point of view. And there are some new buildings in the shape of another butcher's shop and a baking establishment in the course of erection. The tradespeople generally appear to be busily engaged. From this on towards Yorketown the roads have been greatly improved, Several miles off new work hare been completed, and there is only a small patch remaining now to complete the metalling between Minlaton and Yorketown.

YORKETOWN

Still maintains its name for being one of the busiest towns on tbe Peninsula; and this year the crops in the surrounding district look much better than was the case last year. And so far as pasture is concerned we have never seen anything in the colony to surpass it. We next visited

EDITHBURGH

Where those who cater for pleasure seekers are just beginning to prepare for the coming summer.- Already Sultana House has a number, whilst every steamer brings others to the town. There is onlyone thing that the place needs to make it a thorough success, and that is an antidote for sea sickness. If this was once obtained, there is little doubt many who go to the Mount Lofty ranges, would take advantage of the excellent accommodation of every description which the place affords to visitors. After partaking of good cheer with Host Rook, who is well known to all old Peninsulaites, we from there proceeded to

STANSBURY,

Where things, including the jetty, were discovered to be in much the same condition as on the occasion of our former visit. During the interval, however, a very nice little Institute has been crected. and will shortly be opened. From this to Port Vincent the road is fearfully rough; and as the country generally bears a strong resemblance to the road, there is no great probability of an improvement. After a short stay at the port we started for

CURRAMULKA,

One of the most pleasantly situated towns on the Peninsula. As in the parts further down, there is a superabundance of feed everywhere, and the wheat crops also look tolerably well. We were pleased to recognise the face of an old Wallaroo resident, Mr S. Smedley, who has a general store in the town. Messrs Tucker, the largest blackbmithing establishment, are busily engaged in the work of turning out stump-jumpers, and the other business members of the community appear to be in a fair way of doing. The residents have been somewhat unfortunate in the matter of erecting a new Institute. The walls of the building were up, and part of the framework was erected when the archway over the platform collapsed. In a short time afterwards the contractor followed the example set by the arch, and some six months have elapsed without any steps being taken to repair the break and proceed with the work of completion. We were pleased to hear, however, that a meeting has been held and a course of action decided upon, which will lead to carrying out of the work at an early date. There is another thing also that the people want,-vis, a telegraph office. The distance from the main line is only something like eight miles, so that the cost would not be great, and it must be owned that much less prosperous towns have now the advantages which are denied Curramulka. However, the Government have dedicated a piece of land for the purpose, and there is no doubt that if the residents keep the matter stirring their wants in this respect will be attended to.

After a return to Maitland we cut across the country, through Tiparra, to Arthurton were we met with tome of the best crops seen during the whole journey. This land is mullenised, but the work has been done well, and to those who are unacquainted with the system the fields present all tbe appearance of having been well grubbed. Taken as a wbole we think we can say without doubt that the crops on Yorke's Peninsula will give a better return this year than they did last.


THE DEPRESSION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA

Tue 18 May 1886, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

Although the depression has been attributed to almost every unfortunate circumstance that has occurred in the colony, during. the last few years, most writers in the Press and nearly all public speakers addressing themselves to the subject have admitted that the distress in the colony has been heightened by the low price of our staple industries, combined with the partial failure of the harvest....


RABBIT DESTRUCTION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Fri 24 Sep 1886, The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889) Trove

The rabbit extermination party who for the last six or eight months have been working in the hundred of Para Wurlie have been disbanded and most of the members have left for Adelaide with their stores and apparatus....


DOWN THE PENINSULA.

Sat 6 Nov 1886, Wallaroo Times (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1882 - 1888)

Oil Saturday morning last, in connection with a few friends, I started for Maitland via Agery and Arthurton. On the way down the Peninsula we very naturally took a great interest in the appearance of the country, and endeavored to gain, something:; like an idea of the prospects of the approaching harvest. So far as the country immediately surrounding Kadina is concerned it is , generally known that the result of the growing crop will be at least disappointing. There has not been sufficient moisture, and the intervals between the showers have been so long that growth has been greatly retarded. All along for miles the cry of the fields seemed to be water! water ! Between Boor's Plains chapel and Cunliffe things wore a little more cheerful aspect, although there seemed no prospect of a heavy wheat yield. Some of tile crops are a fair height, but as a rule they are so dreadfully dirty that the sooner the mower goes into them the better it will be" for the district. In some cases haymaking is already in full swing, and here and there the cocks of hay are fairly large and numerous. The scrub around Cunliffe is looking quite pretty, the combination of pine and eucalyptus, together with the earth's flowery carpet, making a very charming scene for the lover of the beautiful. Proceeding on as far as Agery a still further improvement is observable. Tiparra has yielded good returns in past years, and this year promises to be no exception to the rule. Much of the land under cultivation this year is perfectly new, and it is a treat to notice the clean, healthy looking crops-on either side. From inquiries made, I found that what we saw might be regarded as a fair sample of the hundred. It is, however, a strange thing to see on one side of the road a magnificent crop, promising heavy returns and on the opposite side, with precisely similar soil, a complete failure. Farmers, of course, differ in the " modus operandi" of tilling generally, and in many eases small results are not at all to be wondered at. However, the soil around here is generally good, and with a good water supply, yields would unquestionably be very heavy. From Agery on to Arthurton, the crops vary considerably, most of them being stunted in growth, and requiring more moisture. From Arthurton to Maitland there is scarcely a good paddock to be seen, exceptit is just on the rising ground, about two miles from Maitland. Most of the country between is covered with dense scrub, and, as I have travelled the road scores of times, by day and night, I safely affirm it to be one of the most monotonous and uninteresting drives I know of. The Government have sunk a splendid dam about half way between the two places, and as it has good catchment surroundings, it will be a great convenience in dry years. But the attempts which have been made at cultivation hereabouts have been sadly disappointing. The land seems to have had a fair trial, a few crops have been tried, each one worse than the former, and now the homes are left untenanted and the lands are again fast being covered with mallee bushes. When, however, you come within a few miles of Maitland, an altogether different scene presents itself ; this town always presents a neat and comfortable appearance, and since its exaltation to a corporate town, the improvements have been of a substantial kind. The streets are wide and well formed, and the town has unsurpassed natural drainage. The Hundred of Maitland has always yielded paying returns. It has always returned the average of the colony, and generally more, and, as a natural result, the farm-houses present an aspect of comfort very rarely seen. This year will be no exception. A few weeks ago many were anxious about the result, but the late splendid rains have completely transformed the appearance of things, and now the farmers speak more hopefully. The York Valley contains a splendid stretch of country which for grass growing can scarcely be excelled. The feed there now is luxuriant, and hundreds more head of stock might here find abundant pasture. The Hundred of Mooloowurtie does not present as hopeful an aspect as we expected to see. In a round of about twenty five miles we did not see one really good crop, and as most of the country is is quite new, this was discouraging. Very little water was to be seen, although we passed some excellent dams, but most of these were open to the sun, and as I am informed on reliable authority that evaporation takes away not less than three feet of water annually, it seems to be a great mistake, which, however, is generally made, to leave them uncovered. The Government have recently made an excellent dam on the Yorketown Road, fourteen feet in depth, and if it can only be once filled it will contain a plentiful supply for a long time. The country in this district is exceedingly suitable for catchment purposes. On the road to Port Victoria there are, as usual, some very likely looking crops. Most of the farmers in this locality are Germans, and they seem to have been specially favored with good crops. In the neighbourhood of Port "Victoria and Point Pearce the returns will be very light. This country never does well except in very wet seasons, and as these have been very rare lately, the farmers have not had a very rosy time of it. The same may be said of the country in the direction of Wauraltee and Mount Rat. On Monday morning we had the opportunity of seeing one of the party who has just returned from the Kimberley Goldfields. Quite a strong company left Maitland some months ago, fully equipped, to try their fortunes there, and already most of them have returned sadder and doubtless wiser men. Some never went as far as the field, and those who did have had to work very hard in a very hot climate for small returns. Mr M. T. Tiddy showed us a nice little nugget which he retained as a memento of the expedition. At the residence of Mr P. Howard, J.P., we had the opportunity of obtaining some information, and witnessing some experiments in the use of the Divining Rod. A good deal of interest has been awakened in this district, and wells are being sunk to test the accuracy of this medium. Mr E. H. Derrington, who has visited the district recently, advocating temperance principles, has been most successful in using the Divining Rod. He has discovered some forty water supplies in the north for farmers, and wherever they have been tested, success has been attained. A farmer near Ardrossan guaranteed Mr Derrington a hundred pounds if by this means he could ensure him a good supply, and he found a spot where it is hoped success will be assured. There are a few local residents who are able to use the rod, and many are anxiously awaiting the tests being made. Several who were present on Monday tried their powers. With me the rod remained quite stationary, but with my wife it operated most successfully. In a few families in this neighborhood, very successful attempts have been made at '' Muscle Reading." We had an opportunity of witnessing some most interesting experiments, and were more man ever convinced that there were very may things of which we had not dreamt of in our philosophy. We returned to Kadina via Weetulta and Moonta. Perhaps the best crop we have seen for the season was near Weetulta.

The scrub country on the way to Moonta .seems to be fast coming under cultivation. In every direction now there seems to be abundance of feed. The Peninsula Road Board, and their excellent superintending Surveyor, Mr Jones, are certainly to be congratulated on the excellence of the roads throughout the District. . ,


ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Saturday 16 November 1889, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

About a week ago. a party left Adelaide for a few days' run on Yorke's Peninsula on various errands bent. It included the Conservator of Forests (Mr. J. E. Brown), whose mission waa to examine various portions of the country with a view to establishing forest reserves and nurseries ; Professor Tate, of the Adelaide University, whose object was to make some geological and botanical researches ; the Inspector of Mines, who wished to inspect the salt lakes and refining works ; Mr. Frederick Wright, who maintains his reputation as an authority on the harvests by a careful tour "round the crops" every year; and a member of the Press who was desirous of inspecting a portion of the colony, viz., the southern end of the Peninsula, which he had not previously visited. The learned Professor soon separated from the rest of the party to pursue his investigations at leisure. The remainder made arrangements to travel together, and only separated on arrival at the mining part of the Peninsula.

Edithburgh was reached after a pleasant run in the steamer Warooka, and here some of the visitors were able to gain some interesting information about an important and rapidly growing industry which has proved a great help to the farmers, who for many years had been, to use an expressive phrase coined on the journey, "eking out, a precarious existence on a calcareous formation." The export trade in eggs, most of which have been sent to Melbourne, has reached very large dimensions. Mr. George Hart, the leading spirit in this and many other enterprises, sent 100,000 dozen eggs to Melbourne last year. He is not the only purchaser, however. The storekeepers also buy from farmers, and place the purchase-money to the credit of the sellers' accounts. Their purchases added to Mr. Hart's exports would probably bring the quantity sent away in 1888 to 160,000 or 170,000 dozen. Mr. Hart has gone into the business in a most systematic way. His vans travel round the district, and take the eggs from the farmers' doors. On arrival at the Edithburgh store they are packed in a most safe and regular way. The cases are all of one size— eight to a ton of measurement— so that there is no waste of freight. Cardboard compartments in the shape of bottomless trays are provided with loose sheets of millboard to go between. Each tray contains eight dozen eggs, and there are seven layers in a case, making fifty-six dozen in each package. The packing is thus very close, and there is seldom any loss from breakages. The cases with their trays are returned after the eggs reach their destination, and go upon their travels time after time. The duty of 2s. per gross recently placed upon eggs by Victoria with a view of promoting a fraternal feeling between the colonies and encouraging a spirit ot federation has diverted a considerable portion of the trade to Sydney, and so far the demand has not slackened. These and other minor industries which are being acclimatized on Southern Yorke's Peninsula are doing much to add to the trade of that district and the comfort and prosperity of its people. Another industry which flourishes in Edithburgh is the export of chaff. Last year was a poor year, as South Australians know to their cost, but about 2,000 tons were sent away. Usually the export is about half as much again, the greater part going to New South Wales and Queensland. Mr. Hart has most complete machinery for the chaffing of hay, and indeed his establishment seems to be a model of management and enterprise. Enquiries were naturally made at Edithburgh as to the state of the crops. The great question at issue was whether rust would assert itself seriously among the crops, and the visitors were able to ask questions of several farmers who had brought their eggs to market. There seemed to be a fear of it, but no certainty that it existed in a bad form. One German agriculturist, who had evidently annexed one of the Englishman's dearest privileges, said that there was rust in his crop, but there "must be something to growl at," and he did not appear to be in much trepidation. At this point it will be convenient to say that the party during their wanderings inspected the crops as far as they could be seen from the main roads in nearly every hundred. From Edithburgh to Yorketown there is not much to be seen in the way of wheat, and the fields under cultivationly did not present a particularly clean appearance. Starting from Yorketown to Warooka an undue prevalence of wild oats, attributed by good authorities to the want of proper fallowing, was noticed. This was particularly remarked upon one section two or three miles from Yorketown, where a very heavy crop was reaped from new land last year; but this season, while promising to yield fairly, the wheat will not run to a high average. Rust was observed in some places. It had attacked the stalk, but the ear was in perfect condition, and there seemed to be no cause for alarm. Towards Warooka the crops improved materially. The land is of better quality, and large areas have been fallowed by some of the more careful farmers. The result is seen in clean well grown fields, which will in many cases, if all goes well during the next week or two, yield fully 15 bushels to the acre. In the township of Warooka there was remarkable evidence of the capacity of the soil. Mr. Keightley, who keeps a store there, is an enthusiast both in gardening and agriculture. He has planted vines, fiuit trees of all kinds, and flowers to a large extent, and has created quite a little paradise around his residence and place of business. An extraordinary sight was a crop of New Zealand white oats, which is growing on an allotment behind his store. It was fully 5 ft. in height, of a most vivid green, and the stalks were more like substantial reeds than anything else. It has been grown entirely without irrigation. The verdict of the visitors was that the crop would make excellent silage, but that it was too strong and big in the stalk for hay. Mr. Keightley will probably allow the crop to ripen, and the result will doubtless be a phenomenal one.

From Warooka the travellers proceeded to Point Turton, and admired the beauties of Hardwicke Bay, on the eastern side of the Peninsula, which would be a most delightful seaside resort for the jaded citizens of Adelaide if it were more accessible. Here the Conservator inspected the Government Reserve, with the object of coming to a decision as to its suitability for forest purposes. The next stage was to Levens, the station of Mr. T. Davidson. This gentleman, like many of his neighbours who have gone over the Border, has discovered that this part of the district is not fit for agriculture, and that it is not suitable for sheep and cattle unless in conjunction with land further from the sea owing to the prevalence of coast disease. He has, however, found it eminently adapted for horses. He has with great enterprise devoted himself to the breeding of carriage horses. His principal sire is Pride of the Hills, a noble animal, descended from the celebrated Talk of the Hills, and he is running about 150 horses upon the lands which he holds under lease from the Crown. Some of the land, which would not grow wheat, has been turned to account by the planting of wattles. One plantation of about 100 acres was started five years ago, and was found to be in such good condition as to earn the warm approval of the Conservator. Another block has been recently planted, and Mr. Davidson will probably extend his operations in this direction considerably, and there is every reason to believe with a profitable result.

From Levens the road led through the Hundred of Parawurlie, where some excellent crops and some good land in fallow were to be seen. Some yields of twenty bushels will probably be heard of here. Rust was seen here as elsewhere, but where it was found upon the stalk it had not penetrated beneath the outer skin, and the heads were full and uninjured. In this and the adjoining Hundred of Coonarie there is a large belt of Crown lands, very rough and stony, and covered with scrub, which Mr. Brown inspected. He was not favourably impressed with it, however, and is not likely to under-take the risk of conducting his operations on such poor country. The course now lay via Warooka to Yorketown, at which most convenient centre all the roads in this part of the district meet. From here the opportunity was taken by the Inspector of Mines to inspect one or two of the numerous salt lakes, which are a remarkable feature of the country. Lake Fowler is the largest, having an area of 1,700 acres, but the visit to this was reserved for a future occasion. Large quantities of salt are obtained from several of the lakes by simply carting the natural crystals from the bed when the water evaporates. At Lake Bookamarray, however, there is an extensive system of manufacture from the salt water. These works were started by Mr. Moseley, and carried on by him for several years. They are now, however, the property of Messrs. Henry Berry & Co., of Adelaide and Melbourne. The water is pumped up into shallow iron vats heated by furnaces, and as the water evaporates the crystals are raked out. The export from this factory alone is about 20 tons a week, and a large amount of labour is indirectly employed in the carting of firewood. There are other extensive works at a lake near Yorketown, on the Stansbury-road, which have been abandoned for some reason, but there is every reason to expect that the industry will increase and become a very considerable one.

Before leaving Yorketown for the more northern parts of the Peninsula some interesting facts as to the crops were gleaned from a resident, who had just returned from a tour among the farms. His verdict was that in the Hundred of Dalrymple the crops generally were good, and he mentioned one that would run to about thirty bushels. There was little rust, and the average for the hundred would probably be about ten bushels, or perhaps more. The whole of the south end of the Peninsula, including Moorowie, Dalrymple, Parawurlie, and Melville, would, in his opinion, be about twelve bushels. The hay crop generally was good, and had not been injured by the late rains. The same gentleman was eloquent as to the beneficial effect which the egg business had had upon the district. The farmers also were now generally keeping sheep, thus improving their land and helping their finances by the sale of the wool.

From Yorketown to Stanabury it was Found that the crops were good, and free from any serious manifestation of disease, premising an excellent result. At Stansbury the principal attraction was the garden and plantations of Mr. Frederiok Wurm, which deserve a much more detailed description than can be given as the result of a very brief visit. Mr. Wurm is a very practical and enterprising colonist, who has, notwithstanding much scepticism, succeeded in proving the capacity of the district for high culture. His garden is situated on the very edge of the sea. It consists principally of a sandy loam full of limestone nodules, but in the gullies the land is richer with more humus. About 100 acres have been planted; On the higher land there are about 4,000 vines and about the same number of olives, as well as 1,000 mulberries, all of which are in a most thriving condition. ln the most sheltered spots about 4,000 fruit- trees, including peach, apricot, lemon, apple, pear, quince, fig, walnut, and plum, have been planted. They have all made vigorous growth. The vines and many of the trees have already been in bearing. It will be remembered that excellent samples of dried fruits and raisins were shown at the Jubilee Exhibition. The young trees are showing signs of a good crop of fruit, notwithstanding their age, and there is every prospect that before long a large and profitable industry will be thoroughly established. Mr. Wurm has also gone in for Forest cultivation on a small scale. He has planted sugar-gums as a breakwind which, notwithstanding the exposed position and the poor soil have made excellent growth for the short time that they have been in the ground. About three miles after leaving Stanabury the traveller enters a belt of scrub lands atill in the hands of the Crown. It runs for about seven miles east and west by six miles north and south. At a point about six miles from Stansbury there is a Government dam. The country surrounding this was carefully examined by the Conservator with a view to its use as a forest reserve. The soil, which is shallow, is chocolate, with a good clay subsoil of a very retentive nature. It is covered with ordinary mallee scrub, and although not attractive to the ordinary selector met with tbe approval of Mr. Brown for his special purpose. It will be now a matter for the Commissioner of Crown Lands to say whether a reserve ehall be established here.

At Minlaton the opinion of well-informed authorities as to the state of the crops was sought. Rust was about in all directions, it was stated. Some alarm had been caused, and some farmers had cut their crops for hay, notwithstanding the prospect of low prices. The disease, however, had not advanced sufficiently to make its ravages a certainty. Barring its further advance the average for the Hundreds of Minlacowie, Koolywurtie, Curramulka, and part of Ramsay would be nine bushels. Some crops might fail, but so far the ear was not affected. The rust, it was stated, was worst on the strong land where there was a redundant growth. A hot wind was blowing at the time of the visit, which would probably lessen the risk of tbe disease spreading. By these informants alao satisfactory evidence was given of the improvement in the state of farming in tbe district. As a result of fallowing the land is cleaner, and the farmers have added to their incomes by keeping sheep and the production of eggs, and in some cases of honey.

Continuing the journey northwards the road passes through good average crops until the beautiful Yorke Valley is reached, where the superior land will tell with advantage upon the average. The worst case of rust seen on the trip was near Mount Rat. The disease had run to the upper stalk, but the heads were quite uninjured, showing not the slightest sign of falling off. On arrival at Maitland enquiries irom the most trustworthy authorities were made. From one gentleman, who had just made a general inspection of the farms in the Hundred of Tipara, it was learned that rust was prevalent in that part. In one caae it would take two bags from a crop which would otherwise have yielded from three to five bags. Other crops were affected, but not seriously injured. In Kilkerran and Wauraltee the crops were too far forward to suffer. The Hundreds of Maitland, Kilkerran, and Wauraltee ought, in the opinion of this well-informed informant, to yield ten bushels to the acre.

From Maitland the road to Moonta via Arthurton was taken, and many good crops as well as many a bounding in wild oats were passed. Exceedingly good results have, according to competent authorities, been achieved in the sandhills between Arthnrton and Moonta. Some land till lately neglected has been taken up, and some of the crops are expected to yield from three to four bags to the acre. On arrival at Moonta the inspection of the crops of Yorke's Peninsula was practically ended. As to the final result everything depends upon the weather during the next few days. So far the rust, although prevalent, has not done serious injury to the crops in general in the hundreds visited. There will be many cases of loss and of consequent hardship ; but except in individual cases a failure of the crop need not be feared unless the weather becomes exceptionally unfavourable.


IN THE MALLEE COUNTRY : No. II. NORTHERN YORKE'S PENLNSULA.

Saturday 10 August 1895, South Australian Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1895) Trove

A little more than a decade ago there was an unbroken stretch of mallee intermingled with, pine, teatree, and thick undergrowth between the coastline of Northern Yorke's Peninsula and the hills which shut out from view the Condowie Plains, but the country has since undergone a complete transformation, and now there is but very little scrub separating the extensive cornfields. South Australia has undoubtedly shown the neighboring colonies what can be done with their mallee lands, and no better example can be found of the pluck and energy of our scrub farmers than in the western parts of the district of Stanley. The small band of pioneers who went into this country to select their land and form their homes had to cut their way through the mallee, but this was only a trivial matter compared with the difficulties which beset them during the first few years of settlement. When the hundreds were opened the country presented a most encouraging appearance, the grass reaching the girths of the horses — the result of a fire two years previous — and many farmers were attracted to the district by the apparent fertility of the soil Camps were formed in all directions, surveys were made, mid from morning till night the axe and the scrub-roller prepared the land for the nest year's seed. It was several years before much impression was made upon the vast stretch of country, and during that time the pioneers endured great hardship. The main difficulty with which they had to contend was the water supply, and in many instances it was necessary to cart it from eight to twelve miles, and in some cases even greater distances. Teams of horses and bullocks were constantly on the unformed roads, and the quantity of water available was often so small that the precious fluid had to be doled out to man and beast with stinted hand. The seasons which followed the opening of the mallee country were very dry, and small crops with a depreciation in the market values of wheat had in many cases a disastrous effect upon those farmers who had a limited supply of capital at their command. Nevertheless they pursued their work with pluck and determination, and when in 1887 water was brought through the hundreds from Beetaloo further settlement was induced, and to-day it is a thriving district.

It is seven years since I visited the locality, and it was therefore with a great deal of curiosity that I purchased a ticket for Bute, the centre of the mallee country. The route now lies through Brinkworth — the junction of the Gladstone and Snowtown line — instead of by way of Kadina, and it was noticeable that the new line of railway has done much towards settlement. Between Balaklava and Brinkworth the crops are making fair progress, and the young plants have that healthy vigorous appearance which bespeaks a prosperous future, providing that nothing of an unforeseen character happens to check their growth. The township of Brinkworth has sprung up rapidly, and with its pretentious hostelry makes quite a creditable display. On the Condowie Plains wheatgrowing and grazing are still the principal occupations of the farmer, and the crops here are also making good progress, while in the neighborhood of Snowtown there is everything at the present time to indicate a good season. A plentiful supply of pasture is to be met with everywhere in the north this year, and on nearing Barunga Gap it was evident that graziers in the vicinity of the hills had not been overlooked by Jupiter Pluvius. Stock generally is in excellent condition, and the well-grassed hillsides look the perfection of sheep country. On passing through the gap an excellent view is obtainable of the mallee, and a slight accident to the engine, which caused a few minutes delay, afforded an opportunity for inspecting the low-lying hind between the hills and the gulf. A change indeed had come over the spirit of the scene, for the unbroken stretch of mallee bad been reduced to a comparatively small area, and there was but little left to associate it with the country of ten years ago. As far as the eye could reach homesteads could be discerned, while extensive plantations of wheat smiled in their winter garb under a genial sun. At Bute the change was even more perceptible, and it took a lusty-Iunged railway official to convince me that it was indeed Bute. Where atone time the '18-mile siding' boasted of its little galvanized-iron store and postoffice combined, it has now a presentable station — although not commensurate with the requirements of the district— and beyond this a large hotel, a temperance hotel, two stores, two churches, a butter factory, and a public school form the centre of a progressive township. This has all followed the laying of the Beetaloo water main through the hundreds, and I could not help recalling a remark an eminent politician made the day before in passing over the plains between Adelaide and Gawler. 'If,' he said, 'the Barossa water scheme had been carried out instead of the one at Happy Valley there would have been no necessity for troubling about any land 100 miles north of the city for many years to come." There was, without doubt, much in what he said, and his remark was made doubly forcible by the great change which has been occasioned by the laying of a single line of pipes through the mallee country on Northern Yorke Peninsula. Settlement at the present time is too scattered, and there can be no doubt but that farmers would do much better on smaller holdings if they were assisted by schemes of water conservation. Our land will grow anything, but we want water.

It was too late when I arrived at Bute to see any of the country, but making an early start on the following morning I drove one through the hundred of Wiltunga. Surrounding the township is a large strip of country which had been reserved, when the hundreds wore thrown open for selection, for travelling stock purposes. This has now been divided up into working men's blocks, and small homesteads are to be encountered on the side of the excellent macadamised road between the township and the Port Broughton-road. Apparently very little has been done up to the present time in regards cultivation on the blocks, and the onJy sign of habitation in some instances was the presence of several pigs and fowls. On reaching the Broughton-road further evidence of progress was forthcoming. Where the waggons at one time dragged up to the axle-bed through mud and slush or sank into the uncut sandhills, there is now a well-formed roadway, and the presence of a cyclist — an indication of civilisation — was a matter of no surprise. The farm land also is improving in appearance, several years of cultivation having robbed the soil of the majority of the mallee stumps, which threw up their shoots yearly and kept the settler busy between seeding and harvest. Many of the earlier cultivated blocks are now almost free from roots, and offer excellent pasture to the 'cookie.' More pretentious dwellings are also springing up, the old dilapidated ' wattle and dab' huts giving place to comfortable stone buildings, which, in view of the depressed condition of the produce markets, speaks well for the Peninsula mallee country for wheat-producing purposes. Some admirable agricultural land is to be met with, but the soil varies to a great extent, and while on one side of a fence a good average crop might readily be looked for year after year with anything like a favorable season, on the other side the country might be practically useless for agricultural purposes. There is very little bad land in the hundred of Wiltunga, but on entering Wokurna the character of the country changes, and high sandhills are encountered in rapid succession. This is very poor wheat land, and grows thin crops. Nearer Port Broughton however, there is again an improvement, and at times some very good crops are reaped, while the same conditions exist in the Tickera scrub. It was noticeable in driving through the hundreds that many farmers had beautified their homesteads by planting fruit and ornamental trees, and whore they had been carefully cultivated they had made wonderful progress. This particularly applies to the garden at Lincolnfields which was laid out by the late Mr. William Malcolm. They were the first fruit-trees planted in the Yorke's Peninsula mallee, and the exceptional growth they have made, combined with the prolific crops yielded, should be a sufficient inducement for more extensive planting. They are growing in a good working loam, resting on a clay subsoil, and during the 12 years they have been planted the apricots have grown into very large trees. The fruit is also large and full flavored and until recently the trees were free from disease, but Mr. Waters, the present proprietor, finds it necessary now to spray for shothole, which has taken a firm hold of some of them. All stone fruits appear to do well at Lincolnfields and the conditions are also congenial to the existence of vines and figs, but the citrus family find both soil and climate too dry. There are also several ether nice gardens in the district, but to ensure success with orchards or vineyards in the mallee country it is necessary to cultivate most thoroughly. The rainfall in itself is insufficient, but the soil is absorptive and retentive, and by constant cultivation it is possible to obtain astonishing results.

It is evidently not the intention of the mallee farmers to have all their eggs in one basket, and if wheat fails they intend to have some other means of replenishing their coffers. With this and in view a butter factory has been started at Bute by Mr. J. H. Barnes, an enterprising resident, and he has been promised the assistance of the farmers in the district. Commencing on a somewhat small scale Mr. Barnes will increase the size of his premises if the support he receives warrants it, and there is every reason to believe that before next season be will have to establish a complete factory. At the present time he receives only 60 or 70 gallons of milk per day, but in a month's time, when there is more nutriment in the grass, this will be increased to 110 or 120 gallons. The milk is subjected to the Babcock tester on its arrival at the factory, and all milk over a certain standard is purchased at 3d. per gallon, while in the case of a deficiency of butter fat the price is reduced. As all of the farmers receive their skim milk back this is a very good price, but Mr. Barnes status that he gets a good market on the Peninsula, and could very easily dispose of 1,000 lb. of butter per week. Since the starting of the factory an effort has been made in the district to improve the standard of the dairy cattle, one farmer having purchased several Ayrshires from Mr. J. K. Angas, so that Mr. Barnes's venture is having a beneficial effect in more than one way. Mr. Barnes is also directing his attention to pig breeding in connection with the factory, and as South Australian pork has been favorably commented upon by London buyers there should be a big opening for the mallee farmer in this direction. In conjunction with Mr. White also he is importing some Indian game into tho colony for the purpose of breeding poultry for export, and already he has a number of valuable Langshans, which have also come into favor greatly during recent years.

A large stack of wheat at Bute evidenced the fact that this is the chief product of the district, and I ascertained that the Farmers' Co-operative Union, are doing good work in marketing the grain. Mr. Yelland, the local representative, informed me that last season the union handled 7,000 bags, and that this year he expected to greatly increase the quantity. All of the farmers, he stated, who passed their wheat through the union were well satisfied.


CYCLING. POPULAR CYCLING TOURS. THE SCENERY AND THE ROADS. NO. IX. YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 4 Dec 1897, Evening Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1869 - 1912) Trove

[By HANDLEBAR.]

To many city cyclists the route represented by this week's sketch will open up new ground, though there are few who have not heard of the splendid roads and the records that have been accomplished on Yorke's Peninsula. From the fact that the winds blow more from the south or across the Peninsula than from the north the beat plan undoubtedly is to cross the Gulf in the Warooka to Edithburg, a matter of 5s., and cycle 1s., and proceed thence to any or all of the places specified in our illustration. Leaving Port Adelaide in fine weather say at 9 a.m., tho rockbound coast and dilapidated jetty of Edithburg are reached in five hours. Then you can ride over a magnificent road for nine and a half miles into Yorketown. By following the telegraph line it is impossible to miss the way. Homesteads are met with all along the route, and here and there salt lakes cause the visitor to meditate upon the strange phenomena. Some of the salt is a foot deep, and presents the appearance of a beautiful silver lake. There are dozens of these within a radius of as many miles of Yorketown, and they are the means of providing employment to a large number of people. If you are not desirous of proceeding further into the boot of the Peninsula the best plan is, of course, to make direct for Minlatou, but if bent on a nice quiet holiday, aud you have a weakness for shells and fishing, Corney Point is to be recommended. This is reached via Warooka which lies on the top of a hill fourteen miles from Yorketown. Theroad to it is really superb. A genial Scot in Host McKenzie studies your comfort, and you will probably feel inclined to stay the evening rather than attempt the additional twenty-three miles to the Point. An early start is recommended for the reason that it will take you to your destination before Old Sol gets too warm in his attentions, for though the country is of an undulating character there are no big hills or shady spots in which to rest. Two miles from Warooka, and at the second cross-road, the route branches off to the right. Leaving the telegraph line to the left, in another four miles you come upon Mrs. Hannay's Orrie Cowie Station, with Mr. Angas Johnson in charge. This gentleman is an authority on cattle, and a generous host. Every few miles the cyclist passes a farmhouse or station, and about fifteen miles out he travels through rather pretty scrub country, with the sheaoak predominating. Further on the road deteriorates, though beyond a patch of sand for 100 yards in two or three places there is nothing to complain about. A drawback to the trip is that, you do not view the sea until " you are actually at the Point, which is rather disappointing to the uninitiated ridey, who wonders when his destination will be reached. He is told to look out for the signboard with " Post-office" printed on it in plain figures, and quite unexpectedly this welcome announcement lashes before him. The building is really a school, however, and in a shed at the back there is a tank of beautifully clear water. With not another house in sight, where all the children come from—for there is a large muster under the wing of an obliging schoolmistress—is a puzzle. The lady will direct the wanderer to the few residences in the immediate neighbourhood—that is, within three or four miles —or, should it be holiday time, the best plan is to take the turn to the left for half a mile, where a windmill and a gate will be noticed. Go through the gate and follow the track for half a mile, which will take you to Mr. Klem's substantial homestead, that is hidden behind a clump of trees. I cannot say too much in favour of this warm-hearted household, all the members of which seem determined to make a visit as enjoyable as possible. There is no hotel at Corney Point, and visitors are compelled to call upon the geneicsity of the residents for a "shake down," which in country parlance means most comfortable quarters. Let me here state that it is unfair to leave without recognising their kindness. Corney Point is one of the coolest places in the colony, for the hot winds that are the terror of the northern parts of the Peninsula lose their effect before reaching this neighbourhood. As an instance I might quote November 10, when there was such a sensation in Adelaide over the heat, and the thermometer registered 106°. At Corney Point it was 92°, and I experienced little inconvenience in exploring the country. Conchologists reap a rich harvest from the beautiful shells found on the beach, which is said to be the only part of the world where a sweet little shell termed the Donax is found. On the beach here, which is three or four miles long, this variety is met with in thousands. The Nautilus also could at one time be found here, but it has disappeared during the last three seasons. To get to the lighthouse a short cut may be taken from Klein's, or one may follow the road past the school above referred to, and through a gate about twenty yards away. The track continues for, say a mile and a half to two miles, over sandy country to the beach and lighthouse. Mr. Webling, the head keeper, courteously explains the manner of working his establishment. It is a grand sensation standing here and watching the sea in its fury, lashing against the rocks, with the wind bowling round and almost strong enough to take you off your feet. To be compelled to live year after year in such a lonely spot is not too pleasant, aud a visit will show strangers how the lighthouse-keepers appreciate good literature. A curiosity near by is an eagle's nest on the rocks, which must have taken years to build. It is nearly 3 ft. high.

Hieing back to Warooka, there is the option of continuing to Yorketown, or taking the rum to the left for a mile, and then to the right tor seventeen miles by the road that leads through Brentwood to Minlaton. You save fourteen miles by the latter route, but if it were twenty miles I should rather go to Yorketown first than plough through the sandhills between Warooka and Brentwood, A more desolate waste I have never crossed. Sand and boulders characterize the eleven miles, and as the place is infested with snakes and adders one does not appreciate tramping mile after mile. It is therefore advisable to get back to Yorketown, and spend a day or two running to Stansbury (fourteen miles) for oysters and fishing, or else make north-west to Minlaton (eighteen miles). This is a busy little township in the midst of a farming district. Mount Rat is the next station, nine and a half miles away, though it would be interesting to know where the mountain is located. From here you can go down to Port Vincent (sixteen miles) via Koolywurtie and Curramulka, or to the opposite side of the Peninsula to Wauraltee, and along to the Mission Station at Point Pearce. Back to Mount Rat again, we so on to Maitland (eighteen miles); which is recognised as the highest point on the Peninsula. Conversing with Host McLeod we soon realized that the good crops on tho Peninsula this season are attributable to artificial manures. Ardrossan lies fourteen miles to the east and Wauraltee the same distance to the west. A description of tho country as " undulating, with magnificent roads" applies to the greater part of the Peninsula, and if there is a wind behind you the amount of ground you cross in a few hours is wonderful, with the monotony relieved by the ups and downs from end to end. Our map shows the distances from town to town, and beyond strongly recommending the run from Maitland to Ardrossan and from the latter place to Arthurton, I must pass on to Moonta and Kadina. Arriving at either of them on a Saturday evening tho visitor is impressed by the size of the places aud the thousands of people whom he meets promenading the principal streets. The shops are brilliantly illuminated, bands of music charm the ear, every one appears to be out, the business establishments drive a merry trade; the Salvation Army is surrounded with a large crowd—in fact the scene is almost comparabie with Adelaide on a Saturday night. Walk round on Sunday morning and you will see a small city with nine buildings and Churches of almost every denomination. Wait until the service commences and you will hear some of the finest music in the colony. Cornishmen are noted for their talents in this direction, and they give them full play in sacred selections. As a boy in Kadina I can well remember how Christmas was celebrated with carols and music., There is no place in the colony, I think, where the festival is move strictly observed than on Yorke's Peninsula. Both Moonta and Kadina boast of extensive suburbs in the mines a mile from each township, and the visitor misses one of the sights of a lifetime if he fails to obtain permission to explore the vast underground workings. In an old suit with a candle stuck with clay in your helmet, there is something novel in being hundreds of fathoms underground midst the copper ore. It is only a journey of ten aud a half miles from Moonta to Kadina, and six miles from Kadina to Wallaroo, the latter place being noted for its gigantic smelting works. Some of the best cycle tracks outside of Adelaide are seen in these towns. Apart from the mining industries, the district is largely interested in farming; and, go where you will, you come across tillers of the soil busily at work. Having got so far, the cyclist can make his way back to town either through the Peninsula again, or on through Port Wakefield, as indicated on our map, which will be completed by showing the route from Adelaide to Port Wakefield. My trip took me from Clare to Kadina via Blyth, Lochiel, and through tho Barunga Range to Paskeville, but the running is so rough from Blyth to Paskeville that it can hardly be classed amongst popular tours. There is practically a main road from Kadina to the city, and excepting sandy patches here and there it is an easy matter to accomplish the journey. The road can hardly be missed by following the telegraph line. Every ten miles or so turns are met, which is of some consideration should the cyclist be unfortunate enough to strike a day when the northern blasts scorch over the plains. The Peninsula trip is, how ever, a capital one, even if only for the purpose of visiting the mining centres.


FROM PASKERVILLE TO EDITHBURGH 1898

Part 1 Friday 17 Jun 1898, Bunyip (Gawler, SA : 1863 - 1954) Trove

By Freelance

The railway from Port Wakefield to Wallaroo Bay is the arbitrary line delineating the northern boundary of Yorke's Peninsula On this line of railway is the prosperous, one-sided, one street of Paskeville.

The district is essentially a wheat growing one. In places the soil is a brown loam, and in others of a cal careous nature. The farm Houses have a neat, cosy, comfortable appearance and proclaim that their fortunate holders have been and are successful tillers of the soil. Paskeville boasts of having alongside of it one of the best farms in the province. On this farm the build ings of stone and iron are substantial and useful, clean, and weli cared for. The land under crop has evidence of most careful cultivation. Here as else where in the district seed drills and commercial fertilisers are winning their way.

We left Paskeville just as the orb of day was peeping o'er the Hummocks on the first Monday in May, with the ther mometer at freezing point, and a thin white sheet o'er the carpet of green, whilst an east wind, keen, editing, and cold, found its way through alt our wraps. Trudging behind a flock of sheep we looked upon Paskeville as a cold, bleak place during the months of winter. As we moved onwards we found the 'cockies' were early at work, ploughing, sowing, or harrowing with the six or seven horse teams. The favorite team appeared to be seven horses and all abreast.

About seven miles out we passed Kaneton and found ourselves on the three-chain track. Kaneton is a one house village. Around here the soil is a rich brown loam, but ascending a rise we are confronted with miles of malilee, with patches of cleared ground between. The arm, the axe, the fire, and the pluck of the settler have cleared off patches of mallee. Bat alas, nature has not been with the settler, and he (the settler) has had to go. All at once we came upon a strip of land richer and more productive, with crops of wheat coming up well. Here in its natural state, untouched by man, the soil grows mallee of larger size and sheaoak of fair proportions.

Reaching the Tipara dam, 13 miles from Paskeville, we camp for the night. At dawn next morning we are once more on the road. A mile or so of steady climbing and the desolate, stunted mallee growing on a calcareous soil confronts us. Again we strike a strip of fairly rich soil, which has grown timber of fair size and now is being cleared and cultivated for wheat grow ing. Here again we notice that the seed drill is in use.

Now we are in Arthurton with its one hotel, one store, and two churches.

Leaving Arthurton we come to two roads, one going to Ardrossan and one to Maitland. Taking the latter we at once enter that desolate, dreary, dwindling mallee. Not being able to procure any bread at Arthurton we decide to try and obtain some at the most promising farm house on our road. But farm houses are few and far between. At last we reach one that has a neat and clean appearance outside and resolve to try and purchase a loaf of the staff of life. We knock at every door, front and back, but in vain ; we cannot make anyone hear, although we can hear sounds from within as of a piano being punished, and as we crawl up the road towards Maitland still those cries of distress from that whipped piano assail our ears.

On a little further we camp for the night, while one of us goes to Maitlaud for bread. The other yards the sheep and prepares the camp and fire for the night's rest. As we sit by that camp fire inhaling the perfume of a grilling chop on the coals and listen to the frizzling sound it emits, we think it sweeter than the shrieking cries of a punished piano.

Again the sun rises and we are on our way towards Maitland. Our in dustrious little drover and canine friend pauses by a wooden slab on the road side. May be she wishes to shed a tear for one of her species departed. Not having yet learned to read the engrav ings on wooden slabs we interpret the meaning thereof for her, and tell her this spot is known as the dog's grave and herein lies interred the remains of a medical man's dog.

The fair, prosperous, well built and well laid out town of Maitland is beside us. As we wend our way on the out skirls of the town we have time to admire the panorama that stretches before us. Close at hand a fair and growing town, with the fertile Yorke valley dotted with homeateads lying beneath and stretching away southwards, to the west farms and farms, and further away a long stretch of white sand hills and sway out beyond Ike beautiful blue waters of Spencer's Gulf lit up by the rays of the early morning's sun.

Around Maitland the homesteads speak of past prosperity, the fields of a hopeful season to come. Fruit growing has been attempted, and for certain varieties with fair success. Apricols, peaches, and grapes do very wall ; they seem to luxuriate in the rich calcareous soils. With first-class agricultural land on either hand we reach the four-mile dam. Water there is plenty, but we cannot get tlie pump to work. Being idle so long, no doubt, it is on strike until its internals are repaired or re placed. Water being a necessity to us and plentiful in the district we moved on to a "cockey's" dam or duckpond, got what we required, and then camped for dinner. Once more on the move we noticed several seed drills at work. In every paddock the farmer was busy. In one we noticed a ten-horse team ploughing (five abreast).

Soon sundown proclaimed another day was done and a cold one it had been, so right glad were we to gather round the camp fire. One knows not what a night might bring forth. When we crept under canvas lor the night the bitterly cold south-east wind had crept away and a clear, cold blue sky spoke of a frost, but 3 a.m. found us crawling out of wet blankets and a driving rain beating down upon us. We smiled, for we knew the rain was for the country's good. Placing a few large mallee roots on the fire we waited events. The dawn brought a chaage, the rain ceased, and mallee rails were praised round a blazing fire. Soon our camp presented the appearance of someone's backyard fence on washing day.



FROM PASKERVILLE TO EDITHBURGH 1898

Part 2 Friday 1 Jul 1898 p4, Bunyip (Gawler, SA : 1863 - 1954) Trove

By Freelance

Another day, and another start. Soon Urania township was passed through. A township of four buildings — a State school, store and post office, blacksmith's shop, and a church. Urania is nine miles from Maitland. The land to the east of Urania, known as the Urania Plain, is a strong and fertile chocolate loam. To the westward and southward limestone predominates, covered with low mallee except where cleared for cereals. Climbing up a slight rise Spencer's Gulf can be seen. All day showers are swiftly flying northwards, driven by a strong southerly wind. The clouds divide. One succession of showers runs up the west coast, and the other up the east coastline, and thus we escape a wetting.

Mount Rat with its State school and accommodation house is reached and passed. To the west and nearer the coast can be seen Wauraltie Township. From Urania until five miles south of Mount Rat the soil is poor calcareous, Jupiter Cluvius has been most consider ate to this dry inferior country by flooding it with copious showers a few weeks since, and in consequence the land wears a verdant smile. One of the oldest settlers informed us that not for nineteen years past have Mount Rat and Wauraltie been blessed with such a fall of rain.

Five miles further on the country has improved. Here we noticed a five-horse team hitched to a plough and being driven by a female, whilst another female was busy harrowing. A little later on we learned that this farm is worked and managed by females, there not being a man on the place! May success crown their labours!

A little later we camp for the night amongst heavy timber, principally peppermint, growing on rich calcareous soil. Next morning the sun rises, but fails to dispel the cold. A few miles through fair agricultural country and we reach Minlaton.

After leaving Minlaton a lady cyclist passes us. We admire the cool way she sits her machine, and make the remark, ' How much more natural, ladylike, and comfortable a lady is on her wheel than most females are on horseback.' By-the-bye, the road from Paskeville to Edithburgh is a splendid one for cyclists ; well-made and in first-class order almost all the way.

Soon the country changes, and for several miles we pass through some of the worst and most useless country to be found in this province.

Reaching Minlacowie Hill we have a most magnificent view of Sonthern Yorke's Peninsula. To the south a forest of sheaoak and ti-tree. To the west Spencer's Gulf with Hardwicke Bay, forming a beautiful curve, ending in Point Turton with its immense flux quarry, with Corney Point behind. Warooka, a village on a hill, can be seen distinctly on a clear day in the distance, south by west. Down a long and gentle slope for two miles and we are on the Lower Peninsula, where sheaoak and ti-tree take the place of the dull, endless, rolling sea of mallee.

As we near Yorketown the farms appear more numerous and smaller in size than in the mallee country. Lakes take the place of the only small good patches of soil amongst the mallee. During the last two or three seasons these lakes have yielded a more profit able harvest than wheat growing.

From the ' city of churches,' Yorke town — it only has seven — to Edithburgh the country is calcareous with numerous lakes thrown in. In most seasons this part grows wonderful crops of grass, and is a good grazing country, but of late years wheat growing has come down to very light yields. Many farmers are hoping that with the use of seed-drills and artificial manures they may again get good yields, and find themselves on the right side of the ledger when their year's accounts are balanced.

Edithburgh, situated on the east side of the Peninsula, has of late years risen in importance owing to the development of the salt industry. It is how ever, provided with a jetty that is too small for the trade. About twenty-five thousand tons of salt are shipped from here each year in addition to wheat, wool, lime, and other farm produce, to say nothing of the imports.

Edithburgh and Yorketown have not shared with the higher Peninsula in a good downpour of rain. Around these places the country is as bare and dry as three mouths ago. The farmers already look on the dark side. The signs of the season are ominous. Another dry year stares them in the face, so say they.

The general impression one gets from a trip down the Peniusula is the advance made in the methods of cultivation of cereals. The use of the seed-drill and manures steadily increases. The more thorough cultivation of the soil is taking the place of the older " scratch it-in-anyhow " styles. The use of the binder and header is increasing, thus making more use of farm produce.

One thing, however, is much neglected by tbe majority of farmers — the cultivation of fruit and vegetables. How many farms are there on Yorke's Peninsula that will not grow vegetables at some season? None. A couple of acres of fruit trees would supply the household with abundance of fruit. Apricots, peaches, and vines do remarkably well, and may not other kinds succeed it tried? If fruit trees are planted too thorough cultivation is impossible, but it must be done at the right time. From practical observation during the past summer the time between seeding and haymaking has proved to be best, and the earlier and oftener the better. The early cultivation absorbs the rain. The later cultivation should be to get a fine tilth on top to retain the winter rains; but, if left until summer advances the moisture is taken away instead of being held in.

By Freelance



OLD TIME MEMORIES.

Tue 25 Oct 1887, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Trove

BLACKS ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

[By Thomas Giles.]

All the country on this side of the Gulf from Cape Jervis to Mount Remarkable was stocked before stations were formed on Yarke's Peninsula. Several sheep farmers had settled at Port Lincoln, and had gone to the expense of shipping sheep there, while Yorke's Peninsula, which was close at hand, remained unoccupied. Two special surveys had been taken out in 1840, one at Port Vincent, and the other at Port Victoria, in Spencer's Gulf. Survey parties were sent out, but after remaining some weeks were withdrawn, as they failed in finding water. The prevailing opinion was that the Peninsula was nearly all a scrub, and it was not till 1846 the country was taken up. Charles Parrington, one of Colonel Light's men, had been ashore there in the early days, and reported to his employer, Mr. A. Weaver, of the South-road, that he was pretty sure he could find him a run there. He was a fearless kind of fellow, and thought nothing of going round overland by himself although the place had a bad name on account of the blacks. He took out a run at Oyster Bay, now known as Stansbury, and very soon afterwards Mr. Bowden, of the Chain of Ponds, applied for the country adjoining, where Yorketown Edithburgb, and Coobowie now stand. Messrs. Coutts & Sharples followed soon afterwards, and the next year I took up the country about Minlaton and Curramulka for Mr. Anstey. It was no easy matter getting sheep round there, as the scrub grew so close to the cliffs that in some places we had to wait for low water to drive the sheep. Mr. Coutts suffered greatly in trying to take his sheep round in the summer, and loss nearly 2,000 by their drinking salt water. We had to travel 100 miles— from the Wakefield to Gum Flat— before we could get a drink of water for our sheep. We sent ours just after they were shorn before the hot weather set in, and fortunately got them round safely. We took a blackboy from the Wakefield with us to act as interpreter, thinking, as a matter of course, that he could talk the language of the natives. We were not long before we found out our mistake, for on the first occasion of our meeting with blacks he could not understand a word they said, giving as a reason—' That fellow stupid. Him Ger man blackfellow.' I selected the best man we had in our employ as overseer. He was an excellent judge of sheep, and, moreover, a determined resolute fellow, just the sort of man for a new country. His name was George Penton, and I never regretted my choice, for a better man we could not possibly have had. He came out in the Rapid with Colonel Light in 1836, and was one of the Colonel's best men. The blacks did not trouble us at first, beyond trying to burn us out when the grass was dry. Penton caught them one day setting it alight, and, by way of punishment, made them break branches off the trees and beat out the fire. He kept them at it until the perspiration fairly rolled off them. I think it must have been nearly twelve months before they made the first onslaught on our sheep. This took place in the neighbourhood of Gum Flat, now called Minlaton. They attacked the sheep herd in the daytime about 2 miles from the station, and drove him away while a number surrounded the flock and helped themselves to the sheep. The shepherd ran to the station at once, and fortunately Penton was at home. He lost no time in getting in the horses, and taking a man with him, they galloped off as fast aa the horses would carry them. It did not take long to find the flock, but as there was not a black to be seen there was nothing for it but to track them. That was not an easy thing to accomplish, for the ground was so dry and hard that it would have been difficult to have tracked cattle or horses, let alone the foot of a blackfellow. However, the scrub was only half a mile away, and as he was pretty sure they would make for it he rode straight there. He knew, too, that the soil was lighter in the scrub, so that blackfellows tracks would be much easier picked up, especially with the weight of sheep on their backs. Accordingly he kept a sharp look out, and was not long before he came on the track of one black, and on getting further into the scrub a second, and so on, till at last there were quite a number of tracks, the blacks following each other in single file. He soon found that the scrub was too thick to follow on horseback, and instead of tying their horses up and the pair of them pursuing the blacks on foot, he gave his horse to the man to hold, and the plucky old fellow went after them singlehanded. He had his short double-barrelled gun with him, and alter walking pretty smartly he came in sight of a blackfellow carrying a sheep. As soon as the native saw him he threw down his burden and ran, and old George after him. He was never very smart on his pins, but had a capital pair of bellows, as he used to say of himself, and after running for a time he found he was over hauling the black. All of a sudden the native stopped to pick up a spear that had been dropped by one of his fellow-countrymen, but before he could throw it Penton dropped him, the ball going right through his neck, and killing him on the spot. He still continued on their track, and soon arrived at their camp, where he found about 20 dead sheep, but the blacks had made themselves scarce. Although the marauders had vanished, they must have gone off in a hurry, as they left all their possessions behind them— waddies, spears, nets, &c. On returning to the station he dispatched the bullock-dray, which brought away all the dead sheep and their various belongings, and made a grand bonfire of the lot. As there was no Police Station on the Peninsula, he went over to Adelaide by the next boat, and reported to the Commissioner what had taken place. Many bushmen came to grief by keeping things of this sort quiet, but he was always straightforward and aboveboard, and it was the best policy too, as he was only doing his duty in protecting his employer's property. The Protector of Aborigines (Mr. Moorhouse) came over soon afterwards to find out from the blacks their version of the story, and admitted to me that it tallied pretty much with Penton's statement. The blacks never gave us any trouble at Gum Flat after that, but when the cold weather came on they attacked one of our shepherds near Hardwicke Bay and brutally murdered the poor fellow. If he had not shown the white feather thev would not have touched him; he had his gun with him. but unfortunately took to flight as soon as he fired it off, and they gave chase and speared him as he run. The savages were not satisfied with killing him, but mangled his body frightfully. After killing the shepherd they drove off a lot of the sheep. As soon as Penton heard of it he followed them with another man, and on coming to where they were encamped he found there were too many to tackle. They had made a brushyard for the sheep, and by the way they handled their spears made it plain that they meant to stick to the sheep. The ringleader was a blackfellow named Williamy, who had been employed at the station all the summer, and had made himself useful ; a second edition of Billy Poole, but Williamy was a much older man. As it was nearly dark Penton deemed it the wiser plan to make for Mr. Sharples' station, which was not far off, where he remained the night. The next morning Messrs. Sharples, Lodwick, and Field started off with him and his man— five in all— and found the blacks still in the same place. A scrimmage ensued, but the natives did not make much of a stand, and soon beat a retreat. One was killed, old Williamy, the ringleader, George Penton having shot him. Of course they had eaten a good many of the sheep, but we got back about 180. Penton came over to Adelaide at once, and reported the occurrence just as he had done before, and stated that he had shot old Walliamy. Another shepherd was killed about this time at Milner Stephen's station. Our men became much alarmed at this, as was but natural, and most of them, brought their flocks in to the head station. Two men who were shepherding at Curramulka ran away and left their flocks in the yards. The hut keeper, however, was of better stuff, and took charge of the sheep after the cowardly men bolted. He was only a lad, too, of about 16 years of age, and moreover a German. On Penton praising him for the pluck he had shown in sticking to the sheep he remarked that he was not frightened of the 'blessed blacks.' None of the other men dreamt of leaving their flocks ; they all brought them in to Gum Flat. I never knew men who had been unmolested leave their sheep before, and it was on a part of the run where the country was open, and blacks rarely came. Penton showed such high courage and determination that he seemed to impart his spirit to the men, and he persuaded them to take their flocks back to their different stations the next day. As soon as I heard what had taken place I engaged other men and went to Yorke's Peninsula with them where I remained for some time. We kept two shepherds to each flock for some months till the blacks quieted down. Three or four police-troopers were sent from Adelaide soon afterwards, and a police station was formed at Moorowie. On their enquiring of the blacks about the last shooting match, a son of Williamy charged Mr. Field with having shot his father. Field was accordingly taken into custody, and committed for trial on the charge of wilful murder. It was proved that be had never fired a shot on the occasion of Williamy's death; indeed, he had no gun with him, and as Penton had already sworn to him having shot Williamy Mr. Field got off. On the boy being asked if it was not Mr. Penton who shot his father he became greatly excited, exclaiming, 'No, no, not Misser Penton, Misser Field.' I could not make out till afterwards how it was that this boy should have been so persistent in charging Mr Field with having shot his father. It appeared that he had been lamb-minding for us, and was caught breaking the legs of the lambs so that they could not follow their mothers, when the blacks would pick them up and walk off with them. Penton threatened if ever he could catch him he would tie him up and give him a sound whipping with his stockwhip. The boy stood in such wholesome dread of Penton, knowing that he would keep his word, that he was frightened to tell the truth, and so brought poor Field into trouble. It was not long before it was found out that it was a native named Tulta who had killed the two shepherds. The police hunted for him high and low for three months, but without success. One day Penton was on the run some 20 miles from home, and came across him with his lubra. He tried to escape at first, but finding the unerring double-barrelled gun unpleasantly close to his head, thought better of it and quietly walked in to the station. Penton then sent off a man on horseback to the police station, which was 20 miles off to let them know that he had taken Tulta prisoner. The black was securely fastened to a post by a bullock-chain, and the men took it in turns to watch him all night, so that he had not a chance to escape. The police arrived the next morning and took charge of him, and in a few days he was safely lodged in the Adelaide Gaol. His lubra stuck to him all the time, and was taken over to Adelaide with him. He remained for some months in gaol, but as there was not sufficient evidence against him, he was set at liberty. He was not long in finding his way home, but from some cause or other he did not live very long. Penton assured me that he was not shot, but he thought the close confinement of the gaol, with possibly the high feeding that establishment was renowned for, had so affected his health that he died in consequence. A shepherd of Mr. Rogers' was killed at Yorke Valley not very long after those I have mentioned, but he was the last white man that met his death at the hands of he blacks. Soon after we settled at Gum Flat I went up the Spencer's Gulf side of the Peninsula with Penton, and we encamped all night at Yorke Valley, near where Maitland now stands. I recollect quite well that it was in the winter, and what a cold frosty night it was. On turning out in the morning we espied a smoke not far off, and after we had had our breakfast we rode to it. We took care to move quietly, and did not speak a word, but could not see the sign of a blackfellow till we got within ten yards of the fire, the smoke being in our faces. All of a sudden a blackfellow jumped up, and such a object of abject terror I never before witnessed. His face, and, indeed, all his body, turned pale — a kind of neutral tint — his hair stood on end, positively 3 inches straight off his head, and he screamed with fright. It is very likely that he had never seen a white man before, and to be so suddenly brought face to face with two on horseback would naturally be rather trying to his nerves. The first thing he did was to make a dash at the fire, out of which he pulled a lizard and an opossum, and with one in each hand he held them towards us for our acceptance. We had, however, had our breakfasts, and as we did not care to deprive him of his, declined the delicacies, the cooking of which had evidently absorbed all his faculties to the exclusion of hearing our approach. We gave him some damper and mutton in return for his politeness, and the poor miserable wretch became somewhat more tranquil. I had often read of a man's hair standing on end with fright, but never put much credence in it. However, seeing is believing. We had no trouble with the blacks after the affair at Hardwicke Bay. They may have stolen a few sheep that had been left out on the run, but did not attempt to take any by force. I never knew an instance of their stealing by night as at Lake Albert. One poor wretch lost his life some three years afterwards, being shot through the head by one of our hutkeepers. I happened to be at the Peninsula at the time, and heard from the hutkeeper what follows :— He was only a lad of about 17 years of age when I engaged him three years previously, and a very clean, smart, tidy fellow he was. I never saw a hut kept cleaner or food better cooked than in his. He had such respectful quiet manners, too, very different from the general run of that class that I was greatly prepossessed in his favour. His antecedents, however, were such as to make one somewhat suspicious, as he bad been educated at Parkhurst, a kind of Reformatory where young criminals are supposed to mend their ways. Our experience of him goes to prove the truth of that proverb ' What is bred in the bone,' &c. Old George always used to shake his head when his name was mentioned and remark that he was a polished young sweep and had too much softsoap about him. What he told us was this:— 'A blackfellow had been employed lambminding, and when he was leaving wanted flour in addition to the tobacco, clothes, &c, he was to get for his services. He was refused, but the black would not take 'no' for an answer, and hung about the place for several hours. At last he came into the hut, and in an excited way said, ' Me must have flour, 'nother one blackfellow tell me you bring 'em. Suppose you no give, me take it.' With that they both made a rush for the gun that was in the corner, and in the struggle it went off and shot the black through the forehead, the ball coming out at the back of his head, and lodging in the doorpost. I saw the place afterwards where the ball was embedded. I told my man to go at once and report the affair to the police, the station only being a few miles from his hut. He did as I advised him, and the policeman who was in charge accompanied him to his hut and buried the body. Before doing so he laid the body across a log and cut its head off with an axe, and took it with him to the station. His reason for doing so was that he found the ball had not entered through the forehead as stated by the hutkeeper, but had found its way out that way, clearly proving that the hutkeeper's statement was false. The bone around the aperture had been driven inwards at the back of the head, and outwards around the hole in the forehead, showing that the native's back must have been to the hutkeeper when he was shot.' The policeman was a 'new chum,' and on being told that he would get into trouble for what he had done, very foolishly took back the head and buried it in the grave by the body. He reported at once to headquarters what had taken place, and was ordered to repair forthwith to Adelaide, and bring the hutkeeper with him, and the head of the blackfellow. He had no difficulty in carrying out his instructions as far as the white man was concerned, but the job was to get the head of the blackfellow. He had put it carefully in the grave alongside the body, but to his astonishment on reopening the grave he found it had disappeared. The extraordinary part of the affair was that the hutkeeper could not enlighten him at all, and to all appearance was as astonished as he was. He searched high and low, energetically assisted by the Parkhurst graduate, but it was of no use, and in the end he had to content himaelf with carrying out his instructions as far as the live man was concerned. The hutkeeper was kept a short time in gaol, but as nothing could be proved against him he was set at liberty, and very soon afterwards left the colony. After he was gone I heard no end of stories about him. While he was there our woolshed was burnt down with nearly all the season's clip in it. The men at the station were satisfied that he had been the incendiary, as he was the only man seen in the neighbourhood. They believed his motive was to get the overseer discharged, as he had charged him with breaking into the store. The overseer was a German who had taken Penton's place, Penton having taken the management of the station I bought of Mr. Bowden, now known as Pentonvale. The shepherd at the station he had been at assured me that he poisoned him by giving him strychnine with his food, and it was a great piece of lack that it had not killed him. They had had a quarrel, and by way of puting an end to it he tried to put an end to the shepherd. Penton told me that the young rascal tried to get to windward of him on one occasion, but he bowled him out famously. Rations of flour, tea, and sugar used to be seat round to the stations once a month, and they were expected to last the time, as a liberal allowance was given. One day the hutkeeper came to Gum Flat for an extra supply, and reported to Penton that the natives had robbed his hut and stolen the rations when he was away. He also told Penton that if he would come to the station he would see the tracks of their feet about the hut. Penton had begun to suspect my young gentleman of not being 'all his fancy painted,' and very wisely took a black boy with him to examine the tracks. As soon as they arrived the black boy exclaimed, on seeing the tricks — 'No blackfellow track this one, him whitefellow,' and after giving a close inspection took Penton to a log where the hutkeeper had sat down and taken off his boots, and then tramped about around the hut He showed him too plainly where he had returned to the log and put his boots on again ; indeed, he made it as clear as day that the hutkeeper was the thief and not the natives. The young rascal tried to brazen it out for a time, but the 'cloven hoof' was so clearly visible beside his own footprints that he made a 'virtue of necessity' by confessing that he had made away with the rations himself, and that no blacks had been near the place. It was well that he made a clean breast of it, for he saved a whole skin by so doing, as Penton was as severe to a man that acted ' on the cross' as he was kind to those that acted 'on the square.' It was a pity that he did not pack him off the station there and then, as the blackfellow he killed might have been alive now, and we should have been none the worse for getting the wool off 10,000 sheep that he burnt. Four years after I received a letter from this out-and-out young villain, written from another colony. He stated that a report to his prejudice had been circulated in regard to his shooting the blackfellow, and that he would be glad if I would send him a letter exonerating him from blame. He also said in his letter that he was now in a much higher station than when in my service. I did not reply to his letter, as I could not very well give him a character, seeing that there were strong suspicions of his having committed arson, poisoning, burglary, and murder — rather a heavy catalogue of crime for a man under 21 years of age. I can quite fancy that it would not be many years before he reached the most exalted position a man with his proclivities could possibly attain. Penton married soon after these occurences, and continued to manage our stations on the Peninsula as long as he lived. It used to be pleasant to hear him spin yarns about olden times with Colonel Light. No man could possibly have had greater respect for the memory of an old master than he had for the fine old Colonel. He died twenty years afterwards, leaving a widow and four children. Two of the latter, a son and daughter, are still residing on Yorke's Peninsula.


THE EARTHQUAKE.

Fri 26 Sep 1902, Yorke's Peninsula Advertiser (SA : 1878 - 1922)

Several earthquake shocks were felt in various places during Friday, Saturday and Sunday last, but whilst most were not of a serious character, that experienced shortly after 8 o'clock on Friday evening was one of the most severe yet experienced in South Australia. The shock was felt over a large area, buildings shook, furniture and crockery rocked and rattled, and in many places considerable damage was done. Needless to say such experiences caused considerable alarm.

Locally comparatively little damage was done. The walls of several buildings in the town and the mines were cracked. At the Methodist Church the choir was assembled for practice when the shock came, and as the timbers of the roof creaked and cracked with the swaying of the building and the slates rattled, the members had a trying experience. They left the building as quickly as possible, and just as they got out a portion of the stone cross fell fromlthe top of the church and struck the footpath close to one of the members. At All Saints Church the choir had a similar experience, but although it seemed as if the roof was about to collapse no damage resulted.

The shocks seem to have been most severe on Southern Yorke's Peninsula, the township of Warooka and the lighthouses at Troubridge and Corney Point being considerably damaged. At the Troubridge light the vibration caused the lamps to overbalance, and the oil catching fire the lantern and machinery were practically destroyed. The effects of the shock at other Peninsula centres are briefly given below.

Arthurton—Several buildings cracked and pieces of ceiling, fell. People who were in bed dressed and ran out.

Corney Point—The base of the lighthouse was cracked, and the casting which supports the lamp was broken. The head keeper was in the tower at the time, and had a trying experience. The noise of the earthquake was most appalling. Besides the awful noise underground, the iron roofs of the houses sounded as though they were being smashed, and torn by hundreds of hammers, whilst plaster and mortar flew in showers from the walls and ceilings. People stood in speechless horror listening to the awful sounds. Horses galloped wildly about, and birds of all kinds uttered plaintiff eries.

Curramulka—The shock caused quite a panic for a few moments. Dozens of articles were shaken off the shelves in the local store.

Maitland—Windows shook and articles in houses were shifted, but very little damage was done.

Port Victoria—The ground heaved and the buildings were much shaken, and frightened people ran into the streets. Many houses have the walls cracked and portions of the ceiling have fallen. The Albatross, on its way from Port Pirie to Wardang Island was stopped by the shock, the boat heaving as if it had grounded on rocks. The Lurline, from Port Adelaide to Port Victoria, Had a similar experience.

Port Vincent—Several buildings were cracked.

Minlaton—The floors seemed to rise right up, pictures flopped about, the water swished in the tanks and did not settle for many minutes. Very little damage was done in the town, but out outside farmers complain of damaged walls, and some underground tanks will suffer. A young man and a lad had a narrow escape. They were sitting by a wall, and had just moved when a portion of the gable wall crashed down where they had been sitting.

Port Lincoln—There was great consternation amongst the residents. Most houses are more or less, damaged, particularly on the direct line of the earthquake. The institute front wall is cracked from floor to ceiling. Much piaster is down in the Anglican church and the Methodist church is also damaged. Chimneys vibrated like reeds.

Port Wakefield —The houses were shaken to their foundations, and chairs danced en the floor. The people were greatly startled and every body rushed out of doors.

Stansbury—A concert was being given in the Institute, when the shock dislodged a portion of the ceiling ornament which fell and smashed the large central lamp, leaving the people in darkness. In the rush for the door one old lady was thrown down, but escaped with a black eye, while three others fainted. In a little more than a quarter of an hour the concert was proceeded with. The ketch Fleetwing was loading at the fluxworks, and though there was more than six feet of water beneath her, she appeared to bump on the ground twice. The Adonis was coming from Kangaroo Island at the time, skipping through the rough sea at the rate of eight knots, but was brought to a sudden stop. The shock was so great that the skipper feared he had run into a derelict.

Warooka—Only one building in the township escaped damage, that being the structure formerly used as a lock up, but now being utilised by the local schoolmaster as a storage room. Women and children rushed screaming into the street, cows bellowed, horses stampeded as if mad, and altogether the scene was one of indescribable noise and confusion. The buildings shook violently, pictures and ornaments being hurled to the floor, and it seemed as though the whole township would be destroyed. There were several narrow escapes. Hardly a chimney was left standing. The residents preferred not to return to their homes that night, and lit a bonfire on a vacant space in the town, where they remained till the following morning. Many camped out again on Saturday night.

Wallaroo—Some ceilings were damaged and walls cracked. Over 300 children were attending a singing practice at the Methodist Church at the time, and all rushed off the high platform for the door. It was a wonder that no one was hurt. Yorketcown—Both hotels in the town suffered through falling pictures and plaster. The Wesleyan Church wan badly cracked, and the English Church suffered. Tanks in some instances are leaking, and in private houses large cracks are visible in the walls.


ON YORKE'S PENINSULA. SOME OF THE INDUSTRIES.

Monday 3 November 1902, Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Trove

During a recent visit to Yorke's Peninsula, it was my privilege to meet many persons who were qualified to impart information regarding local or general matters of interest to the community. There is a good deal of activity in various directions; prospectors are searching for phosphates, as a valuable prize is offered by the Government. The original discoverer of the indications, which caused such a flutter in commercial circles a few months ago, is confident that he will eventually be rewarded. In other directions mineral deposits are attracting attention; copper, of course, is the predominating metal, for which so many have searched in vain. At Stansbury, however, a better outlook is presented in the form of limeworks, which now occupy a prominent position on the seawall, within a few yards of the jetty. Five years ago Mr. Pitt, so long and favourably known as a fruitgrower and gardener near Payneham, decided to extend his business operations by embarking into lime and cement manufacturing, and for that purpose secured the present site with a view of erecting necessary works and kilns. The enterprise succeeded from the first, and before Iong Stansbury lime was sought after by builders. At the present time the works cover an acre of ground, on which are erected sheds and machinery of approved patterns, and every facility is afforded to the employes to carry on the various branches incidental to the treatment of the bulk stone till it emerges as lime ready for building purposes. The firm is now making lime and shipping it to Adelaide at the rate of 1,500 bags per week. Mr. Pitt, jun., the manager, designed the plans of all the machinery and buildings in connection with the Stansbury works, and personally superintended the erection. About 15 hands are regularly engaged, but during the busy season many more are taken on. The material used is procured from the surrounding district, and Peninsula stone cannot be beaten for lime. It is the intention of this firm to increase operations and works at an early date.

Vinegrowing, which was begun with enthusiasm a few years ago, has for some unaccountable reason suffered a decline. Along the road from Ardrossan to Maitland there are several vineyards of limited extent, which have at various seasons produced good crops; but, although to all appearances the vines are well cared for and looking healthy enough, there is no doubt the owners have given up viticulture as a source of revenue. It has been stated that a mistake was made in planting the varieties now growing, and that the fruit was not suitable for winemaking, and that vignerons had a promise from a leading Adelaide winemaker which has not been kept.

Poultry rearing with bacon curing, as well as butter making, is steadily becoming an important feature of well-conducted farms. It is astonishing to hear the enormous number of eggs that are yearly exchanged for stores or sold outright to country storekeepers. Thousands of pounds worth of eggs are sent from the Peninsula, and the full benefits of this new branch of bussiness has not by any means yet been realized.

It is always pleasing to see stock about a farm, and yet more so to observe many sections throughout the Peninsula fairly well stocked with sheep. There are a large number of small flocks on Yorke's Peninsula.

—Progressive Show Societies —

At Maitland the annual show was held on the twenty-fifth anniversary of its inauguration, and in order to celebrate the auspicious event the committee decided to erect a new building on the showground. As the Government have granted the society a block of ten acres, which has been fenced with 6-ft. galvanized iron at a cost of £250, a new exhibition building was the next best thing, and so the present edifice came to light. It is substantially built of wood and iron, 100 ft. x 40 ft., lofty in height, and well ventilated. The southern end is flanked by two towers 18 ft square, with a balcony 18 ft. x 20, running between. This is easily divided, providing an inside, and outside space. There is nothing imposing about the structure, but it is a very serviceable addition to the society's, property. Mr. W. J. Phillips, of Moonta, supplied the plans and superintended the erection. With a continuance of assistance from the enthusiastic working committee, Mr. J. O. Tiddy should put up a further record next season.

The Minlaton Society also had considerable improvements to report, the most important of which was the completion of a 5-ft. stone wall completely encompassing the 10-acre section, recently granted the society by the Government. Handsome iron gates, attached to pillars, have also been fixed, and a new pavilion provided for the band. These works have caused an outlay of £700 odd, and there is still much more to be consummated before the energetic secretary (Mr. D. G. Teichelmann) will be content. The amount given in prizes this year was £250, but the returns were sufficiently in excess of last year to warrant the secretary in stating that a record had been secured. Mr. Teichelmann has controlled the destinies of this society for 16 consecutive years, and is still as keen as ever on its success. Born in Kensington. South Australia, in 1846, he is a son of the first Lutheran minister to arrive in this state— the late Rev. C. G. Teichelmann. Mr. Teichelmann has been engaged in farming and grazing pursuits in the Minlaton district for 28 years. He is fortunate in being supported by a strong and enthusiastic committee of ladies and gentlemen. The local band of 18 performers, under the conductorship of Mr. D. McKenzic, occupied the new pavilion on show day, and contributed a number of musical selections in a very creditable manner.

—Personal.—

The spiritual welfare of the district is in he hands of the Revs. Beaumont, of Yorketown (Church of England), W. W. Wylie Wesleyan). Father Murphy, of Yorketowe, Roman Catholic), and Mr. Bungay, who is temporarily in charge of the Baptist Chapel.

Mr. J. A. O'Brien, the postmaster, devotes what little leisure he can afford from official duties to stockrearing, and is a good judge of horses its well as a breeder. In cooperation with several other residents, he takes a lively interest in local affairts, social and otherwise.

During my stay in Yorketown, Dr. Davies showed me the new building, which is to be utilized as an hospital by any one requiring medical attendance and treatment. It consists of two large rooms, divided by a commodious hall. Each room— 21 ft. x 14 ft. — will contain three beds, and will be under the direct control and supervision of a certificated nurse. A room is provided at the back of the hall, from which, by means of windows the attendant can keep an eye on the movements of patients. At the end of the allotment a mortuary has been erected, which will prove a great convenience to medical men, should occasion arise for it. When all necessary work is completed, the hospital and outbuildings will form an important addition to the institutions of the Peninsula. The cost, which will be borne by public subscription (with-out Government subsidy), will probably run into £400. Of this amount nearly £300 has been collected, so that there is no anxiety felt in that direction. A Iocal commiitee will be formed to act as trustees, and otherwise direct the business of the new hospital. The local medico, Dr. Davies, is a leading spirit in all matter of social and public importance, and is a thorough, sportsman. He is a stanch supporter of the rifle club, of which he is an active and prominent member. Mr. Riddle (the Mayor) is an old resident, and deeply interested in the towns progress. He is one of the leading business men of the district. Messrs. 0. G. Rechner, Erichsen, McFarlane, Woods, Marston, Wilkinson, Rohrig, and Russell each conduct flourishing establishments in their respective lines, and speak hopefully of a return of prosperity to Yorketown. The two hotels are well managed and prospering, under the proprietorship of Mr. Daymond (Yorketown Hotel), and Mr. G. Stocking (Melville Hotel). This district is well supplied with local news, per mediumship of two weeklies, published by Mr. Wilkinson and Mr. McFarlane respectively.

At Edithburg there is a growing demand far accommodation during the summer season, and in order to provide for future contingencies local hotelkeepers are commencing to add to their present buildings. The run across the gulf and invigorating atmosphere in this district is gradually becoming known to holidaymakers who are averse to long sea voyages. Owing to the lack of accommodation, however, very few visitors, compared to years past, now make tbe trip. Perhaps the effort to remedy this matter may be successful in regaining public patronage and confidence.

—Port Vincent. —

Port Vincent was unusually busy on the day of my visit, as the Ceres was running on an excursion trip with visitors bound for the Minlaton Show. The idea is new, but in view of the fact that nearly 80 passengers availed themselves of the opportunity of cheap fares to visit their friends across the gulf, the experiment should be worth repeating. There is little news to report in reference to this pretty seaside resort, the principal exports from here being wheat and wool. There are only a few houses, but the hotel is in every way superior to most places of accommodation in the country. The district council controlling this port has recently expended several hundred pounds in the erection of a pretentious looking wharf— still incomplete — but, judging from the appearance of the structure at low tide, it strikes one that for purposes of utility it might serve its purpose almost as well in the middle of the township. There has apparently been some miscalculation as to tide waters, with the result that unless dredging alongside the wharf for a few feet can be carried on, the latest addition to Port Vincent's harbour accommodation will remain practically useless.


YORKE'S PENINSULA,

Sat 23 Apr 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

South Australia has a few attractive health resorts more popular than Edithburg, which is situated on the eastern shore of Southern Yorke's Peninsula. The trip is easily made in a few hours by the S.S. Warooka, whose genial skipper is Capt. Henderson, who for many years successfully piloted the James Comrie across the find to Kangaroo Island.

-Edithburg-

Edithburg, which Is in the Hundred of Melville- the first hundred surveyed and gazetted under the regulations of the Strangways Act, in the early seventies- was named after Lady Edith Fergusson, the wife of Sir James Fergusson, formerly Governor of South Australia, and streets in the town derived their nomenclature from the Christian names of other members of the viceregal family. In the early days of its history Edithburg was principally known as a pleasant rendezvous for holiday makers and health seekers, but the past decade has witnessed a great change in the tide of affairs, and at present the port of Edithburgh claims to be one of the principal shipping places in this state.

-The Salt Industry- -Valuable Salt Lakes-

The discovery that awaited development within a few miles of the town was speedily followed by a period of industrial activity and commercial enterprise on the part or Messrs. Henry Berry & Co., who were the pioneers in the opening up and development of the salt industry on the peninsula.

It is due in a marked degree to the action of this firm that success has attended the efforts to secure recognition and markets for South Australian salt. Certainly salt manufacture has been responsible for reviving trade and establishing on a sound footing at least two towns on the Peninsula-Yorketown and Edithburg. The lakes whence the greater portion of the crude material is derived are situated within an area of a few miles of the former town, and the bulk of the business is derived from persons engaged in connection with the industry. Yorketown, formerly known as Weaver's flat, has a flourishing agricultural district to support its '"salt" trade; but Edithburg is not so favourably situated, and depends almost entirely, on the industry for its success. At present three refineries are working. The Castle Salt Company has a huge factory and enormous stacking sheds on the seawall, equipped with elaborate machinery for the treatment of salt until it emerges in the form of a splendid sample of household commodity. The works, are fitted with electricity throughout, and annually treat for export something like from 35,000 to 40,000 tone. Employment is necessarily provided, all the year round for a large number of hands, and the growing demand for the South Australian article promises remunerative occupation for a much larger number of employes. Mr. C. Allen is the secretary of the company and Mr. W. Baker manager of the works. Mr. Jordan is the general superintendent of works on the lakes and shipping manager. In close proximity are the Colonial Salt Company, 'which are also on an extehsive scale, and fitted with all necessary machinery. The annual output of this company, which is of comparatively recent establishment, is from 10,000 to 12,000 tons, which is mostly shipped to the Australian States and New Zealand. A splendid sample is produced, and increasing demand is a proof of the popularity of the Colonial Company's brands. Fourteen men are regularly employed at these works, and probably 40 to 50 are supplied with work during the season at the lakes. This number does not include carters. Mr. Wylie is the secretary, with office in Adelaide, and Mr. G. F. Benson is the resident manager.

The Standard Salt Company, which is under the general management of Mr, W. J. Daly, with Mr. Butt as practical superintendent, does not cater for the finer description of salt trade, but finds a ready demand for material used by curers and tanners. Comprehensively speaking, the industry is conducted on a scale of magnitude quite unknown to the greater majority of South Australians, and there is no doubt that the operations of these companies as manufacturers and shippers are an important factor in the commercial life of the state.

-Wanted, Better Accommodation.-

Increased accommodation for vessels is needed at this port, and greater inducement would be given to visitors if another jetty for passenger traffic were erected. It is absolutely dangerous to use the present structure during the busy season of loading, and, considering the splendid income derived by the Government from the jetty now available, it is contended that they could well afford to provide adequate accommodation for the traffic. Recently two dolphins _ were erected, one on each side of the jetty, for convenience of visiting craft, and even this addition has proved of service.

-Municipal Government.-

The town is controlled by a corporate body, composed of Mr. F. T. Gluyas (Mayor) and Crs. J. H. Hentsehke, G. F. Benson, W. Baker, and B. Rose, and the clerk (Mr. A. H. Miller). Mr. P. W. Allen occupies the position of poet, telegraph, and harbour master, Mr. B. Denton is school master and hon. secretary of the institute, and Mr. DeC. Ireland is in charge of the police department. A branch of the Bank of Adelaide is open for business bi-weekly, conducted by the Yorketown office.

-Valuable Products.-

Mr. G. Hart, an old resident, and largely interested in Edithburg commercial life, is the managing director of the Yorke's Peninsula Fertilizing Company, which is manufacturing a marketable article well adapted for agricultural requirements, iarge quantities of seed and floury gypsum are also exported by Mr. Hart to the other states and New Zealand, and recently trial shipments to Colombo have been successful. About 2,000 tons per annum is the average output of tihe material, of which limitless quantities are available at Lake Fowler. Mr. W. J. Hart is secretary of the Fertilizing Company. The enterprise of Mr. G. Hart has led him to embark, with a few Adelaide business men, in extensive operations at Taranaki, NewZealand, where promising oil fields are now in process of development, the sample of crude material in the possession of Mr. Hart, brought from the works, was tested in my presence, and appeared to be highly charged with the qualities necessary for the successful production of a marketable oil. An expert from America is on the fields experimenting. The Broken Hill Company are in treaty with Mr. Hart for supplies of gypsum for use in connection with the new Carmichael process for dealing with sulphides, and, if successful, a large impetus will be given to this trade.

-Business Establishments.-

The business interests of Edithburg are in the hands of Messrs. C, S. Robert, T. J. Gluyas, A. Juers & Co., and Mrs. Born, storekeepers; W. Fleetwood and E..Dayey, bakers; R. Bramley, butcher; D. Stephens, Wallace, Batley, and Aseer, blacksmiths, &c J. Oldland, A. Wallace. J. Hentschke, and F. Hancock, fruiterers: C. H. Wallace and Rechner, saddlers; F. Stoneham (Edithburg Family), and C. Calnan (Troubridge), hotel keepers. This town is vastly improved, and could be made much more attractive to tourists and visitors if the corporation could see their way to plant suitable trees along the seawall, and erect shelters for the convenience of the public. At present there is an appearance of neglect and want of enterprise in this direction. Cheap excursion rates by steamers from Saturday to Monday would assist in popularizing this healthful and interesting seaport

-Coobowie.-

This town is at present much in evidence owing to the projected enforcement by the Government of jetty dues on all merchandise and produce handled at the shipping place. There is no jetty, and hitherto all freight was landed and shipped free of taxation. As, however, the town is within the radius fixed by the Customs Department as being amenable to the Act, and it is proposed to collect fees, strenuous efforts are being made to maintain the old order of things by a few residents, and the Commissioner of Crown Lands has promised to visit the spot and give consideration to the views of those interested. Originally the place was known as Salt Creek, but the name was altered when the town was surveyed early in the seventies. The sale of town allotments realized about £1,200. The principal exports are wool and wheat, and most of the merchandise for Yorketown found its way by ketch to Coobowie. The Edith Alice has been at regular trader for many years. Mr. H. T. Hew ton keeps the store formerly conducted by the late Mr. Cornish; Mr 0. Heath is the local shipping agent and wheatbuyer; and Mrs. C. Heath conducts the hotel, which is freely patronised during the season by visitors. The state school is superintended by Mr. J. Pryor; and Miss B. T. Elliott is the postmistress. Coobowie is one of the few watering places along this coast provided with a sandy beach.

-Yorketown-

is about 10 miles inland from Edithburg and Coobowie. By virtue of its location it might aptly be termed Salt Lake City, for on all sides large sheets of salt deposits may be seen by any one who undertakes the trip. Thanks to the courtesy of Mr. Jordan (superintendent of works for the Castle Salt Company) I was enabled to get a glimpse of the larger portion of the area under development, although the season was too far advanced to get a full view of the operations. The season has been rather quiet, owing to the weather, but so far results have been very satisfactory, and stocks on hand, will enable the various companies to fulfil their engagements for the year. The Castle Salt Company hold by far the greater portion of the area available for working, either freehold or leasehold. On Lake Fowler alone, which has a superficial area of 1,260 acres, with a circumference of 10 miles, the deposit in sight is enormous, and Weaver's Lagoon, with an area of 639 acres, is rich. From all appearances there is little prospect of the salt "lodes" being worked out for many years to come.

-Sound Commercial Life.

Consequent on the progress made in the industry, substantiality supplemented by the improvement in agricultural prospects, the town of Yorke is materially benefiting in general trade, and can fairly he included among the few towns in South Australia which maintain their commercial position. The volume of business, however, is well catered for in all branches, and does not warrant an influx of tradespeople in present conditions. Several new residences and business premises have been erected within the last year or two. The hospital is under the able superintendent of Nurse Dickens, and proves an inestimable boon to the district. Dr. H. A. Davies, exMayor of Yorketown, and an enthusiastic supporter of all movements for the well being of the residents and improvement of the town, is the resident medical officer, whose valuable services are ever at the disposal of suffering humanity. The doctor is exceedingly popular on the Peninsula. Mr. Erichsen, the present Mayor, has greatly extended his business premises; Mr. Woods has added a new wing to his store, and completed other improvements; and Mr. Rechner is now carrying on his saddlery business in new premisses on the site of his old shop. Many other improvements have been effected, but the most striking additions to the architect of Yorketown are the large and commanding new Roman Catliolio Church, erected last year on the western side of the town. The edifice is a handsome structure.

-Local Officials.-

The present holders of office in the corporation are:-Mayor Mr. M. Erichsen, Crs. W. Riddle, G. Martin, F. W. Friebe, C. Klem. Q. Young, and J. G. Daymond; Clerk,- E. Stonhouse. The poet and telephmaster is Mr. E. H. Matthews. . E. Dudley is schoolmaster. The institute secretary is Mr, W. Woods, the librarian Mr. S. Gregor, and the police officer M.O. J. G. Buttfield. The Yorketown Rifle Club has Mr. H. Hughes for its secretary, The bandmaster is Mr. W. Russell, and Mr. F. Wood is secretary of the racing club. The Bank of Adelaide is represented by Mr. H. Hughes as manager, with Mr, H. Bamberger as teller. These gentlemen are exceedingly popular in their official and social relations with residents on Yorke's Peninsula. Mr. W. B. Golds worthy is the local solicitor.

-Business Men.-

Most of the business men have resided an the town for a number of years, and the following list is fairly representative:- Chemists, Messrs. J. Marston & Sons; storekeepers. Messrs, M. Erichsen, W. Woods, McFarlane, F. Rourig, J. M. Nagar, and W. Boyce; butcher, F. Graber; bakers, Sampson and Mrs. Fisher: bootmakers, F. W. Friebe and H. W. Hill; saddlers,. O. G. Rechner, Till & McFarlane, blacksmiths, W. Riddle, McFarlane, and Lloyd; plumber, W. Russell; painters, Gordon and McFarlane; fruiterers, H. MacFarlane and Mrs. Fisher. There are two local newspapers published weekly, The Clarion, issued by Mr. MacFarlane. and The Pioneer, by Mr. Wilkinson. The travelling public are well catered for by Mr. J. Scott, an old on the "road"' identity, who provided conveyances, well horsed, for the majority of the "commecials." The hotels are Melville (Mrs. Stockings) and Yorke (Mr. J. G. Desmond).

-Wealth in Eggs.-

Mr. Erichsen incidentally supplied the following figure's in conection with a by-product of the farm:-Average number of eggs purchased by local storekeepers annually, 60,000 dozen £2,500-not a bad result from the poultry in this district. The results from farming are satisfactory, and much improved yields are expected from the district when the Moorowie blockers get fairly under way with their cultivation.

-Closer Settlement.-

The Penton Vale Estate has now about 40 families, in place of a few station hands formerly, and successful results are being secured from the many holdings. The roads about here are fairly good considering the heavy cartage.

-Official Attention, Please.-

The local post office should be rebuilt or extended. Some little time ago an amount of money was voted for much-needed improvements, but unfortunately the matter so far ended there. The inconvenience and annoyance of standing in the blazing sun or pelting rain outside the present shanty are intolerable, and the interior is quite as badly in need of attention as the exterior. The income from this branch and the volume of business entitle the officials as well as the public to more accommodation, and that without delay. One other source of trouble to the majority of Peninsula residents, before the rain, was the scarcity of water-in many places the supply was nearly exhausted, and in others carting had been carried on for some time.


YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 30 Apr 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

(II Travelling Correspondent.)

The run from Yorketown to Warooka, about 14 miles, over fair roads, is devoid of incident. For a portion of the distance the route is through agricultural country in working condition, but nearer Warooka the track passes through indifferent and swampy land, forming port of the old Moorowie Run.

-Small Holdings.-

This property has recently been purchased by the Government, and thrown open for selection in comparatively small holdings. Several families are already settled on their selections, energetically clearing scrub and preparing the son for future operations. There is a diversity of opinion whether the result will compensate holders for their capital and labour; but, in view of the fact that success has attended experiments in other parts of the Peninsula with similar conditions prevailing, there is every possibility of Moorowie proving an acceptable addition to the wheat-producing area of South Australia.

-Warooka.-

The town of Warooka sprang into public notice through the medium of a long-to-beremembered earthquake. Probably no other town or district in the state sustained, a tenth part of the damage experienced by this unpretentious inland town, and residents retain a vivid recollection of the anxious hours spent during the earth tremmors. For many weeks after the great quake many people practically lived out of doors, and there were signs of wreckage everywhere, Now the memory of the calamity is softened by time, and all necessary repairs have been effected. In many instances die result has been beneficial to the architectural appearance of the town, which is not by any means overstocked with palatial edifices. What buildings there are, however, answer the requirements of their occupiers. The town is the last settlement on southern Yorke's Peninsula. West and south there are only a few houses at long intervals. The road continues westerly for 30 miles to Corney Point, which is at the extreme end of a strip of land mostly devoted to sheepfarming.

-Gypsum Works.-

Southwards are the extensive gypsum claims and works conducted by Mr. Hassell, but the route to this locality is rough, and seldom patronised. Telephone communication is maintained with the works from Edithburg and Yorketown, as well as to the hut where the cable connects with Althorpe Lighthouse. To the west of the telephone route is Pondolowie Bay, where the Ethel is now embedded in the sands awaiting removal. The operations at the gypsum claims are conducted on an extensive scale, and every facility is provided for the efficient working of the property. It is stated that large orders for crude gypsum are in hand from Japan, but the war prevents the execution of contracts. So far as this district is concerned otherwise, the only industries are wheatgrowing and sheenfarming, both of which have been attended by fairly good results.

-Local Government.-

The members of the District Council are Crs. G. Brooks (Chairman), G. Fehany. W. Goldsmith, R. McKenzie, and A. Murdoch. Miss O. Groft is post and telegraph mistress, and Mr. T. Cowling is in charge of the state school. Religious affairs are attended to by representatives of the Methodist and Roman Catholic Churches from Yorketown. Business houses are not numerous. Messrs. J. Thomson, and Baker Brothers, storekeepers; D; Ramsay, farmer and hotel keeper- one of the heaviest losers by the earthquake, and resident for a quarter of a century in this town; Way Brothers, coachpainters; A. Koope, blacksmith; and H; Koemecke, chaff merchant. The only apparent cause for complaint at Warooka is the dryness of the season and low price of produce. Point Turton is the nearest shipping place, where considerable traffic is conducted in the form of wheat and flux. The principal industries are wheat growing and farm produce.

Orrie Cowie, for many years in the possession of the late Mrs, Hannay, but now owned by Mr. G. Brooks, is in close proximity to Warooka. The property is utilised as a sheep run.

-Brentwood.-

Brentwood is the nearest town on the west coast of the peninsula, from Warooka, about 10 miles north. There are two or three roads to this locality, but travellers will find it to their advantage to get through via Yorketown, although the distance is much greater. The nearest route is along the sandhills, but the track is heavy and uninteresting. On the other hand, from Yorketown via Lake Sunday good roads and scrub obtain for the whole distance.

-Business at Minlacowie.

In reality Brentwood is Minlacowie. The jetty is close to the township. The volume of business transacted by wheat buyers at Port Minlacowie is yearly steadily increasing. This season over 23,000 bags of wheat have been shipped, and a quantity is still available for export. The transport of this quantity of produce and the importation of fertilizers provide considerable work for teams, most of which are owned by farmers. Vehicles require repairing, and horse shoeing, hence the village blacksmith, Mr. W. Juers, is enabled to secure constant employment for his energy and engage several employes in the fulfilment of his orders. This means again an increase in the consumption of household commodities. which the resident storekeeper, Mr. A. Anderson, finds it a pleasure and profit to provide at his splendidly stocked store, wherein is also the post office. Mr. Anderson is the postmaster. The school children are taught by Miss Middleton, and the religious requirements of the residents are catered for by ministers from Minlaton. The district is strong in athletic talent. Considerable success has attended the local cricket and football clubs for many years. Although small in comparison to other Yorke's Peninsula towns, Brentwood is solid, and the prospects are very encouraging. The only evidence of unemployed on the peninsula is provided by the swagsman, who is frequently a greater tax upon farmers and tradespeople than a small army of aboriginals. Farming is the chief occupation of residents here.

-Clearing the Land.-

Scrub clearing is steadily progressing in all directions on the peninsula, but a vast area has yet to be done in this way before the full benefit is derived from one of the richest tracts of country in the state. It would probably be difficult to secure a section of land in Yorke's Peninsula direct from the Government, but there is no doubt a considerable area of scrubland is held by persons occupying and working other sections on the same line of country. To ensure the commercial success of these districts it is imperative that holders of leases comply with the conditions of their agreements, and either develop the land themselves or allow others to do so. When Moolywurtie and Ramsey Hundreds are under crop a considerable fillip will be given to commerce in the towns adjacent.

-Stansbury and its Jetty.-

Stansbury is one of the oldest ports on this side of the gulf, and certainly the most inconvenient from a shipping point of view. The jetty is constructed in such a position that it is not unusual to see it high and dry at low water. Even with an average high tide those "leviathans of the steamship service," James Comrie and Juno, will not venture too often alongside-they prefer to conduct their business at a safe distance from the "promenade." It has been a source of great inconvenience and annoyance for many years, as trade has steadily increased at this port. However, there is a probability of an improvement. An agitation is proceeding with a view to induce the Government to construct another jetty about half a mile north of the present one. Surveys have been made, and it is stated that the work can be easily carried out at moderate cost. The depth of water at the end of this jetty would permit any of the ordinary gulf traders to go alongside at low tide.

-Producing Interests.-

With the exception of this fly in the Stansbury ointment, matters appear to be pursuing an even course. Several improvements have been effected in connection with business and residential buildings, and steady trade is reported by tradespeople. There are two extensive limekilns in operation. One near the jetty, owned and conducted by Mr. E. Pitt (manager, Mr. A. W. G. Pitt), which is equipped with steam crushing and grading machinery and the other gear necessary in the economic working of this industry. The Brighton Lime Company carry on their work about a mile inland. Both firms employ a number of hands permanently, and produce large quantities of excellent material. Fruitgrowing is an important industry in the vicinity of Stansbury. Mr. H. C. Pitt (who has been farming for over 25 years on the Peninsula) has ; 60 acres planted with vines and fruit trees, from which he annually derives excellent results. Currant and raisin drying is carried on to perfection at the farm, and the goods command a ready sale. Apples appear to thrive to advantage on this soil, and the grower derives fair revenue from them. Mr. P. Anderson and others have planted orchards; Mr. H. Bartlett, formerly M.P, for Yorke's Peninsula, is engaged in these pursuits: but unfortunately the financial results have not adequately compensated the owners for their outlay. Mr. Wurm owns an extensive olive plantation on the road to Port Vincent, where he manufactures an excellent sample of olive oil. There is plenty of scope for this industry in South Australia and the other states.

-Trading Operations.-

Commercially the town is represented by Mr. F. Wurm, general shipping agent and harbour master; Messrs. F. Stacey, C. HeIpenstall, and Sprigg, storekeepers; H. Martin, blacksmith: G. G. Pitt agent and blacksmith: and A. M. Wurm. hotel keeper. Miss Whittam is the postmistress, and Miss Hughes is in charge of the state school. Stansbury is a pleasant place in which to spend a holiday. Two boats are running across to this port, and there is an excellent beach for bathing. Hotel accommodation is much improved. Apart from the industries mentioned farming is the chief occupation.

-To Port Vincent.-

From Stansbury the road to Port Vincent follows the seacoast. Only a narrow strip of land separates the track from the water. Along the route are situated the properties of Messrs. Wurm, Bartlett. and Germein, where are conducted gardening and farming respectively with satisfactory results. These gentlemen are old property holders in the Peninsula. Some years ago I travelled over this road, and have still unpleasant memories of the rough ride in the mail coach. The road then was half sand and half boulders. Since that time an effort appears to have been made to round off the roughness of some of these rocks, but there is still room for improvement. Considering that this is a mail route, and the only thoroughfare to Vincent within reasonable distance, it should be kept in decent condition. Driving through in the dry weather of last week was bad enough the passage after a couple of inches of rain must be too bad for ordinary imagination. There is slight indication on the road that the scrub lands will before long be cleared, but holders are not nearly so keen upon undertaking this work as they might be. A fair quantity of game is still running inland, but rabbits are not plentiful. This may be regarded as a bad sign by some people, but selectors will appreciate the absence of the furry pest.

-A Popular Landlord.-

Port Vincent is still as modest as ever in its commercial attitude, and does not hold out any visible sign of blossoming into a township. A fair quantity of produce passes through this port, but no great alteration will take place until the adjacent scrub lands are under crop. Mr. F. W. Luxmoore is the presiding genius of Vincent, where he has resided for a number of years. In addition to his many interests in the district, he owns the hotel, which is a favourite rendezvous for yachting men during the season. Mr. Luxmoore is one of the most enthusiastic sailers of pleasure craft in the state, and visitors can always rely on a real good time at this quiet nook, away from cares and business.

-Curramulka.-

Jogging along westerly this time, a drive of 32 miles lands the visitor at Curramulka, a small town situated in the centre of a good agricultural area. Here, as in almost all parts of the Peninsula, good crops are the rule. North-east, country is being taken up by men who seem inclined to work it. Three storekeepers Twelftree & Sons, Hutton and Mathews, and T. B. Newlyncater for the district. Messrs. Tucker and Twelftree conduct blacksmithing businesses, and Mr. C. E. Goldfinch is the local wheel wright. Miss Denton is postmistress, and Mr.Griffiths schoolmaster. The hotel is in the possession of Mr. C. Davey.


YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 7 May 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

III.—By a Travelling Correspondent.

The pick of the agricultural country on The Peninsula appears to be compassed by an area extending from Minlaton to Agery, and within these boundaries some of the finest crops produced in South Australia have been grown. Only a few years ago the majority of the farmers were comparatively poor men, who had struggled for years to secure the upper hand against the succession of indifferent harvests. The introduction of fertilizers and better agricultural implements gave an impetus to wheatgrowing, and since that period there has been steady improvement in the condition of the land, and a corresponding improvement in the financial status of those farmers who stuck manfully to their properties, and gave their untiring energy to the development of their sections. Having adopted the new style of cultivation the road to fortune became easier.

—About Minlaton.—

In the vicinity of Minlaton, which is in the Hundred of Minlacowie and County of Ferguson, are several large landholders, who are continually adding to their area under cultivation, and effecting substantial improvements to their homesteads, as well as maintaining a high standard in stock breeding. The quality of the farm horses is especially marked, and the owners take great pride in possessing the best that money can procure. Horses bred on the Peuinsula invariably command high prices when offered for disposal. The town is situated on a plain about midway between the seaboard of St. Vincent and Spencer's Gulfs, and inland 14 miles westerly from Stansbury. Originally the locality was known as Gum Flat. A few stalwart trees now mark the place where station buildings once stood, and this is also the site of a well, which provide water for stock purposes. _ During recent years increased prosperity in production has brought about corresponding improvement in commercial affairs, which is strikingly seen in numerous dwellings and substantial business premises, notably Mr. T. R. Trehearne's extensive store and Mr. D. McKenzie'e saddlery and fodder establishment. Mr. Matthew, gun., has constructed a new shop and bakery, and Mr C. R. Marlow will shortly begin the erection of large workshops and showrooms next to the institute. The residents of the district contemplate the erection of a hospital, while several other additions to the residential capacity of the town and suburbs are in progress. Withal there is no "boom" in agricultural or commercial circles. The progress is simply due to natural expansion of the farming industry, supplemented by a desire by residents to keep well abreast of the times and local requirements.

—Local Government.—

The officers of the District Council of Minlaton are Crs. H. Evan (Chairman), T. Brown, J. McKenzie, A McKenzie, H. Martin, T. Conell, and T. Mahar, The clerk is Mr. J. Williams. The area under their jurisdiction is extensive, and road maintenance makes a heavy onslaught on the council's resources. An improved water supply would prove of great convenience to the townspeople. Banking facilities are afforded by a branch of the Bank of Adelaide, with Mr. C. Wreford as resident manager, Dr. Hart ministers of the physical ailments of the district, and is evidently popular in his new sphere of practice. The institute is well equipped with literature and magazines, and possesses an excellently kept billiard table, which is available for residents at a nomminal fee as club members. Mr. J. D. Maher, the state schoolmaster, is hon, secretary to this useful institution. The postal and telegraph department is presided over by Mr. J. A. O'Brien. M.C. W. King is resident police officer. The Minlaton Agricultral Society is flourishing. It has an enthusiastic executive, of whom Mr. J. Nankiveil (President), Mr. R. A. Ford (treasurer), and Mr. W. G. Teichelmann (secretary} are the leading spirits.

—Trading Operations.—

A satisfactory amount of business is connucted by Messrs, C. Mathews, T. R. Trehearne, T. Odgers, and W. Short, general storekeepers; J. Williams and H. Martin, blacksmiths and implement makers; J. White, Butcher; Tillbrook and Matthews, bakers; C. Zippel, bootmaker; E. Lock and D. McKenzie, saddlers; O. R. Marlow, ironworker, carpenter, and builder. Messrs. VV. & H. Long have the local mill, which has a working capacity of 30 bags of flour per day. Mr. J. Cudmore; one of the largest landholders in this district, has recently retired from the storekeeping business, and erected a substantial residence on his farm.

—Loss of Horses.—

At the time of my visit Veterinary Surgeon Desmond was at Mr. Russ's farm, about three miles south-west of the township, investigating the cause of the death of five valuable draught horses. The result of post-mortem examinations led Mr. Desmond to conclude that the disease was similar to that which played sad havoc with horses in the districts of Hawker and Port Pirie some time ago. Pressure of engagements did not permit Mr. Desmond to thoroughly investigate the matter while at Port Pirie but there is evidently strong necessity for immediate action being taken by the authorities with a view to minimise the risk of lose by stockowners, the majority of whom would be only too glad to pay for authentic information respecting stock diseases and their remedies. The loss of £250 worth of trained farm horses at this period of the season is a serious blow to Mr. Russ. In order to assertain whether the complaint was prevalent among other horse stock in the district, Mr. T. McKenzie, a neighbouring farmer, and Chairman of the local bureau, sacrificed one of his farm horses. The post mortem conducted by Veterinary Surgeon Desmond and Dr. Hart disclosed the fact that similar parasites were present in the internal organs of this animal, although, no symptoms of illness had been manifest. Actions similar to Mr. McKenzie's are worthy of record, as the loss of his horse was the means of furthering scientific knowledge.

—Agricultural Operations.—

Since the recent rainfall farmers are in good spirits, and ploughing or seeding is in progress throughout the district. An other successful season is expected by all concerned, which will enhance the productive record of Minlaton. From Minlaton a beeline is made for Port Victoria via the short cut to Wauraltee. This route, although rough in places, saves several miles travelling. The main road runs through the settlement known as Mount Rat and adjacent to Koolywurtie, and then branches off to the left, eventually passing through Wauraltee. There is, however, a difference of four miles in favour of the first-mentioned road. Farm-houses, surrounded by good land, are passed every few miles, and the waters of Spencer's Gulf are in view throughout. The township of Wauraltee is modest in size a few houses and the state school denote its locality, but shortly business activity may be infused into the settlement by the establishment of a branch store by Mr. Trehearne, a Minlaton tradesman. The post office is at the private residence of Mrs. Mitchell, who acts as postmistress, and Mrs. Dvorak presides at the state school. Farming is the principal industry.

—Port Victoria.—

Eight miles of scrub and sand divide Wauraltee from Port Victoria, which is one of the oldest wheat-shipping ports on the coastline. There is a fairly good jetty here, built on the L-head principle, and at this end a depth of 14 ft. of water is available at low tide. The gulf steamers can easily go alongside, but sailing vessels of high tonnage rarely load at the jetty, preferring to anchor a few fathoms south or west. Wardang Island, which is only a few miles off the mainland, acts as a break to the west and south-westerly breezes.

—Wheat Export.—

This season already four large sailing vessels have loaded wheat at the anchorage, and at least one other craft will take a full load of cereals this month. All these vessels are under orders for Falmouth. The estimated expert of wheat for 1901 from Port Victoria will be 120,000 bags, while fully 2,000 tons of fertilizers will be landed, most of which is manufactured in South Australia by the Adelaide Chemical Company and at Wallaroo. A considerable quantity of flux has been quarried and shipped to Port Pirie from Wardang Island for the Broken Hill Mining Company, but at present operations are being curtailed. Mr. Kerrison is in charge of the works.

—Point Pearce Mission.—

Another object of interest in this dirtrict is the Point Pearce Mission Station, which is under the superintendence of Messrs. Finlayson and Latham. The mission occupies a large tract of country along the sea coast, beginning outside Port Victoria boundary, and comprising about 18,003 acres. The settlement is six miles north of the port, where a large number of aborigines are comfortably housed and kept in employment, principally in the cultivation of their land and sheepbreeding. They are also allowed to accept outside engagements or prosecute any calling tending to prove remunerative and beneficial to themselves and the organization. The mission is stated to be self-supporting, and everything in connection with it is working smoothly and satisfactorily to the gentlemen who are so enthusiastically engaged in the splendid work of educating and housing the natives. The principal local industry is the flourmilling business conducted by Mr. H. S. Hincks, who is now in possession, in succession to the late Mr. Hincks, who established the mill about 20 years ago. Fourteen hands are employed, and the mill has a working capacity of seven bags per day.

—Flour and Salt.—

It is satisfactory to know that increased demand for flour has necessitated machinery working day and night since last November. Supplementary to flourmilling Mr. Hincks has engaged in the salt trade, having secured a lease of a lagoon known as Tomney's Lake, a few miles inland from Port Victoria, from which about 1,400 tons of salt has been scraped this season, and now lies stacked at the lake awaiting treatment. Machinery will be erected at the mill, where Mr. Hincks proposes to manufacture a marketable sample of salt. This movement will give extra employment to a few hands. There is evey indication that this district is reaping its share of the increasing prosperity of the Peninsula.

—Concerning Persons.—

The harbourmaster and collector of tolls is Mr. Dimont. The postmistress is Miss Harper. Schoolmaster, Mr. Berry. Wheat buying is keenly engaged in by Messrs. W. Hardy (John Daring & Son), L. McArdagh (J. Bell & Co.), M. Whitham (Farmers Union), P. Bray (W. R. Cave and Co.), and Mr. Hincks. The domestic requirements of the district are catered for by Mr. R. Sandlands and Miss Hincks, storekeepers; A. Bray, butcher; Miss Sandlands, dressmaker; and Mr. H. Grimes is the proprietor of the Wauraltee Hotel, situated near the jetty.

—Exports of Produce.—

The total exports of produce for this season passing over the jetty will be 140,000 bags of wheat, oats, and barley, and 800 bales of wool, which is carted from Mount Rat, Koolywuitte, Kilkerran, Maitland, and Urania. There is certainly room for improvement in street maintenance and pathmaking in this thriving little port, although the resources of the district council are pretty well taxed in maintaining roads. The revenue from the jetties in some districts should be a welcome addition to their funds. If the district council cannot spend money on making paths at Port Victoria may I suggest to the Superintendent of Public Buildings the advisableness of forming the path outside the post office and causing much-needed repairs to this and other edifices wherein the responsible duties of receiving H. M. mails and conducting the business of the Postal Department are in progress.

—Rising Urania.—

To reach Urania it is necessary to double back over some of the same line of country traversed from Wuraltee, albeit the course is changed slightly to the north east. About eight miles of good country intervenes between the port and Urania, which is just opening into notice, on the main road from Moonta to Yorketown, at the junction of several roads. This locality is held in high estimation by Yorke's Peninsula residents as being productive in every sense of the agricultural term. Most of the settlers for miles round are well endowed with good land and comfortable banking accounts, which are a welcome condition of affairs compared to the old days of five and six bushel crops and poor prices. Verily the introduction of superphosphates has wrought a great transformation on this narrow stretch of unequalled fertility, and the, status of farmers of to-day is a Striking illustration of what science is continually doing towards improving the condition of producers and manufacturers. Land values are yearly increasing; from 10/ per acre many large sections have risen to £3 and £4 per acre. Commerce at Urania is represented by Mr. Pimlott, storekeeper, and Mr. W. Crocker, blacksmith Mrs. Pimlott is postmistress. An assembly hall is available for Meetings and concerts, and the new Methodist Church is a fine addition to the architectural features of this exceedingly pretty little settlement. Farming results have invariably been first class from all the country for many miles around. Seeding operations are now being conducted, and water tanks are well replenished.


YORKE S PENINSULA.

Sat 14 May 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

[IV.—By a Travelling Correspondent.]

The distance from Urania to Maitland, 10 miles, is soon covered on the main road, through undulating country of good quality apparently where clearing has been systematically carried out. Strips of stunted mallee can be seen to the right, but every acre is occupied, and before many years elapse wheatgrowing should be in operation from Spencer's to St. Vincent's Gulfs. Much of the land is heavily encumbered with limestone, which seriously increases the labour and expense of preparing the soil for cultivation. That good results can be secured there is little doubt, so long as judicious manuring and fallowing are adopted. There is ample proof alone in the enhanced values of property throughout the Peninsula, while sections are eagerly snapped up by vigiflant watchers for the golden opportunities of life. Every mile of this road increases in elevation until Yorke Valley is reached, where the altitude is stated to be true highest on the Peninsula.

—Maitland —

The town which is known as Maitland is built on undulating country, thus assuring good drainage, and, if required, excellent facilities for conserving water. So far as rainfall is concerned, the townsfolk have nothing to complain of. This is probably the wettest spot on Vorke's Peninsula, consequently agriculturists are well served with splendid crops. Maitland does not claim any greater distinction than that of being a thriving wheatgrowing district, but, in common with one or two other Peninsula towns, it dearly loves a Mayor. A dual control of district affairs is now the ruling state of Maitland and surrounding country, which is situated in the County of Fergusson, about 27 and a half miles south of Moonta, and 14 miles from Ardrossan. The executive officials of the corporation are:— Mr. Shannon, M.P. (Mayor), Crs. H. Bowden, F. J. Greenbank, J. Tiddy, jun., and W. Noble. The clerk is Mr. T. Hiely. The district council is comprised of the following gentlemen:—Messrs. C. Cane (Chairman), W. Endersby, E. Fox, C. B. Hastings, J. Hill, jun., W. Kanally, H. Lamshed, R. M. Montgomery, J. N. Smith, and J. H. Ware; Mr, F. J. Greenbank is clerk, a position which embraces many minor duties. Mr. H. J. Tossell is the overseer of works for an area of 29 x 27 miles. The lost assessment amounted to £12,595, which is met by the imposition of a 9d. tax. The gross receipts from this source are £472.6/5. So much for the municipal bodies, whose business is conducted in a spirit of amity and enthusiasm by the gentlemen referred to.

—Some Institutions.—

The various religious denominations are well represented. The institute is a commodious building, conducted by the Rev. T. S. Williams (hon. secretary) and Mr. L. J. Broadbent (hon. librarian). Sir. W. Taylor manages the local office of the Union Bank of Australia; Mr. W. H. Gratwick is post and telegraph master; Mr. P. M. Ryan presides at the state school; and Trooper Watson is now in charge of the police department, in succession to M.C. Hillier, transferred. Drs. J. Nicholls and Corr are the resident medical men; while commerce is adequately represented by Messrs. J. O. Tiddy, A. Whitelaw, W. Mullner, and Millhinch Brothers, general storekeepers; W. Oatey and J. Thomas, butchers; J. T. King and W. Schwartz, saddlers; D. P. Breynard and Klopp, carpenters; A. Forbes, ironworker, &c.; E. Major and W. Noble, blacksmiths—(this business has been established only about 12 months. The proprietor was formerly connected with Major & Sons, of Moonta. The present complement of employes is 16, with prospects of an early increase)—and, J. S. McLeod (Maitland) and C. A. Campbell (Yorke valley), hotel keepers. Past results and future prospects are of a satisfactory nature.

—The Road to Ardrossan.—

About a mile from Maitland, on the Ardrossan road, are several well-planted fruit gardens and vineyards, where wine making on a small scale has been conducted by Messrs. Wunnersett & Phillips. The vintage, however, has never been very successful on this side of the gulf. After passing these properties the route is, mostly through scrub, with alternating patches of cleared land. Judging from what can be seen from the road, the country seems to be heavily charged with, limestone,

—Ardrossan Itself.—

The town of Ardrossan is situated close to the sea, in the Hundred of Cunningham, County of Fergusson, distant from Adelaide 45 miles by sea and 96 by road via the Hummocks. Substantial additions have been made by the district council controlling the town to the wharfage and shed accommodation at the jetty, which has proved of great convenience to those who have occasion to make use of it. Some thing like £700 has been expended on this work, but the council derive a splendid revenue from the wharfage dues, which enables efficient maintenance to be observed. There is a daily mail to this seaport alternately by sea and train. The nearest railway station is South Hummocks, on the Moonta line. The estimated exports for the present season, 1903-4, will be 45,000 bags of wheat and 3,000 tons of mallee roots. The imports of general merchandise are extensive, including 1,500 tons of fertilizers,

—A Fine Industry.—

Industrially credit must be given to the local firm of C. H. Smith, agricultural implement makers, now under the management of Mr. C. G. Smith which is the largest establishment of this kind on the Pensnsula. A staff of 50 men are constantly employed at high pressure in executing local and interstate orders for the specialities of the firm. The late Mr. C. H. Smith, who is credited with the invention of the slumpjump plough, began operations here about 26 years ago on a small scale. The works are the mainstay of the town of Ardrossan, Limeburning has been started by Messrs. Cornish & Hogarth, and shortly this firm intend to extend their output in this commodity. These gentlemen are shipping and general commission agents, and are collectors of jetty dues for the district council. The postmistress is Miss L. Wood. The schoolmaster is Mr. N, Opie, and the institute librarian Miss Winter.

—Trading Operations.—

Trade is represented as follows:—Messrs. A. T, West, A. Freeman, and E, J. Barton, storekeepers; Polkinghorne and Baker, fruiterers; C. Cane, butcher; C. H. Smith and J. West, blacksmiths; and Mrs. C. Huckvale (Ardrossan) hotel and Mrs. Turner (Royal) hotel. Phosphate is reported to be plentiful about two miles south of the town. The claims are in the hands of an Adelaide syndicate. Copper mining operations were formerly conducted near Ardrossan. The properties were known as the Parrara and Tiddywiddy respectively. The only prospecting carried on at present is with a view to strike a patch of country which can be developed as a wheat growing claim. Recognising the growing importance of this town, the Commercial Bank of Australia has opened a branch, under the supervision of Mr. Stobie, late of the Balaklava office.

—Dowlingville.—

The next place of call is Dowlingville, about eight miles north-west of Ardrossan, This is essentially a farming district, so that it is not surprising to find only a few houses, one store, a post office (conducted by Mr. Whiittaker), a state school an charge of Mrs. Lewis), and a church. Only a few years ago this country was covered with scrub. Industry and manures have transformed the district considerably.

—Heavy Roads.—

While credit must be given to the district councils responsible for the maintenance of main roads, one's experience of district trades after an inch or two of rain is not the happiest. Man's best friend—his horse—must be studied; hence progress is slow and tedious. Only eight miles separate Dowlingville from Price, but in the circumstances the distance appeared at least half as long again. The latter town is commonly known as Port Price, although the creek which constitutes the port is about a mile away. The shipping locality is known nautically as Wells Creek, and at present dredging operations are in progress.

—Evidence of Prosperity.—

With a view of providing greater facilities for ketches trading to the creek the boats load and unload alongside a wharf. Some idea of the shipping trade of this out-of-the-way port may be gathered from the fact that this season's export will probably total 45,000 bags of wheat, 500 bales of wool, and 600 tons of roots. The latter material is getting scarce in some districts, and prices are likely to advance. However, diminution in quantity of roots means increased tonnage of wheat, which is a great improvement financially to the country. Another evidence of the prosperity of this district is the establishment of an agency of the Commercial Bank of Australia, under the management of Mr. Stobie, of the Ardrossan branch. The following firms are represented at Price, all of which are eager to secure the produce of the farmers:— Messrs. W. Thomas & Co., Mr. F. Mann; Messrs. W. R: Cave & Co., Mr. R. Gardiner; the Farmers' Union, Mr. Jos. Rooney; Messrs. McArtbur & Co., Mr. John Rooney; Adelaide Milling Company and collector of jetty dues, Mr. T. O'Brien; Messrs. J. Bell and Co., Mr. J. McLeay, jun.; and Messrs. J, Darling & Son, Mr. A. T. Sanders. Other business people are:—Mrs. Williams, Messrs. J. Thomas and K. Warmington, storekeepers; D. Born, blacksmith; J. McGrath. friuterer; and A. T. Sanders, saddler. The postmistress is Miss Wyndham, and the schoolmistress Miss Francis. Services are held occasionally by representatives of the Roman Catholic and Methodist Churches.

—Port Clinton—

is the last town on the eastern shore of St. Vincent's Gulf, situated in the Hundred of Clinton. By sea the distance to Port Adelaide is 50 miles. The only communication by this means is by ketch. Overland via Port Wakefield the mileage is about 84. There is a jetty a quarter of a mile long at this spot, but no use has been made of it for shiping purposes. Like many other similar constructions in the two gulfs, there seems to have been a careful avoidance on the part of the surveyors of the deepest and most convenient sites from a shipping point of view, and this is palpably shown by Stansbury, Clinton, and Moonta. Half a mile, or at least a mile, would have made considerable difference in depth of water, and no more expense. To show how little value is placed on the Clinton structure by traders, only recently an offer of £5 by a resident of the district for the whole concern was only blocked in acceptance by the protest of Clinton property holders! Notwitstanding the inconvenience of loading ketches from the seashore by means of wagons, which have to wade several yards through slushy sand, the exports from Port Clinton compare favourably with those of many ports much better circumstanced. During the wheat season an average of 10,000 bags is handled here, and also about 3,000 tons of roots and 300 bales of wool. Not a bad record, considering the smallness of the area tapped by the port of Clinton! The town is unpretentious in appearance, and so far competition in trade has not resulted in an influx of business people. Mr. A. C, Norris is the sole purveyor of the necessities of life and industrial requisites at Clinton, and acting as wheatbuyer and mallee root shipper. Mrs. Rubenicht is postmistress, and Miss Austen attends to the educational requirements of a limited number of scholars. The mail from Ardrossan to South Hummocks passes through Clinton; no one need envy the driver his billet, as the roads in winter are execrable. Even with an inch of rain the bush track is a bog—one can easily, imagine the conditions in midwinter, especially through the swamps which prevail between Clinton and South Hummocks. The Postal Department are evidently keen on having the mails conveyed throughout the country districts at the lowest possible expense, and woe betide the unfortunate contractor who fails to keep contract time! Surely with these stringent conditions prevailing it is only fair and reasonable that the Government should provide decent tracks for the mail route, or insist on local bodies maintaining a good roadway for the convenience of passengers and assistance to mail contractors in keeping their time table,

—Arthurton.—

Having reached the furthest point north of my travelling programme, a course due west is taken with a view of striking Arthurton, which is situated 18 miles north of Moonta, in the Hundred of Clinton, County of Daly. The most convenient seaport is Ardrossan, 15 miles southeast. The members of the present District Council of Clinton, which has its headquarters at Arthurton, are:—Crs. S. Lamshed (Chairman), J. Kenny, O. Foley, Joseph Rooney, J. McLeay. jun., and W. B. Wicks. The clerk is Mr. R. Gardiner. The past few years has witnessed a great improvement in the form of scrub clearing around Arthurton and every year enhances the value of land and adds to the commercial prosperity of the town. Several new residences have been built within recent years. The Roman Catholic Church—a handsome building—and Methodist Church are a credit to the town. The Roman Catholics have erected a large hall for the convenience of parties desirous of holding meetings or conducting social functions of any approved description irrespective of creed. The building is 55 ft. by 25, nicely decorated, and well ventilated. Farming is the mainstay of Arthurton, which has a limited population efficiently catered for by Mr. L. Crosbie, storekeeper and postmaster, and Mr. Robinson. The local smithy is a branch of C. H. Smith's establishment at Ardrossan, and Mr. D. J. Hanahan, an old resident of the district, combines hotelkeeper with agricultural pursuits. Mr. S. A. Keen is the state school master.


YOBKE'S PENINSULA. MINING DISTRICTS.

Sat 21 May 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

[By a Travelling Correspondent.]

Northward from Arthurton the road runs through good, fertile land for nearly the whole of the 18 miles to Moonta, a large area of wheatgrowing country extending from gulf to gulf. The most successful results are obtained to the east and north-east of the main track. About 11 miles south of Moonta is a small settlement known as Agery, but so far no business premises have been established there. Tickera is a thriving agricultural district, whence some of the best yields of the Peninsula have been obtained.

—Thriving Settlements.—

Following the main road several large sections were observed well stocked with sheep. The majority of the animals were healthy-looking, with lambs at foot, revelling in abundant feed, although the long spell of dry, hot weather had deprived the grass of much nutriment. Recent rains, however, have remedied the deficiency in this direction, and young grass is now springing up, which will materially assist the flocks in recovering their condition. Water is plentiful, and generally , the prospects for wheatgrowers and skeepbreeders so far are very cheering. Seeding was in full swing, and farmers had recovered from the attack of depression occasioned by the dry weather of a few weeks previous.

—The Copper Mines.—

North-westerly for a mile or two further and soon huge volumes of smoke denote the district possessing the famous mines, which are the principal source of prosperity at the northern end of the Peninsula. For many miles in all directions the country is held under mineral leases, and, with the exception of the corporate town of Moonta and its immediate environs, the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Company hold the principal lights conceded under the Mining Act. The magnitude of this company's operations and the enormous area in process of development astonish fhe visitor. Notwithstanding the fluctuation of the copper market and the depression which has from time to time so seriously affected the copper industry, the progressive policy of the company has contineud without intermission year after year, and while organizations in America and elsewhere have found it, necessary to suspend operations the Peninsula mines have well maintained their position, and thereby assured the existence of a large number of business houses in Moonta, Wallaroo, and Kadina, the three chief towns. The two firstnamed are essentially mining centres. Kadina has the dual advantage of being in close proximity to the Wallaroo Mines, and of being the most convenient centre of business for a large number of farmers, who make it their commercial depot. It is easy to forecast the disaster which would overtake Moonta and Wallaroo should the mines cease operations, as probably 20,000 people practically depend upon these works for their means of livelihood and business income. Judging from appearances and information received from reliable sources there is little danger of such a calamity occurring. Instead of curtailing expenditure the principal mining company is energetically extending its development programme both on the surface and underground on the several properties, and large sums of money are to be expended in the erection of new machinery and plant at the Wallaroo property, where only recently great loss was sustained through, the disastrous fire. The reports from this property are of a satisfactory character; the danger from any further outbreak is considered to have been reduced to a minimum. All operations in the affected quarter have been suspended for the time, and preparations are in progress for sinking another shaft vertically, in order to connect with the old shaft at the 145-fm. level. Machinery is being erected at this site, which will relieve the pressure on present working plant. The work of sinking Young's shaft is steadily progressing. The present depth attained is 205 fm., but an additional 40 fm. will soon be available for working. Notwithstanding the temporary stoppage of operations owing to the fire at Taylor's shaft and consequent inconvenience, there is no appearance of inactivity. Every effort apparently is being directed with a view to add to the productive capacity of the property. There is no doubt of the loyalty of tbe employes to the company, and as matters now stand, satisfactory relations exist between employer and employe.

—What the Industry Means.—

The Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Company pays £15,000 monthly in wages, employs 2,206 persons, and conducts operations over an area of 4,120 acres held under mineral lease. The present approximate value of plant and machinery at Moonta and Wallaroo is estimated at £255,317, and dividends have been paid by the amalgamated company to date amounting to £216,000. Truly, a wonderful record for any company, and specially gratifying to South Australians. The extent of country where these huge works are situated and grand results are being secured, forms but a small portion of the state's mineral possessions; this area is, however, phenomenally rich in copper. It was on the Wallaroo and Moonta Company's property that Ryan, the shepherd, while feeding his flock, discovered the indication of mineral wealth. The country was then held by the late Sir W. W. Hughes as a sheeprun. In addition to the big mine, there are several properties on this line of country which have from time to time been energetically worked.

Other Mines.—

One of the oldest, but now deserted mines, was. the Karkarilla, south of the abovementioned properties, and within the boundary of the lease held by the Hamley Mining Company. The Karkarilla was worked for several years. At present active development is proceeding at the Hamley Mine, under the management of Capt, W, Hollands, who was formerly connected with the Moonta and Wallaroo Company, but joined the Hamley 23 years ago. He has held his present position as general manager for 3 and a half years, during which period many important improvements have been effected and new country has been opened up. As a result of recent prospecting a lode of excellent material has been discovered, of good percentage. Every effort is being made to ensure success on this property at a minimum of expense. At one period, of the mine's existence over 300 men were employed, but the present staff numbers 74, who are regularly engaged. It is nearly 20 years since this company paid dividends. All the proceeds of sales have been devoted during that long spell to the development of the mine. Capt. Hollands is pleased with the prospects, and hopes in the near future to be able to recommend the payment of a long-deferred but welcome dividend. Other properties working are the Paramatta and Yelta Mines, now under the management of Capt. Leigh Hancock, brother of Mr. H, R. Hancock, of the Wallaroo and Moonta Company. These properties are held by a French syndicate, which supplies the capital for maintenance and development. Energetic measures are being adopted at each mine with a view to thoroughly test the value of the various lodes, and also secure satisfactory results from the mineral to hand. Additional machinery is in course of constuction at the Yelta property, which will enable the manager to extend his operations. The syndicate is represented at Moonta and Adelaide. The Mid-Moonta is shut down, and one or two smaller properties are evidently deserted.

—Rent Free.—

When mining operations were started in these districts the land was covered with scrub, and miners pitched their camps where most convenient. The course then adopted has been followed ever since, and consequently there is an utter lack of conformity or regularity either about the architecture of the residences or the alignment of streets. All the residential structures have been erected by the owners at their own expense and risk. Under the regulations of the Mining Act no rent can be charged by the holders of mineral leases; They are rent free; the only liability is a nominal sum for water conveniences. Many of the residences are substantially built and surrounded by trimly kept gardens, but uncertainty of employment and tenure has prevented many from embellishing their dwellings. The Local Board of Health exercises jurisdiction over the mining area, otherwise the dwellers thereon are untramelled in any way. Religious and educational institutions are provided, also an excellent library and reading room, the funds for which are secured by a weekly payment of 3d. deducted from the weekly wages of every man and boy employed on the mines. The approaches to the mines, situated about 14 miles from the town, have been planted with trees, which are making good progress, The main thoroughfares are in excellent condition, and communication is obtained by means of horse traincars, which run to East Moonta through the mines and to Hamley at reasonable fares. At the mines is a capital band rotunda, erected by the Model Band committee from funds secured by the musical efforts of the members. The bandmaster is Mr. Bargwanna. The state school at East Moonta is conducted by Mr. R. Llewellyn, and Mrs. C. R. Thornber is in charge of the mines post office. The regulations which apply to dwelling houses also prohibit the establishment of business premises on mineral leases, consequently all the trading is done either at Moonta, Wallaroo, or Kadina. There is no hotel or place of refreshment on these properties. The population at the mines is given as 5,000.

—The Town of Moonta.—

To supply the wants of such a large number of busy workers and their numerous families there arrived in rapid succession wise men from the east, west, north, and south, who pitched their tents or shanties on bocks of land which had been reserved for such purposes on the western side of the scene of mining operations. The locality, which is known the wide world over as Moonta, has grown in importance proportionately to the progress and celebrity of the famous mines which bear the same name. From shanty to mansion is but a brief transitory stage for some men, and so it proved with this bustling town. For many years after success bad been assured on the mining fields extensive business was done at this place, but over supply of accommodation soon brought matters to a level, and at the present time commercial affairs at Moonta could be greatly improved upon. However, those who elected to stick to the town through all its varied stages of prosperity and depression are no better nor worse off than those who have acted similarly in other business centres, and possibly there is less grumbling in the centre of Copperopolis to-day than in Adelaide over the condition of trade. Of the town itself it can truthfully be said it is one of the largest, cleanest, and liveliest in South Australia. The area covered by the residential and business portion is 120 acres, with an additional 120 acres of park lands devoted to various recreative and practical purposes. Moonta is situated at the terminus of the railway line from Adelaide, which passes through Kadina and Wallaroo, in the Hundred of Wallaroo and County of Daly. The distance by rail from this metropolis is 135 miles, and by road 100 miles. It is a corporate town, with a population approaching 2,000, and under the present control of the following corporate body:—Mayor, Mr. W. H. Goldswortliy; Councillors, A. J. Jarrett, J. J. Richard. J. H. Bennett, W. Jones, J. J. Trezema, F. J. K. Trenerry, and W. Chappell, jun.; clerk. Mr. W. J. Phillips; overseer of works, Mr. J. Fiveash. The latest assessment is stated at £9.000. An efficient water supply is provided at a reasonable rate from Beetaloo.

—Treeplanting.—

There is an excellent reserve on the southern boundary of the town, forming part of the Moonta Company's mineral lease, and on this ground, about 10 acres, treeplanting has been energetically and systematically carried on by a committee of residents. Gum, pine, and sheaoak are flourishing in place of the unpicturesque mallee scrub, paths have been made, fences erected, and a substantial band rotunda has been planed in a suitable position. Seats and an ornamental fountain testify to the enthusiasm of the ladies and gentlemen who originally controlled the affairs of Victoria Park, and collected subscriptions for the carrying out of the improvements. The committee recently handed over control of the park to the corporation, which intends to continue the good work of maintenance and treeplanting. Another pleasing feature is Queen's square, opposite the institute, which separates the western business end of George street from the residential portion. Only a few years ago this reserve was treeless, and an eyesore to the town. It is now a pleasant, well-timbered resort for old and young—especially the latter. In the centre an ornamental flower and grass plot suronnds a large fountain (presented by the late Mr. C. Drew), and seats are distributed along the various paths. Arboriculture has a firm grip on Moonta residents, and evidences abound of the vast improvements effected in this direction during the past few years. The control of this important movement is in the hands of the following gentlemen, who have already distributed hundreds of trees along the various roads leading from the town:—Mr. H. Lipson Hancock (President). Drs. E. L. Archer and T. James. Messrs. T. H. Cock, S. B. Page, H. W. Uffindell. J. H. Thomas, D. Archibald, T. Fantson, F. Hancock, J. Sanders, S. Sampson, J. Pearce, and G. H. Richardson, and Capt Cowling.

—Some Institutions —

The institute building is large and commodious, affording ample accommodation for concerts and theatrical performances in a large hall, having an excellent stage and dressing rooms, scenery, and effects, and illuminated with acetylene gas. The library is furnished with 4,090 volumes of most interesting literature, magazines, and periodicals of almost every description. Reading, chess, and public meeting rooms, and museum are available for members or the public on payment of a small fee. The institution is supported by voluntary donations and membership subscriptions. The committee are most painstaking in their efforts to make the institute a source of pleasure to the residents and a means of education to the young folk. Mr. J. W. Hughes is the hon. secretary, and Mr. J. Bray is caretaker and librarian. During the year 1903 6,800 volumes and 4,200 periodicals were in circulation. A series of lectures and entertainments are being conducted for the winter season. Adjacent to the institute the local fire brigade premises are situated, which contain a one-horse reel and 60 ft. of hose, besides necessary appliances. The accommodation is altogether inadequate, and a suitable station should be at once erected. Foreman J. C. Kellett is in charge. The brigade is composed of three auxiliaries, viz., Messrs. L. and H. Bastian and A J. Jewell, residents of the town. The military is represented by A Company, S.A. Infantry, under the command of Capt. F. Bourne, with the assistance of Lieuts. Phillips and Andrews. The company's band is strong in numbers and excellent in musical production, under the conductorship of Mr. J. H. Thomas, who is also musical director for the orchestra and the Moonta Commonwealth Band. Both these organisations have made their mark in musical circles, and afford considerable pleasure to residents of Moonta and surrounding districts.

—School of Mines.—

The Moonta School of Mines is an excellent institution, conducted on practical lines under the direction of an enthusiastic council of townsmen, and favoured with the instructorship of leading mining experts on the Peninsula. There are no resident or permanently appointed professors— all the instruction is given by gentlemen, holding responsible positions, and eminently qualified to conduct the various classes assigned to them. The membership roll is steadily increasing, and yearly the results are most gratifying to the council and satisfactory to the students. The building is commodious and well ventilated, and well equipped with the latest adjuncts to scientific experiment and study. A large lecture hall is supplemented by several smaller classrooms. _ The laboratory is well stocked with chemicals and materials, and appliances for practical metallurgv are supplied. Students pay a nominal fee for the privilege of membership. The Government contributed £289 towards the building, and give an annual donation of £720 towards the general fund. Salaries are paid to the instructors, but a vast amount of valuable education is imparted for which no renumeration can be given. The executive of the school is composed of:—Dr. T. James (President). Messrs. H. L. Hancock, A.M.I.C.E. (Lon.), J. Symons, H. W. Uflindell, H. R. Hancock, and R. Haining, Capt. E. Cowling, and Mr. J. W. Hughes (secretary). The instructors are:—Messrs. G. J. Rogers, A.H.C.S., L. G. Hancock, M.A.I.M.E., H. Pomroy, E. F. Blatchford, A.I.E.E., E. Martin, G. H. Richardson, A. L. Brown, and F. Potter The good work which is being accomplished by these gentlemen cannot be over-estimated, and there is every prospect of the results proving of value to the mining community.

—Industries.—

A considerable share of the industrial element of the town is provided by the Adelaide Milling Company, which annually mills 4,000 tons of flour, principally consumed in South Australia. Mr. J. S. Lord is the local manager. The Moonta Gas Company, Which is a limited company, supplies illumination to those desirous of utilizing this boon. The directors are Messrs. H. Martin (Chairman), G. Emerson, aud E. Beythien, and ; the secretary Mr. D. Archibald. Mr. E. Major conducts an extensive coachbuilding and general smithy business, providing employment for 15 hands.

—Official and Professional.—

Mr. T. J. S. O'Halloran, S.M., presides at the local Courthouse at regular sessions; Mr. W. 0. Bennett is Clerk of the Court, Mr. F. J. Gillen is post and telegraph master—an old and valued servant of the state —assisted by a competent and courteous staff. MR. J. G. Y. Risby is stationmaster. Mr. J. J. Stephens is state schoolmaster, Sgt. Dean (late of Gawler) is police officer, with a constable as assistant. Judging, however, by past and present records, the policeman's lot in Moonta is a happy one. Considering the large population in and around this town it is remarkable how few cases of inebriety or disorderly conduct are reported. Peace and goodwill are apparently the watchwords of these industrial, thrifty people. The list of gentlemen engaged in professional occupation is not extensive, and probably comprise—Drs. T. James and E. L. Archer- Messrs. J. W.

Hughes, manager of the National Bank of Australia; R. Haining, manager of the Union Bank of Australia; H. W. Uffindell and S. R. Page, solicitors; J. Symons (late Moody, Prance, and Symons) and D. Archibald (established 1881), auctioneers and land agents; J. H. Thomas, general commission and shipping agent and local representative of the Adelaide Steamship Company. These gentlemen are old residents in Moonta.

—Religious.—

Religious denominations are strongly represented as follow:—Church of England, All Saints, Rev. J. Bulteel; Methodist, Rev. Brian Wibberley; Roman Catholic, from Kadina; Salvation Army, with large substantial barracks. Adj. Wyatt; Church, of Christ, Pastor Moffatt. Good support is accorded to each place of worship.

—Commerce.—

The roll of tradespeople is too formidable to publish in extenso, but in justice to the pioneers of commerce at Moonta and others who have shuck to their guns through good and bad times mention will be made of the following who occupy premises in the main streets:—Early Arrivals—Messrs. H. Martin, G. Emerson, J. Williams, Roach & Son, J. Snell. W. Cowling, W. Chappell, J. H. Bennett, A. Grummet, E. Beythien, E. Whitford, S. Hill, J. Beaglehole, sen., E. Major, W. H. Goldswortby. A. Giesecke, T. Marshall, R. Ralph, W. C. Rowe, R. White. R. Learmond, and G. Stocker. The later arrivals include Donaldson & Andrews, T. Cock. J. J. Rickard, J. J. Trezona, J. Brown, J. Wilson, Williams & Co., Barlow and Co., John Hunter & Co., F.B.C., Wertheim, Singer Company, J. Beaglehole. jun, R. Watson, R. Penrose, J. London, F. A. Gurner, A. Tresize, R. E. Rowe, E. Trenenry. A. J. Jarrett, Verco, Lang, Bauer, J. Luscombe, A. J. Jewell, F. Davev, and Mesaames Herbert Fisher, Bastian, Bleeze, and Miss Lutz. This list is probably incomplete, but is as nearly correct as the writer could ascertain, Mr. J. Jeffrey conducts an extensive carrying business, and hotel accommodation is provided by Mrs. Schroeder (Royal), J. Huddy (Moonta), Addicoat (Globe), E. O. Beckmans (Prince of Wales), and Miners' Arms,

—Friendly and Other Societies.—

The numerous societies and lodges, with large membership, are in a flourishing position. Several of the organizations possess properties where they hold meetings, notably the Freemasons and Druids. The former body has a well-decorated and appointed hall on Blanche terrace, and the Druids recently purchased the old Church of England premises in Ryan street, which have been renovated and extended to meet lodge requirements. Mr. J. Trathen is the secretary.

—Newspapers.—

Local journalism is represented by The Y.P. Advertiser, owned and printed by Mr. W. J. Phillips, and The People's Weekly, owned and printed by Messrs. J. T. Hicks and R. J. Hughes. The former is published on Fridays and the latter on Saturdays. Each publication devotes considerable space to district matters, and receives fair support from residents,

—General Trading Operations.—

The condition of business is fair to medium—there is plenty of room for improvement. Large and up-to-date stocks are carried by most of the firms trading, and prices compare favourably all round with those of city houses. There is always a prospect of better times aindad, and Moonta tradespeople are richly endowed with patience and hope.

—Attention, Please.—

Some matters require attention by heads of departments in Adelaide, both in justice to the important town and as a convenience to the general public, viz., the erection without delay of a 5 or 6 ton crane at the goods platform at Moonta, and the removal of the packing ease now used as a station, and a first-class edifice created in its place. The present structure is a disgrace to the Railway Department and an insult to the town. There is neither room for the discharge of official duties, nor proper accommodation for travellers. Passengers have to climb up or down from the carriages as well as they can, and it is marvellous how accidents are averted. The town is entitled to more consideration both in this respect and with regard to the vehicle-destroying tramway lines, which are laid through the principal thoroughfare of Moonta. Several serious accidents have occurred lately. Another matter which attracts the attention of visitors is the absence of illumination in the principal streets. Only one or two lamps are in use throughout the large area encompassed in the corporation boundary, and on dark nights the difficulty of perambulating the town its great. Residents probably get used to this condition of affairs, but it is not eredifcabZe to such an important trading centre, and does not impress visitors favourably. Let there be more light, Mr. Mayor, and as soon as possible.

—Moonta Bay.—

Although Moonta is sometimes described as Land's End, there is still another settlement to be prospected before the waters of Spencer's Gulf raise a barrier to further progression. About two and a half miles westerly, approached by a one-horse tram car —or by a good road, is the port of Moonta. At this seaport—one of the places where the port ought, not to be—there is a jetty, an hotel (conducted by Miss North way), and a store owned by Mr. Retallick. The principal source of revenue for the few residents of the watering place is fishing, which has been conducted by Messrs. Simms & Sons, Johnson Brothers, Wiseman, and J. J. Kemp & Son for many yeans with more or less success. The hauls are packed and trained direct from the boats to Melbourne, where good prices are always obtainable. Small quantities only are availlable for local or Adelaide consumption, and judging by the comfortable quarters owned by those engaged in the industry and their general prosperity the occupation is well worth following. The Simms family own a fleet of boats, and live at a settlement of their own, known as Simms's Cove. Mr. Doorne acts as harbourmaster and traffic manager at Moonta Bay. The s.s. Ferret calls once a week, when general merchandise, averaging 80 tons per trip, is landed for Moonta requirements. Port Hughes was the most suitable place for a port, but fate or other influences decided otherwise. About eight miles west of the jetty the Tipara Lighthouse is a prominent feature. This useful guide to mariners is built on one of the reefs which are more plentiful than appreciable in Spencer's Gulf. The structure is enuipped with a splendid revolving light of great power and brilliancy. Beyond Port Hughes the bold outline of Cape Elizabeth is plainly discernible. The coastline is continually broken by the occurrence of numerous bays. There is an excellent beach for many miiles southerly. Port Hughes would be an ideal locality for summer residence, but so far the only dwellings are those occupied by the fishermen. At some future period this may be tlhie site of palatial residences built and occupied by the magnates of Moonta.


YOBKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 11 Jun 1904,Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

[VI.—By a Travelling Correspondent.]

WALLAROO AND KADINA.

A certain amount of friendly rivalry exists between the three towns which may be included in these notes as forming part of Yorke's Peninsula. Each town hes good grounds for claiming supremacy as a commercial centre, but, taking all things into consideration, the honours seem fairiy well divided. Wallaroo has certainly the distinction of possessing one of the finest harbours and jetties in South Australia, from which an immense quantity of produce is shipped annually. By virtue of convenience and natural position the port of Wallaroo has been selected as the seaport whence nearly all the grain grown in adjacent districts is loaded for foreign markets, and during the busy wheatbuying and shipping season there is no finer sight than the stacks of wheat which completely fill the large reserve in the centre of the town of Wallaroo. The railways from Adelaide and Brinkworth to Moonta pass through the town, and within a few hundred yards of the jetty, and therefore, in the absence of more picturesque scenery, one's eye can, at the season mentioned, feast on heaps of wealth awaiting transport to lands beyond the seas. I was informed by good authority that the quantity of wheat received at and dispatched from Port Wallaroo this season—which practically means dating the past six months—will total nearly 400,000 bags. Already 13 vessels have sailed with full cargoes, and several others were at the port loading. Shipping facilities have been much improved since the jetty extension.

—Port Wallaroo and Wheat Export-.—

It is only during the past decade that there has been such an increase in production, but even with this fact staring them in the face the Government were reluctant to grant the necessary extension of the jetty and improve the harbourage. Perseverance on the part of a few enthusiastic Wallaroo townsmen eventually secured the required concession, with the result that Port Wallaroo now possesses a safe harbour and a jetty, 2,105 ft. long, capable of accommodating seven ocean vessels. The additional 500 ft. was constructed in 1902— not a day too soon for the increased traffic. The income from this source must be a handsome tribute to the Treasury. Capt. White is the resident harbourmaster.

—Various lndustres.—

Apart from this pleasing feature of the commercial prosperity of Wallaroo, there are several other important factors—the Wallaroo and Moonta. Company's vast smelting works, which are probably unexcelled for general construction and equipment ; the same company's sulphuric acid works, equally prominent and ably conducted; and in close proximity to these famous establishments, the large premises constructed by the Wallaroo Phosphate Company for the manufacture of fertilizers occupies a considerable area.

—Fertilizers.—

The operations of the smelting and sulphuric acid works were decently described in the columns of The Register; but in view of the importance just now of fertilizing, a few facts regarding the phosphate industry may be interesting. The present company began manufacturing high-grade superphosphate at Wallaroo in September, 1901, selecting this locality in consequence of its nearness to a convenient seaport, and also in consideration of the facilities afforded by the railway as a medium for distributing the superphosphate over a large area of agricultural country at a low rate of carliage. The company hare a branch line to the works, where the manure is loaded direct into the docks, and shunting is unnecessary. There is also a line of communication from the works to the jetty. Increased demand for their product encouraged the phosphate company to extend their buildings and machinery. The necessary additions were completed in September, 1902. The quality of the material is highly commended, and farmers are yearly finding the advantage of purchasing South Australian fertilizers, which are manufactured with a view of adaptability to the requirements and conditions of the climate. The average annual output is about 8,000 tons, which is sold at £4 2/6 per ton. Owing to the excellence of the product, the company are compelled to limit their manufacture: thus purchasers are advised to pass in their orders early in the season. The industry gives employment to about 50 men. The secretary of the company is Mr. W. Steele, whose office is in Adelaide; and the local manager is Mr. F. W. Brasher.

—The Railway.—

The railway department finds considerable work for the staff engaged; and, generally speaking, the arduous and risky occupation of loading and shunting is efficiently carried out to the satisfaction of the many persons engaged in the shipping business. Mr. J. Henderson, the Superintendent of the North-West Division of the South Australian Railways, is in charge of the traffic, with the valued assistance of Mr. G. Middleton, local stationinaster. There is only a third class station here, without a platform. Surely this part of the country is not visited often by members of parliment! Additional employment is provided by Mr. W. H. May's Wallaroo Ironworks, where large contracts are from time to time executed in the shape of mining and other machinery, including agricultural implements.

—The Town of Wallaroo.—

The towii of Wallnroo is situated almost on the shores of Wallaroo Bay, washed by the waters of Spencer's Gulf, in the Hundred of Wallaroo, County Daly. The population is given as 2,900; but several reductions at the smelting works and mines have caused a temporary fall in the value of household property. Improvements to residential and business premises continue, however, so there cannot be much amiss with the commercial condition of the town. Moreover, the visitor cannot gaze on the noble structure, recently erected by the ratepayers. which is now the municipal headquarters without feeling certain that the town of Wallaroo is making rapid progress. The new town hall is a commanding building, erected near the railway line, and facing the sea. The site chosen is not the most suitable or convenient, but there it is, a striking testimony to the ambitious aspirations of the residents who, having decided to build a new town hall, determined it should eclipse all similar edifices in this or any other country district. There is ample accommodation in this building for municipal offices and several private firms, besides the usual rooms for meetings, and a large hall suitable for theatrical or other entertainments. Elaborate scenery is being painted by Mr. C. Marques, which will add considerably to the attractiveness of the hall. Electric lighting is installed, and in every sense the new building is a credit to the town. Mr. W. Richardson laid the foundation stone on March 26, 1902, in his capacity as Mayor of Wallaroo. Formerly meetings were held and entertainments given in the institute — a conveniently situated building— which was also provided with reading, club, end classrooms. Supported by voluntary subscriptions and membership fees for many years, the ball was eventually handed over to the corporation trustees, but having built a new abode, the executive declined to expend further money on the building, and the present members are in a quandary as to their position with regard to the property. Much expense has been incurred by the institute committee in installing electricity in this building, but the cost must considerably discount the advantage thus gained. The library and reading room are well supplied with books and literature, and are great conveniences to the limited number of members. Mr. J. Malcolm is the President, Mr. J, M. Symons hon. secretary, and Sir. F. G. Robinson librarian.

—Care of the Sick and Suffering.—

Tbe district is fortunate in possessing a hospital, which is excellently situated, overlooking the boy, and comparatively free from the obnoxious fumes which at times sweep down on the town in overwhelming clouds from the chimmey stacks in the vicinity. Medical comforts and attendance can here be secured, with skilful nursing. Dr. W. H .Harbison is the medical man in charge, and Mr. Orwin is the secretary.

-The Town Council.—

The town council is composed of the following:—Mayor, Mr. E, A. Beare; and Crs. G. Chatfield, R. Tonkin, J. D. Phillips, T. Daves, W. Seeley, J. F. Herbert, A. Watts, and W. Price, .jun.; and clerk, Mr. A. Young. The town is partly lit with electricity, which is furnished by the smelting works, and supplied to householders by the corporation at a moderate tariff. The principal streets are in good condition, and the sanitary arrangements as well as can be expected. Attempts have been made to plant trees and shrubs on the reserve, which abuts on the railway line, but it is either due to indifferent cultivation or the strong winds from the sea that the centre of the town is an eyesore to visitors. Only a small plantation of tamarisk trees, which enclose a monument to the late Hon. David Bews, relieves the monotony of the scene. In the absence of cultivation the corporation make a practical use of the reserve as a stone-cracking and general material depot, which, together with the wheatstacks before mentioned, does not add to the beauty of the town.

—Personal.—

Professional and financial positions are filled by the following gentlemen, with credit to the town and, it is to be hoped, benefit to themselves:—Doctor, W. H. Harbison; solicitors, Messrs. E. A. Beare and R. W. Uffindell; auctioneer and land a agent. Mr. J. Malcolm. An agency of the National Bank is conducted from the Kadina branch.

The large wheat buying business of Wallaroo is conducted by J. Malcolm & Co. (Daigety & Co.), W. Price,, jun. (J. Darling and son), G. F. Mills, jun. (S.A. Farmers' Union), T. Davies (W. & A McArthur), E. Champion (W. B. Cave & Co.), and (G. Malcolm (J. Bell & Co.). The bulk of the 400,000 bags previously mentioned is handled by these buyers.

Government positions are held by Messrs. H. G. Watson (post and telegraph master), A. E. Mueller (state schoolmaster), and Sgt. Jamison and two constables uphold the majesty of the law. A residence is provided for offenders at the Wallaroo Gaol, which is presided over by Mr. C. W. Hardy.

—Pioneers.—

The pioneer business men of Wallaroo include Messrs. Mitchell & Tonkin. B. Letheby, W. H. Harris & Son, Turner and Gullidge. T. C. Hockridge, T. Hocking, John Hunter Co., F.B.C., T. D. Nock, G. Chatfield. W. McKee, E. Day, Bowering. A. Chandler, E. & W. Magor, Bates and Earie, Richards, R. Burden, D. McKenzie, W. B. Shaw, and W. Richardson. The complete list of present traders would fill column. There are six hotels—a fairly reliable guide to the condition of affairs in any town—the Globe (Mrs. Burton), Commercial (E. W. Bormeyer). Ship Inn (J Bryden, jun.). Wallaroo (E. Cavanagh), Cornucopia. (F. C. Speed), and Prince of Wales (Mrs. I. Trye).

—Religious and Musical.—

There is a variety of choice in religious denominations—Church of England, Methodist, Presbyterian. Congregational, Church of Christ, and Salvation Army—all cater to to spiritual wants of the district, and the attendances at each place of worship are satisfactory.

The Wallaroo Town Band, under the loadership of Mr. H. May, is making steady progress in musical proficiency.


KADINA.

This wonderfully improved town is a couple of miles from the Wallaroo Mines, and about six from Port Wallaroo. It thus secures the bulk of the trade negotiated with the mining population, in addition to its farming connections. During the past four years the business and residential portions have developed most remarkably. Large, well-built premises now occupy the vacant spaces which occurred at frequent intervals in the main streets, while older buildings have been renovated and enlarged to provide accommodation for the increase in trade. Residential building allotments are at a high premium; and, in order to allow of further construction, it is proposed to petition for right to build on some portion of the park lands. The town of Kadina, which is situated on the railway line to Moonta, about 118 miles from Adelaide, in the County of Daly, is a compact settlement, with a population of 2,000. The total number resident within the boundary of the Hundred of Kadina is estimated at 9,750, including, of course, the Wallaroo Mines. The rateable value of property in this district is £10,240. There are, besides, suburban extensions of the town.

—Officials.—

The officers of the corporation are:— Mayor, Mr. J. Mitchell; Crs. T. A. Southwood. V. P. Kendell, W. Growden, W. H. Rogers, .J. H. Pengelley, W. F. Taylor. W. Symons, and F. Potter; and clerk and overseer of works, Sir. J. M. Inglis. Business is conducted at the town hall, which has recently been extensively repaired and added to. About £250 has been expended on renovation, the money being raised by public subscription. Thanks to the munificence of Mr. D. R. Squibb, a former old resident of Kadina, the town possesses a tower and clock, which will cost over £1,000, and recently the council placed a tablet in position to commemorate the generous gift.

The members of the District Council of Kadina are:—Crs. Paul Roach (chair), Peter Roach, D. Taylor, J. Malcolm, A. Rodda, H. Fuss, T. J. Harris, and J. Tait. clerk, Mr. T. W. Taylor; overseer of works, Mr. D. Smith. Good roads and tree planting are leading features of this council's operations. An excellent band rotunda has been available for entertainment for some years in the reserve facing the post office and town hall. The Government officials are;—Post and telegraph master, Mr. W. A. Allen; state schoolmaster, Mr. F. Fairweather: police officer and clerk of Local Court, Cpl. J. P. Dowling; and station master, Mr. W. Southwood. The institute librarian is Mr. J. M. Inglis; and the Rev. A. K. Chignell (Church of England), Fathers Hourigan and Adamson (Roman Catholic), Rev. A. A. Smith (Taylor Street Methodist), Rev. B. Dorman. (Congregational). and Mr. B. J. Moysey (Church of Christ), conduct religious services.

—Athletic and Racing Clubs.

The Kadina and Wallaroo Jockey Club (secretary, Mr. J. Willshire), the football club (secretary, Mr. J. Birtles), cricket club (secretary, Mr. A. Dodd), and several other athletic bodies provide excellent recreation for the population. Mr. H. Woolcock is conductor of the Federal Band.

—Professional.—

There are two banking establishments— National, Mr. J. S, Brook, manager; and Union, Mr. G. Hamilton. Drs. H. A. Powell and H. R. Letcher are the resident medical practitioners; Messrs. H. W. Uffindell (of Moonta), E. A. Beare. and R. J. D. Mallan, are soliestans; Mr. J. Cornelius is local manager for Messrs. T. Reed and Co., auctioneers.

—Mercantile-—

The prominent tradesmen of Kadina are; —Messrs. D. Taylor, T. M. Rendell, Hall and Co., C. Moore & Co., E. A. Ham. John Hunter Co., F.B.C., J. H. • Rosewarne, F. Rosewame, Tonkin & Beckwith, Wilson, Briee. & Co., Singer Company, Wertheim, W. Milliean. Russack & Tyler, J. Jones, Herbert & Son, W. Symon, L. W. E. Hardy, C. Kappe, Kennett Bros., A. R. Brooks, E. J. Paul, J. Mitchell, M. Harris, R. Truscott, Parnell & Bowman, D. Moloney, W. Hancock, G. R. Haddy. T. Burclhell, jun., T. & B. Opie, A. C. Frick, Gullidge and Furner; Page & Co., Marchant & Son, E. B. Cardell, A. Tonkin A. E. Jay, R. H. Paull, W. B. Noell. W. Jackson. F. Potter. F. Hocking. J. Fargher, J. H. Hopgood, and W. C. Rodda, and Mrs. G. Phillips.

Two newspapers—The Kadina and Wallaroo Times, issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays by Mrs. C. F. Taylor; and The Plain Pealer, published on Saturday morning.- by Messrs. J. A. Southwood and G. Spring — provide mediums for local representation and distribution of information relating to district affairs. Mr. J. Darling is in charge of J. Darling & Son's flour mill.

—Paskeville.—

After leaving Kadina, following the railway line to Adelaide, the first settlement is Paskeville. which is the business town for Green's Plains district. Owing to heavy traffic and wet weather, the roads were not in the best of condition, and travelling by vehicle was anything but pleasant. Repairs are now being effected at the worst pinches, but countryfolk are not too exacting, so long as the rainfall comes along at the proper time for crops and feed. Paskeville is situated in the hundred of Kulpara. County of Daly, distant from Adelaide 105 miles by rail and 84 by road. The principal occupations are wheatgrowing and sheepbreeding. Something like 40,000 bags of wheat have been received at the railway station this season, besides other produce from the district. Messrs. J. C. Price, T. C. Hockridge, and F. O. Couzner; storekeepers, Palmer and Edwards, blacksmiths; G. R. Drew, saddlers; and S. Price, hotelkeeper, comprise the business men of the town. The station and post master is Mr. P. J. Bryan, and the state schoolmaster is Mr. J. W. Taylor. The country is very fertile, as flat as a pancake, and yearly increasing in productiveness.

—Kulpara.—

Eight miles divide Paskeville from Kulpara, which is at the top of a hill forming poition of the South Hummock Range. At the time of my visit the roads were recovering from a downpour of over 2 in. of rain; which had done considerable damage to the tracks and sown land. As a set-off for the ill-effects, however, the flood waters had filled the Kulpara Reservoir to overflowing—an event not known to have occurred for more than 20 years! The township of Kulpara is adjacent to the swamps which intervene between the Peninsula and Port Wakefield. Judging from appearances, the area of country close, to Kulpara, known as the Cocoanut, is fairly productive, and after the recent heavy soakings early sown crops should make good progress. Mr. G. H. Brown officiates as postmaster at his store; the only other place of business (or rather pleasure) is the Travellers' Rest Hotel, conducted by Mr. A. R. Brown. The chief industry is agriculture.


YORKE PENINSULA TOWNSHIPS.

Thu 10 Aug 1905, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Trove

(By a Travelling Correspondent.)

Yorke Peninsula forms one of the State's most valuable assets. With its deposit of copper ore at its northern end, the extent of which is not yet accurately ascertained, its inexhaustible supplies of salt in the south, with gypsum, magnesia, pipeclay, petroleum, and numberless other mineral deposits yet to be worked, the peninsula is no mean portion of the State. But of late years the farming industry has progressed so rapidly that after all agriculturists hold pride of the place as the 'backbone of the country.' With the splendid winter rains just experienced, the crops all over are look-ing magnificent, and everyone agrees that the peninsula has never had such fair prospects before it as at present. Leaving Moonta the road runs south down the peninsula through some excellent farming country. For years the land from end to end was covered with scrub, and was only considered fit for pastoral occupation, but the recent advance in farming methods revolutionised the settlers' ideas, and now mixed farming is the rule. The land was extensively cleared and brought into cultivation, till now almost all the scrub to be seen is what has been left growing along the roadsides, making pleasant avenues of traffic. A good metal road runs for 22 miles from Moonta to

Maitland,

a thriving little township with several stores, the largest of which are those of Messrs. J. O. Tiddy & Co., A. Whitelaw, and E. Edwards & Co. The Major carriage factory is an up-to-date establishment, with all the latest appliances for turning out first-class vehicles of every description. In addition it does furniture, upholstering, and cabinet work, employing in, all 18 hands. Maitland business people are energetic and go-ahead, with their eyes open to the possible development of local industries. Just now they are actively, developing a good copper show in the vicinity. The York Valley Copper Mining Company is the name of the syndicate prosecuting the work. The lode was discovered 18 years ago, and a shaft put down for 100 ft.; but was then for some reason abandoned. The new company sunk an additional 25 ft., and then drove inwards for about 104 ft., finding good ore all the way. Then a new shaft was put down, and good ore found. Fossicking in the old shaft revealed a vein of ore about 80 ft. from the surface, and a drive in from this towards the new shaft follows a vein of high-grade yellow ore about 4 ft. 6 in. wide.. This seems to prove the property a valuable one, and doubtless it will soon be on the market for capitalisation, and should eventually give good results. From Maitland a beautiful road leads past more thriving farms, through the German settlement of South Kilkerran to

Port Victoria,

on the west coast of Yorke Peninsula, as pretty and attractive a watering place as is to be found anywhere. A good jetty gives access to deep water, while at a short distance from the shore excellent fishing is to be had. There is also good shooting in the neighborhood, and for those on the lookout for some new place for a summer vacation Port Victoria is well worth a trial. Twenty-four miles pleasant travelling back towards the centre of the peniasula brings one past the first salt lake encountered, through the embryo township of Wauraltee and Mount Rat to

Minlaton.

The country around here is park-like. The larger scrubs have mostly been left standing, when the undergrowth was cleared, and now the rich grass and growing crops, with their carpet of vivid green stretching in endless vistas under the spreading trees, make up a most pleasing scene. Minlaton itself is another go-ahead township, having in recent years added several fine stores and dwellings to its rateable value. A fine large hall has just been completed as an annexe to the institute, and its appearance both inside and out reflects credit on builder, architect, and township. Messrs. Treherne, Matthews, Odgers, and Marlow are the principal storekeepers, and the fact that all do good business is sufficient guarantee of the district's prosperity. Following the main road down we come to

Yorketown,

"where the salt comes from;" at least Yorketown, besides being the capital of southern Yorke Peninsula, is about the centre of the now famous salt lakes district. These freaks of nature are scattered all round for miles, nearly every farm counting one or more within its boundaries, varying from a hundred square yards in extent to as many acres. When the district was first settled these water-filled hollows were the despair of the settler, and considerably affected land values. Sections containing a salt lake could hardly be given away, and were taken up grumblingly. Now he is counted a lucky man who has a really good salt lake on his property, for the rent received from salt companies for the right to scrape salt, in many cases exceeds the original rent asked for the whole farm. A curious thing about these lakes is that not all of them produce salt. Adjacent lakes, though similar in appearance, surroundings, and depth, do not give the same results, for no hitherto discovered reason. Yorketown has a most attractive thriving appearance, and during the salt season, when hundreds of men find casual employment, a brisk trade is done by the various store-keepers, while the two hotels find it difficult to cope with the demand for accommodation. Mrs. Stockings, of the Melville Hotel, is having an extra story added to a portion of her house, to contain six bed-rooms. A fine hall is being built on to the local institute. Mr. M. Erichsen is one of the pioneer business men on Yorke Peninsula, and is still well to the fore, his fine, commodious store being one of the most up-to-date in the State. Messrs. Woods and McFarlane run him very close, and between them visitors and residents can rely on securing goods equal to city supplies. The Catholic Church of Yorketown is a handsome stone edifice, and stands out prominently in the landscape. It would do credit to a larger city, and speaks well for the community responsible for its erection. From Yorketown to

Edithburgh

is a distance of about nine miles-taking a straight line over the surface of the road, but following the endless accession of ruts and holes, it must be quite double that distance. This section is the only break in the otherwise excellent roads. Of course it is inevitable, for this portion of the road carries most of the heavy carting from the various salt lakes to the Edithburgh refineries. A harder quality of stone is necessary to stand the severe strain, and render the road at all pleasurable for lighter traffic. Edithburgh owes its prosperity to the salt industry, and present land values make one wish mightily that one's progenitor had invested an odd £50 here when the State was young. The salt refineries employ a large number of hands all the year round, and during the summer months, when the harvest has to be gathered from the various lakes, hundreds of men are required. This is an industry that wants protecting, and deserves it. A duty on imported salt would keep out the stuff now dumped on our markets by vessels that bring it out as ballast, without raising the price of the local article to the consumer, as there is enough salt available on the peninsula and else-where to supply all Australia, and the quality is good enough for anyone. Edithburgh is a popular seaside resort as well as a manufacturing town. It has a bracing, breezy atmosphere-the wind coming up fresh from the billows of the gulf, and putting vigor into vitiated lungs. Mount Lofty can be dimly seen across the tossing miles of sea the hovering cloud of smoke over Port Adelaide, and in the foreground Troubridge lighthouse and island.

Coobowie,

lying a few miles north, up the shores of St. Vincent Gulf, is another pleasant little watering place which attracts its quota of summer visitors. For those who like a retired spot, easy of access, yet out of the usual beaten track of holiday makers, Coobowie is an ideal spot.

Stansbury

is also an attractive seaside resort, and offers allurements of its own to visitors, it possesses a beautiful stretch of curving, sandy beach, while the new jetty recently built should develop trade and make it more popular as a resort. It only requires a little energy and co-operation among its business men to make Stansbury one of the most popular seaside resorts in the State. Its situation is in its favor, as from it radiate good roads to the principal towns of the Peninsula, and enjoyable excursions by cycle, motor, or carriage can be made from here.

Port Vincent

lies still farther up the coast, and though consisting only of a short jetty, hotel, small store, and come farmhouses, is a popular place during summer. Yachting parties from Port Adelaide are fond of a run over to Port Vincent, as deep water allows of a near approach to the shore, and the hotel accommodation is frequently heavily taxed. Recently the channel approach to the jetty has been deepened, and a deck added to the wharf.

Curramulka

is the centre of a highly successful farming district, and though not attractive in outward appearance, is a good busin town. In this vicinity there is a remarkable cave or hole in the ground, from which an underground channel runs, it said, "for miles." No one is known to have penetrated to its end, and it is supposed to be one of the many presumed underground watercourses that drain Yorke Peninsula. A peculiar feature of the Peninsula is the entire absence of creeks or water courses. Not once does the road cross creek of any sort, and one never sees ditch. Where the surplus water runs is a mystery. Even during this exceedingly wet winter no creeks are to be seen, a very few pools of water even along the roads. The sub-strata is a porous limestone, and probably the water soaks through this and finds its way by underground channels to the sea.

Ardrossan

is another small seaport, and serves as the outlet of a large and prosperous, farming district. Its progress during the past twelve months has been most marked. A bank and several houses have been erected and substantial additions made to business premises. Those of the Clarence Smith foundry and implement works have had to be extended to cope with the increase business. Ardrossan is destined to be one of the most successful townships on the Peninsula. Its business men work well an amicably together, and have the general welfare of the town at heart. As mention in a previous description of Ardrossan, this is really an ideal place for a summer holiday. The cliffs along the beach afford most grateful shade from boiling summer suns, and invalids could sit enjoying the sea breeze here, who could not stand the fierce heat that beats on sand and shingle in some seaside towns.

Port Price

is unfortunately not one of the beauty spots being merely called into existence by reason of the shipping facilities afforded by creek which runs through the mangrove growing on the flats at the head of St. Vincent Gulf. It is a good district for shooting, and its atmosphere is warranted to raise a good appetite in the most hardened dyspeptic. A substantial hotel provides good accommodation.

Arthurton

is another place which cannot boast a beautiful situation, but its inhabitants are doing their best to remedy this oversight of Nature, and have planted young trees down each side of the principal thoroughfare. The hotel is comfortable, and Mr. Crosbie, the principal storekeeper, is an energetic, up-to-date business man.

This practically comprises all the Penisula townships, excluding Moonta, Wallaroo, Kadina, and Paskeville. The whole district reminds one of some parts of the Scotch lowlands. For instance, the limestone boulders that once covered the land have been industriously collected and built into houses, sheds, and fences. These divisions are very reminiscent of the "dykes,'' as similar structures are called in Scotland St. Vincent Gulf, with its pretty shores and many embryo watering-places, is not unlike the Firth of Clyde, where are such famous watering-places as Rothesay, Dunoon, Bute, Greenock, Dumbarton, and others, between which and Glasgow ply fleets of beautiful fast steamers, crowded with holiday-maker every day of the week in summer, and always on holidays. The gulf is bound to be Adelaide's chief health resort, and it is not too wild a fancy to believe that at some future date it will be dotted over with fleet of pleasure steamers.

Another, thing reminiscent of Scotland is the brand of weather in general use on the Peninsula this winter, lt is the Scotchiest ever encountered out of the land of the "Scotch mist." It is generally believed however, that the supply is exhausted, and a better kind will be available during summer.

The roads right through the Peninsula are better than excellent. There are no creeks, and practically no hills, so cycling or motoring is a delight. Motor cars are growing very popular in the district, and a good investment for an enterprising hotelkeeper at some seaside town would be a motor for hiring out to visitors. Care would require to be exercised in selecting a car from some approved strain, in order to avoid the experience of a certain Peninsula doctor, who is said to start off on a sudden call in his motor, followed by his man with a trap and a pair of horses in case the motor fails to "get" the whole distance. It seldom does, so rumor says, and the buggy invariably comes up opportunely. (This is not guaranteed.)

Somewhere between Arthurton and Paskeville lies the region familiar to all 'Advertiser' readers as Green's Plains. I tried to locate the Green's Plains correspondent, but would not recommend anyone else to try the same experiment. There are too many of him. The first one I met was mending a fence. After passing the time of day I asked 'if this was Green's Plains? 'Well, yes it is.' 'Do you know the Greens Plains correspondent?' I asked eagerly. 'Guess I do,' he replied. 'I'm him.' 'Delighted to meet you,' I cried. 'Do you care for a whisky?' 'Don't mind,' was the prompt answer, and we had one. 'Good whisky, that' says he. 'It is; have another?' He did. After a little conversation, in which I vainly tried to see a joke, I asked him bluntly 'What was his latest joke?' 'You'll see it in the paper to-morrow— that's good whisky: what brand is it?' he said rapidly, I told him, and he sampled it again. It was time to go if I wished to save a drop, so we parted. Later on in the day I struck another likely-looking chap, and asked him if he knew the Green's Plains correspondent. He whispered, 'Keep it dark! I'm the man.' 'You don't say so,' I said, astonished. 'Fact!' says he. 'Here's my latest,' and he produced a cutting of the last Green's Plain yarn. That was proof positive, so I shook his horny hand and offered him the last of the whisky. He took the lot. Farther on I met an old man who looked the soul of honor, so I asked him if the man I last met was the famous correspondent. 'Not him!' he replied contemptuously. 'Well, is it Mr. ? ? , near Arthurton?' 'No!' he said with some heat. 'Did that old rascal say he was? I'll have to put a stop to this. He's claimed that several times now, but I am the Green's Plains correspondent, and I ? ? ' but I was tired, and my whisky all done, so I left. Now I am credibly Informed that the G.P.C. is a Rechabite !


A DRIVE ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Saturday 6 July 1907, Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931) Trove

MINLATON, June 24.—A drive through Central Yorke's Peninsula at this season is most exhilarating. On every side stretches a gently undulating plain, while in the distant horizon glimpses may be caught of the deep azure or the dazzling silver gleam of the placid waters of the gulf. Patches of living green, varying in shade from emerald to a rich olive, mingle with the sober greys of wood and pasture, the browns and chocolates of the fallow—the whole heightened by occasional clumps of sombre ti-tree or the dark tints of mallee and peppermint scrub. Over these sweep the fleeting shadows, imparting life and change, while the fleecy flocks Drouse contentedly on the sweet herbage. The woods are alive with the varied melody of Nature's grand orchestra, and begin to be already decked with the hues of numberless delicate blooms. Brightness, hope, and promise gladden the heart of the beholder. With two friends the writer was driven for about 10 miles though this charming scene. Starting from Minlaton we traversed the productive district of Koolywurtie. Wheat and herbage on all sides were making vigorous growth, and wore a most healthy appearance. The flocks and herds were in prime condition for this time of the year. A conspicuous feature of the landscape is the abundance of stones of all shapes and sizes in the fields, and one cannot help marvelling at the surprising growth on soil so scanty and of such shallow depth. No doubt the sulphuric acid in the fertilizers acts as a solvent on the limestone, as it was not until the general use of superphosphates that herbage of all kinds grew with such luxuriance. One great advantage of this unlimited supply of excellent building material is that most of the stables, sheds, and other outbuildings are solidly construct of stone, and the yards and gardens enclosed with stone walls. The dwellings, too are of a type much above the style of the average farmhouse, and with their out offices often present quite a stately appearance, especially when crowning some wooded height. The Hundred of Wauraltee adjoins Koolywurtie on the north, and the substantial character of the houses and comfortable look of the farmstead cannot fail to impress the traveller. Wauraltee, a little hamlet, comprising a handsome redroofed Wesleyan Church, a strongly built institute, a weatherboard public school, general store, and some private house wears an air of general neatness and prosperity. The store is a branch establishment of Mr. W. R. Trehearne, of Minlaton and it is very capably managed by Miss B. Keightley. A stranger naturally enquired why with so abundant supply of good stone, the public school should be constructed of such flimsy material, but it appeals to have been removed here from Mount Rat. Turning eastward, after a mile or so a large building is sighted, belonging to Mr. H. Lock. This edifice contains about 20 rooms, and was formerly a public house, about halfway between Minlaton and Mainland. The business, which was once brisk, fell off in the bad times, and the present proprietor procured the house and about 500 acres at an almost nominal figure. Although now used only as a private dwelling the homestead could hardly be purchased for seven times the amount. The quality of the soil here seems to improve, and the stones are not so much in evidence. Ornamental trees, pines, and sugar gums add an air of elegance find refinement to the homestead, and indications of permanent prosperity multiply. Three miles from Minlaton we pass through a natural avenue of peppermint and teatree—the prettiest stretch of road on the excursion. Here is the farm of Messrs. Cook. A hedge of African box—its brilliant green contrasting in a striking way with the dark foliage of the trees—encloses a vineyard and orchard, a somewhat rare sight on the Peninsula. We reached our journey's end after a most enjoyable and inspiring journey.



ON YORKE'S PENINSULA. CYCLING THE ROUND TRIP.

Sat 27 Feb 1909, Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931) Trove

[By our Greens Plains Correspondent.]

Having received a call from the lower Peninsula, your correspondent mounted his trusty bicycle, and, leaving the rural simplicity of the plains, started out for missionary work and coastal scenery, and in due time reached the Hotel Metropole at Arthurton, only to find that the late genial host (Mr. L. Hanrahan) had taken, advantage of the Early Closing Act, and had gone farming. His successor is, however, ably keeping up the reputation of the establishment, and Hanrahan's special brands have not deteriorated either in quality or quantity. After the necessary liquid refreshment we started on the last, lap of our first stage, which, we were informed, was about eight miles distant. Having ridden about six miles we overtook a man and cow crossing the road. Both jumped a bush and faced around at our approach, and, in reply to a question, the man informed us that it was still about six miles to Dowlingville. At an ever increasing pace we covered the next 12 miles, and found darkness overtaking us, and still no sight of Dowlingville. We also found that, like the foolish virgins of old, we had taken no oil in our lamp; in fact, hadn't even taken the necessary lamp. We therefore pushed more vigorously on over what had now become merely a bush track, and in the indistinct light appeared to be walled on each side by towering precipices and overhanging trees. Across the winding track rabbits and other wild animals flashed at "intervals, and once we thought we heard a bear howling in the distance or somewhere else, and before we could decide what to do we ran into and over some monster, whose gleaming eyeballs we had seen on the track just about a quarter of a second before. Without a moment's hesitation we grappled for its throat, hating always understood that that was the proper way to deal with tigers; and, having thoroughly subdued it, struck a light to see how to kill it, kneeling on its neck all the time. We found, to our disgust, that it was only a sheep, and it looked go sheepish, too, that we let it go with a caution. Another mile and we were among friends, and were offered lavish hospitality. One man kindly offered to set his alarm clock for daylight if we would stay the night with him. Dowlingville is the centre of a rich agricultural district, is within easy distance of the coast, and was, we were informed, so named after a man named Whitaker.

—Ardrossan.—

Ardrossan, the home of the stump jumping plough and the late Mr. C. H. .Smith, is a thriving little town, picturesquely situated on the banks of St. Vincent's Gulf. Its plough factory, the largest in the State, employs many hands, and has greatly helped to make and maintain the town. It also is now backed up by a prosperous farming community, and ships many thousand bags of wheat annually. From Ardrossan downward the coastal scenery is interesting, and in many places very pretty. The bay between Pine Point and Black Point is very fine, and is be coming a favourite resort for yachts and pleasure boats from the other side. It is only 28 miles from the Semaphore, and almost within sight of the city.

—Wealth in Wheat.—

The country is all taken up at the back, and something like 40,000 bags of wheat will be shipped from Pine Point this year. Postal facilities are not quite as convenient as might be desired along this part of the coast. At Port Julia, where about 20,000 bags of wheat is already stacked, they have no mail at all. This must in the near future become a fairly busy shipping centre, as the whole of the scrub country at the back, which a few years ago was considered to be almost worthless, has now been taken up, and is rapidly being brought under cultivation. Port Vincent is the prettiest little bay around the Peninsula coast, and is the inlet and outlet of a fairly large trade. It is the chief shipping port for Curramulka and the surrounding district. In addition to several other buildings, a flourmill has quite recently been erected, and will shortly be at work.

—Around Stansbury.—

Between Vincent and Stansbury some large clearings have been made in what was a few years ago simply solid scrub. Along this road is the homestead of Capt. Germein, who some years since gave up ploughing the stormy seas to plough the peaceful shore, where lie has now become an experienced and most successful farmer. Here also is the farm and olive plantation of Mr. G. A. Wurm, one of the pioneer farmers of the district, whose fruit and olive plantation is well worth travelling long distances to see. Stansbury is well laid out from an artistic point of view, and is a busy, thriving little port, with two jetties and a future before it. At one time it was known chiefly for its lime, and is known even more to for that article now, for here, by improved kilns and kilning appliances, limeburning has been reduced to a science, and forms the chief part of the shipping trade of the port. The Stansbury lime is well and widely known throughout the State. A lot of wheat and wool finds its way to the seaboard here from the adjoining agricultural districts. Westward from Stansbury are some fine fruit gardens, notably those of Messrs. Pitt. Cornish, and Anderson, which for quality and variety of fruit are quite equal to the very beat in the State. Wool Bay is a little shipping place with submarine lime kilns under the cliffs. The ascending smoke gives the place a somewhat weired appearance in the gloaming, and reminds one who has never seen a volcano most vividly of these deadly contrivances.

—Coobowie Beach.—

The chief production of Coobowie, situated a few miles north of Edlthburgh, is its famous beach, which extends half a mile or more seaward when the tide is out. Here the hardy settler, knowing that he has no chance of ever getting a jetty, does not waste time asking for it but carts his produce out to sea to meet any incoming vessel. Thousands of bags of wheat is shipped in this way at considerable risk and expense to the owner, and it is a most interesting sight to see six or eight horse teams, almost swimming around some stranded boat as she lies on the sandy bottom loading against time and tide. These are the sort of men who have helped to make our country what it is, men who will help themselves and are not afraid of hardship, but encounter obstacles only to surmount them. More power to them, and long may they have the free run of their pretty beach.

—Traffic at Edithburgh.—

Edithburgh, as every one knows, is the chief shipping port of the southern Peninsula, but every one does not know the immense amount of traffic that passes over that jetty. From a hundred to a hundred and twenty great teams, each carrying from six to 10 tons of salt, may be seen in the town daily, and this goes on nearly all the year round, with wheat and gypsum thrown in at intervals, with the result that the roads are cut up in a frightful manner, almost dangerous to traffic of anything short of a 6-in. tire. The corporation and district council do their best to cope with the traffic, but with the funds at their disposal are able to do little more than fill in boles and do a little levelling up. They have a strong claim for a special main road grant. The salt industry has been a great boon to settlers around in days gone by, and has now become a gigantic industry, yet capable of still further expansion. The saltmills and saltstacks are well worth travelling to see. Having finished our mission on that side of the coast, we beaded westward through Yorketown, the little city of churches, and made for Hardwick Bay, one of the most beautiful spots on the other coast, and finished up with a coastal run of 80 odd miles past Brentwood, Rickaby, Port Victoria, Balgowan, to Moonta. The scenery round the coast is interesting all the way, and In many places beautiful. The roads, excepting in the salt zone, are good, the district was never more prosperous, and the residents, are hospitable to a fault. Tourists desiring an enjoyable holiday could not do better, or at least might do worse, than try a round trip on the Peninsula. It is, strange how at attached one becomes to this mode of traveling, and what a tender feeling he has towards the bicycle, especially at the close of a long day's run over a rough road.


A FINE WHEAT COUNTRY. FROM MALLEE SCRUB TO RECORD CROPS.

Thu 27 Jan 1910, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Trove

Mr. D. J. Gordon, who has returned from a trap through the county of Fergusson, speaks in glowing terms of the condition of the farming industry in the whole district of Yorke Peninsula....


PROGRESS OF THE STATE. THE PROSPEROUS PENINSULA.

Sat 12 Feb 1910, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Trove

Yorke Peninsula has been progressing for several years. The southern peninsula especially has shown a great forward movement The port of Edithburgh, which is now the fourth largest shipping port of South Australia, is the outlet for agricultural pastoral, salt, gypsum, lime and dairying industries....


YORKE PENINSULA. STORY OF AN ITINERARY, __TOWNS. FARMS, AND CHURCHES.

Saturday 1 October 1910, Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Trove

No. 1. The change which has been wrought by superphosphates, helped by good seasons, in southern Yorke Peniusula, has been of a most remarkable character. A gentleman who revisited the district a few, months ago, after an absence of many years, remarked on returning to Adelaide:— ''When I was last, there some of the farmers had not a second pair of trousers. This time it took me all my time to dodge their motor cars.'' Probably there was a little hyperbole about this statement, but there is no doubt the alteration in the condition of the place and the people has been marvellous The object of this article is not, however, to go info detail concerning the productions or the fruitfulness of the southern Peninsula, but merely to give some idea of the size and the relative positions of the different centres of population, which are dotted so thickly over the country.

Methodist Churches as Guide Marks.

Starting from Kadina, my way was through wide wheat fields, on either side of the road, to Boor's Plains, six miles distant. There is no township here, but a cosy little Methodist Church, built of stone, denotes that there are settlers not far away. Another four miles takes me to Cunnliffe. Here again the only building is a substantial looking stone Methodist Church. Five miles further a third church, belonging to the same denomination, which evidently is flourishing and enterprising, tells me that I have reached Agery. I travel seven miles more, and on a breezy elevation I come to the township of Arthurton. For the whole of the 23 miles from Kadina there is a beautiful metal road, while as far as the eye ran see on the left and right are magnificent crops of wheat, which are looking extremely, healthy, and promise to yield an abundant harvest. Arthurton is 10 miles from Ardrossan, and nine miles from Maitland. The buildings are an hotel, which has lately been greatly improved, a Methodist and a Roman Catholic Church, two general stores, a public hall, a schoolhouse, a blacksmiths forge, and even private houses. Round about, however, is a fine farming district, and there is an air of prosperity everywhere.

The Maitland District.

Covering the intervening nine miles, I arrive at the prettily situated town of Maitland, which has made great progress during late years, as a result of the fine harvests reaped in the neighborhood. There are two large hotels here— the 'Maitland' and the 'Yorke Valley'— and there are four churches, the Anglican, Congregational, Methodist, and Roman Catholic. There are also three general stores, two banks, a post and telegraph oflice, an institute hall, a police-station, a district council office, a large motor garage and motor repairing establishment, an ironworker, two butchers, and as many bakers, saddlers, hairdressers, and greengrocers, a restaurant, a tailor, and four builders and carpenters. Most things that a reasonable man can want, it will be seen, may be obtained locally. Maitland has made great strides of late, and is still growing. There are, in addition to the business places named 80 private houses, and four more were in course of erection while I was there. The crops all round Maitland are excellent, and the farmers are looking hopefully to the verdict of the harvester. The town occupies a very central position, being 31 miles from Kadina, 22 miles from Moonta. and 15 miles from the coast at Port Victoria.

Leaving Maitland, I travelled towards Port Victoria on a very good road, and seven miles out I came to the township of South Kiikerran, which extends two miles along the road. At the Maitland end there are two very well built Lutheran churches, the material of construction being stone. At the other extremity, towards Port Victoria, there is the store and post-office; while eight private houses are erected or the land between. A journey of eight miles more brings one to Port Victoria, which is on the western side of the Peninsula. There is a very substantial jetty reaching out into deep water, where oversea ships can tie to load wheat and other cargo. Last season 100,000 bags: of wheat were brought into the port from the surrounding farms, and sold to the local miller and the various wheat buyers. There were 55,000 bags shipped away, and 45,000 bags were, at the time of my visit, still remaining in the wheat stores and stacks waiting for transhipment. The township is very compact, and has grown considerably during the last five years. There are many fine buildings, including a flour mill, two banks, an institute hall, a post-office, an hotel, two general stores, six wheat-buying agencies, a public school, two bakers and a butcher, an Anglican and a Methodist Church, a saddler, an ironworker, a blacksmith, and 24 private houses.

Port Victoria to Curramulka.

Wauraltie is my next stage, and it is eight miles away on the Port Vincent road, It consists of a general store, a public school, a Methodist church, a public hall, a post-office, the business of which conducted in a private house and two dwellings. Wauraltie is only three, miles from the sea beach, on which beautiful nautilus shells are often found, and it is considered to be one of the most healthy places on the Peninsula. Six miles further on is Mount Rat, and here there is yet another Methodist Church, with a public school, and two houses. After another stage of six miles I reach the very beautifully, situated town of Curramulka, nestling comfortably between the hills. This place, too thanks to the prosperity of the adjacent farmers, has greatly improved of late. There are three general stores, a bank, a hotel, an institute hall, a post-office, a school, Methodist and Baptist churches, a boot shop, two blacksmiths, a builder, a saddler, and 22 private residences. The drive of 20 miles from Port Victoria to Curramulka if most enjoyable, the road lying through hilly and wooded country, while all the way on both sides of the traveller are crops that do the heart good to look upon. The distance to Minlaton is nine miles and to Port Vincent 12 miles.

Maitland to Minlaton.

Maitland having been reacted again, I left by the main road is the direction of Edithburgh. The first place of call was Urania, a small town, consisting of a substantially built Methodist Church, newly built, a general store and post-office, a public hall, a public school, and two blacksmith's shops. It is ten miles from Maitland, seven miles from Wauraltie, and 18 miles from Minlaton. Nine miles farther on is the old Mount Rat Hotel, which, has been closed for many years, it was quite a busy place 26 years ago, when it was kept by the late Mr. Henry Humberstone, who afterwards built a great hotel with 60 rooms at Victor Harbor. Nine miles more along the same brings me to Minlaton, which has seen great, expansion during the last few years, end is now one of the largest and most flourishing centres on Southern Yorke Peninsula. There are here Methodist, Anglican, Baptist, and Roman Catholic churches, two banks, a post-office, police station, and hotel, a handsome and commodious institute, four general stores, a flour mill, public school, and Masonic hall. There are also two builders, three blacksmiths, tailor, a motor garage, a bootmaker, an ironworker, two saddlers, two hairdressers, and 72 private houses. The good times enjoyed by the surrounding farmers are reflected in the brisk and active town, which is nine miles from Curramulka, an equal distance from Mount Rat, and 18 miles from Yorketown.

Leaving Minlaton I continued on the Yorketown road for two miles, and then turning to the right at the finger past and travelling for seven miles more I arrived at the little village of Brentwood, which is only two miles from the sea on the western side of the Peninsula. Although, as in all other cases, there are farmers doing well in the adjacent country, there are at Brentwood (which is 13 miles from Warooka, and 11 miles from Yorketown), only a school, an institute hall, the inevitable Methodist Church, a store and post-office, two blacksmith's shops, and four private houses. Travelling from Brentwohousesd and passing at the back of the sandhills for 11 miles I came in sight of Warooka, two miles ahead on the top of a hill. On the way from Brentwood to Warooka I passed through about a mile of water, which had overflowed the metal road in three different places. Warooka has, of course, a Methodist Church, only recently built, with a post-office, institute ball, public school, two general stores, a hotel, a blacksmith's shop, and 18 private houses. Warooka is six miles from Port Turton, 14 miles from Yorketown, and 23 miles from Corney Point.


YORKE PENINSULA. STORY OF AN ITINERARY, __TOWNS. FARMS, AND CHURCHES.

Saturday 8 October 1910, Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Trove

I closed my former article concerning my itinerary through the towns of Southern Yorke Peninsula with a description of the township of Warooka. Travelling thence to the eastward for 14 miles I reached Yorketown, which is differently situated to any other centre on the Peninsula. It is at the junction of five roads and extends for some distance along each of them. These five high-ways lead to Warooka Edithburgh, Stansbury, Minlaton, and Port Moorowie. Yorketown is a very large town, and it has progressed exceedingly during the last 10 years. There are at present in its busy streets seven general stores, bank, two hotels, seven-places of worship —Anglican, Methodist, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Salvation Army, and two Lutheran Churches. There are also a Town Hall, a Masonic Hall, post-office, police station, public school, court-house, and newspaper office. The wants of the people are further catered for by four saddlers, three bootmakers, two greengrocers, two ironworkers, two tailors, a butcher, a baker, three blacksmiths and coachbuilders, two builders, two cycle works, a hospital, a painter, and a hairdresser. There are also 90 private houses. The central situation of the place is shown by the fact that it is but nine miles from Edithburgh, 14 miles from Warooka, 15 miles from Stansbury, 18 miles from Minlaton, and nine miles from Port Moorowie.

The Centre of the Salt Industry.

Leaving Yorketown I travelled over a very bad road, which has been terribly cut up by waggons carrying heavy loads of salt, and eventually reached Edithburgh, the last town on the lower extremity of the Peninsula. By the main road it is 89 miles from Kadina, and it has a larger population than any other centre on the southern part of the Peninsula. The importance of the salt industry in this neighborhood Is shown by the fact that there are three large salt refining establishments here, which employ a large number of men. The other buildings comprise four general stores, an institute hall, an Anglican and a Methodist Church, the latter of which has only just been built, a post-office, and a bank. There also also a butcher, three blacksmiths, two saddlers, four greengrocers a public school, cycle works, and coffee palace, with a chemist, a hairdresser, two bakers, a painter, bootmaker, dressmaker, two hotels, a police station, and 115 private houses. There is regular communication by steamer with Port Adelaide, and for the benefit of the shipping trade, which is at times very brisk, there is a very wide and substantial jetty, on which are laid three lines of rails. These are used principally in connection with the trucking of salt from the different refineries, which not only supply Adelaide with that indispensable article, but also countries far beyond the border of this State.

The Grave of 32 Seamen.

Troubridge lighthouse is five miles to the south of Edithburgh, end it was near that spot that the Clan Ranald foundered on January 31, 1909. I visited the cemetery about half a mile to the north of Edithburgh, where all the unfortunate people who lost their lives as a result of the disaster are buried. In the far extremity of this picturesque burial ground there is a large grave, extending for a length of 60 ft, in which are laid the remains of the 32 lascar seamen whose bodies were washed, ashore after the steamer disappeared. No headstone marks the spot, nor is there any other memorial of the dead who sleep underneath. This, I consider, is much to be regretted, and it would be a kindly act if a small sum of money were raised with which to meet the cost of erecting a monument, on which might be written the story of the catastrophe and the names of the poor fellows who lost their lives so far away from their relatives and their country. I will do what I can to help forward such a movement.

A Journey Along the Coast.

Edithburgh is nine miles from Yorketown and 16 miles from Stansbury. Leaving the first-named town, I began my return journey along the coast, the first three miles being by a road which was in a very dilapidated condition owing to the heavy salt traffic which passes over it. Coobowie, which is that distance from Edithburgh, owes much of its activity to the salt industry. There are three sheds for the storage of that material. An hotel, the inevitable Methodist Chapel, two general stores, a blacksmith's shop, which is also the post and telephone office, and eight private houses, make up the list of buildings. There is no need for a jetty here, as the limestone rock on the brink of the sea is so hard that it forms a splendid bottom and the waggons can be driven right alongside the barges. There they can either unload or take in cargo for the shore. This is a primitive way of doing things, but apparently the teamsters and the townsfolk are satisfied. Still continuing along the coast for another five miles, I arrive at the little village of Pickering, which was formerly known as Wool Bay. This centre possesses a large and substantial shop, which also serves as a post-office, and a big store, in which divine service is held. There are six private houses. Messrs. D. Miller & Co., of Waymouth-street, Adelaide, have six large limekilns in the vicinity and these employ a goodly number of men. They send extensive and regular consignments of lime to the metropolis. There is a small jetty here, but it is not adequate for the requirements of the local trade and should be both lengthened and widened. The Government have already been requested to vote a sum of money for that purpose, and the residents hope that their wishes will be complied with. Continuing along by, the side of the sea for seven miles further, I reach the prosperous town of Stansbury. There are two long jetties here. That right opposite the centre of the town was erected many years ago, and although it reaches far out into the gulf the water at the end is not deep enough to allow any but very shallow draught steamers to come alongside. About three years ago, therefore, another jetty was constructed at a spot at considerable distance north of the original structure, and there is some inconvenience attached to its utilisation, owing to its distance from the business heart of Stansbury. The town has a large number of buildings. There are an institute hall, an Anglican and a Methodist Church, a postoffice, and three general stores. A butcher, a baker, and two blacksmiths are earning a comfortable living, and there are 48 private houses. Mr. Pitt has four limekilns here and he sends a large quantity of the product to Adelaide.

Port Vincent and Ardrossan.

Eleven miles further on is Port Vincent, the most prettily situated of all the harbors on the Peninsula. It remained a small place until about two or three years ago, when it made a start on the road of progress and improvement. This place has the advantage of deep water right up to the edge of the sea, along which wharfage accommodation 400 ft. in extent has been erected. On this wharf there is a large crane, capable of lifting very heavy weights from the holds of the ships into the waiting waggons. Port Vincent has grown considerably in recent months. When I was last there there was only a small hotel and a few wooden buildings. To-day the public-house is large and commodious, and there are three general stores, a flourmill, a Methodist Church, and a blacksmith's shop. A post and telephone office is connected with one of the stores, and there are two bank agencies, while a large institute is in course of construction. In Addition, there are 15 private houses. Port Vincent is about equal distant from Stanbury (11 miles) and Curramulka (12 miles)

As I was informed that it was about 30 miles from Port Vincent to Ardrossan along the coast, and that the road was very rough, I determined to travel by way of Curramulka. The road in this instance was very good. About a mile to the west of Curramulka I struck the Three-chain Travelling Stock-road, which runs northward for 24 miles right into the town of Ardrossan. This place has gone ahead wonderfully during the last few years. It contains a large implement factory, of which Mr. Smith is the enterprising proprietor. This establishment covers an area of 2.5 acres and gives steady employment to 100 workmen. There are also an Institute hall, a post-oflice, two hotels, three general stores, a draper's shop, two bakers, two butchers, a public school, an ironworker, a bank, a boarding-house, and 80 private houses. With the object of providing proper handling of the increasing quantity of goods carried over the jetty it has been found necessary to double its width and that much-needed work is now nearly complete. Mr. Barton, one of the local storekeepers, is erecting expensive additions to his business premises. Messrs J. Tiddy & Co., storekeepers, of Mailan, who founded a branch here about 18 months ago, have been so successful, too, that they are contemplating the construction of an emporium, which will be, when completed, the most extensive building of its kind on Southern Yorke Peninsula. Ardrossan has the advantage of direct daily mail communication by way of South Hammocks with Adelaide.

Evidences of Prosperity.

Travelling again by means of the Three-chain-road and still going to the north, I reach, after a stage of 11 miles, the township of Price, which consists of an hotel, three stores, three saddlery shops, a black smith's shop, and a small hall, which is used for day school purposes during the week and as place of divine worship on Sundays. There are eight wheat-buying agencies and six private houses. Last season there were 70,000 bags of wheat shipped from this port, despite the fact that the jetty and its approaches are in a very neglected condition and badly need attention. Price is 16 miles from the South Hummocks railway-station and 14 miles from Arthurton. The name of this brisk port calls up recollections of the late lion. Thomas Price, and I was pleased to notice during my journeyings what a large number of the residents of the Peninsula have preserved the excellent likenesses that were issued at the time of his death. I saw numbers of these hanging up in the business-places or on the walls of private residences—a sufficient proof of the high esteem in which the memory of his excellent work is held in all parts of the State. I have now completed the brief chronicle of a tour through all the townships of Southern Yorke Peninsula. I was delighted to see everywhere the splendid appearance of the crops, and to listen to the confident way in which residents spoke of the prospects of the coming harvest. On all hands there were evidences of contentment, progress, and success. More especially was this the case when I got among the farms where, during the last few years, the men who are working the land have been able to build handsome residences. Many of these houses in appearance and in regard to the aspect of comfort which surrounds them are equal to the majority of the villas which have been erected in the suburbs of Adelaide. They range in size from five to 14 rooms, and are replete with all the accessories of a convenient dwelling. With very great certainty, I predict a happy and affluent future both for the agriculturists and the commercial glasses on Southern Yorke Peninsula.


YORKE'S PENINSULA. VISIT BY THE GOVERNMENT POULTRY EXPERT.

Sat 6 May 1911, Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931)

The Government Poultry Expert (Mr. D. P. Laurie) has just returned from a lecturing tour through. Yorke's Peninsula, made at the instance of Mr. P. Manuel, of Enfield, whose brother-in-law (Mr. T. Brown, of Minlaton) drove Mr. Laurie, around in his motor car. To a representative of The Register on Monday "Mr. Laurie gave the following account of the trip:—

"An early start from home enabled me to catch the steamer Juno and renew acquaintance with Capt. G. McKay, who for many years has crossed the gulf. On board I met an old friend, Mr. John Cudmore, one of the pioneers in the use of phosphatic manures in wheat growing, the actual results of which I was soon to see. We soon arrived at our destination, and I was surprised at the changes I saw in Port Vincent, which I visited in 1805. The fine wharf accommodation, the Milling Company's mill, and the fine buildings were evidences of prosperity. Mr T. Brown, of Minlaton, met us, and introduced me to prominent residents. Mr. Manuel, who accompanied me, appeared on terms of closest friendship with every one we met throughout the trip, and his visit after an absence of three years was like a triumphal entry. I was delighted to meet Mr. Thomas Rickaby, after whom Point Rickaby was named and who in my youthful days lived in Goolwa and afterwards on the lakes. In an interesting chat he told me of early times when my father (Mr. B. F. Laurie) was Stipendiary Magistrate in the south. The drive to Minlaton was all too short. The changes since 1895 were wonderful, and I had difficulty at first in discovering old landmarks. The fine new institute and hospital at Minlaton, with the residence of Dr. Hart adjoining, speak for the enterprise of the residents. Dr. Hart is a keen poultry fancier, and is preparing to keep good fowls. After a mile or so we met Mr. J. McKenzie a prominent farmer, and secretary of the Agricultural Bureau, Soon after the car turned into the drive leading to Navan, Mr. Brown's homestead, which was very different to the modest homes afforded by farmers in 1895. Here was a fine house equal to any in the suburbs of Adelaide, and with homelike surrounding of garden and trees. Custom on Yorke's Peninsula demands that on entering a house the stranger shall break bread. I and looking back it seems that we averaged seven meals a day. After inspecting the splendid poultry plant we looked at the fine grain and manure store, built on piles, all solid jarrah and galvanized iron. The chaffhouse and machine shearing plant are run by an oil engine. Above the chaffhouse was the wool store. Every thing—including boisting—was done by power. The chaff is elevated into bins holding half a ton each. Seven of these communicate by shoots with the mangers in the stable below. A circular saw and grain mill are also run by the engine. Wheatmeal broken up with bran, and scalded hay chaff, is found to well suit the poultry. A lecture on poultry keeping, and next day the motor was exchanged for houses and buggy and the farm of Mr. F. Edwards, 12 miles distant, was our objective, and on our return journey our track completed a quadrilateral figure. We passed magnificent land, and saw the farms of Messrs. J. Tomney, T. Cook, H. Mumford, and Dodd Brothers. I was interested in the hedge like growth of some scrub teatree, of which Mr. Edwards promised to obtain seed, that I might try to grow it at one of the poultry stations.

—Co-operative Water Supply.—

The wise action of Mr. Edwards and other farmers in co-operating to obtain a water supply was gratifying. From wells three miles off a pipe in galvanized main runs along the boundaries of several farms, and from the main branch of reticulating pipes. Mr. Edwards has 1.5in. and 1in. pipes leading to his service reservoirs and tanks. In addition, he has many stone tanks for storage. Mr. Edwards grows much lucerne, and is about to cultivate some under irrigation. He is enthusiastic in poultry breeding, and had a fox-proof enclosure 2.5 chains square, with material for inner yards and houses. Mrs. Edwards related that before the foxes came she marketed 80 to 100 dozen eggs each week, and hoped to do so again. There were 100 pigs kept on the farm, and a large aviary, which contained bronze wing and various pigeons, quail, magpies, and other birds. Mrs. Edwards finds time to cultivate camellias and pot plants. On the return journey we saw the headworks of the water supply, and passed the farms of Messrs. R. McKenzie, Alexander McKenzie, T. Brown, and T. Martin. The beautiful land would grow heavy lucerne crops, and has excellent water at shallow depth. Feed everywhere on the trip was plentiful. I was interested to note, near the ruins of a cottage on Mr. Brown's park like property, two large almond trees carrying heavy crops, and a large quince tree,

—The Horse out of Date.—

On the way to Yorketown, and just out of Minlaton, we passed the residence of Mr. Evans, and then, in a commanding situation, Mr. Edward Correll's property overlooking Minlaton. I was told this gentleman had sold all his horses, and worked his farm by motor. A fine water supply, pumped across a hill, extended to Mr. Robert Ford's. Further on was the old homestead of Messrs. Correll Brothers, now owned by Mr. Horace Polkinghorne, who is building a fine new house. It was here in 1895 that I first saw a crop of Medeah wheat grown with fertilizer, and put in with a drill. As darkness fell, Mr. D. Fletcher's house was pointed out. Arrived at Yorketown we repaired to the lecture room. Near Yorketown there are many German farmers, and I was pleased to meet old friends. Among the first were Mr. Koop, who reminded me that he had driven me 10 years before from Edithburgh to Yorketown. I had a busy time greeting others, among whom were Messrs. Rohrig, Martin, Domaschenz, Lloyd: Eichner, W. J. Nation, Jung, Correll, Rechner, Koop, Anderson, C. Jensen, F. Siebert, J. H. Fielder, Raymond, Jaebne, and Dr. Russell.

—Going North.—

Next morning the motor headed towards Port Rickaby and just before we turned into Mr. J. Brown's (brother of our host) we passed Mr. J. Porker's house, and noted that he was erecting a poultry plant on proper lines. Mr. J. Brown is also beginning one which will be two chains square. This gentleman had a splendid house and outbuildings. He works his land with a motor, which draws a 10-furrow plough. The rolling is performed by horsepower. Then we ran on to Mr. Peter King's, and met also his son, Mr. Albert King, who is a successful breeder of draught horses. He obtained fine brood mares from the studs at Anlaby and from Messrs Hill Bros., of Georgetown, and some sturdy foals and colts were to be seen. On colt seemed a model for a farm draught horse. I noticed two haystacks of 250 tons each, well built and thatched, and the farm buildings were substantial. We next passed the artistic residence of Mr. Alfred Mahar, and noted that be had built a fine poultry plant. In the distance was the farm of Mr. Edward Crosser. Messrs, Will Bros, are enclosing three acres for a large poultry plant. The three brothers, all young and clever with tools, have a fine workshop and showed us many ingenious devices. On again, and we pass red a salt lake, which looked lovely. It was on the property of Mr. Robert Newbold, whom we found at home on his beautiful farm, which was studded with large teatree and sheaoaks. He has a fine collection of pot plants, including splendid shrubby begonias. In the garden were Cape gooseberries which reminded me of the far-off south. Mrs. and Miss Newbold are strong advocates of poultry, and have a flock of tiptop white Leghorns and some nice rose-combed brown Leghorns. A large poultry plant will shortly be erected. I was delighted to notice that most of the farms on the peninsula included modern provision for poultry. Many of the farmers whom we met were former residents of the south—Rapid Bay, Yankalilla, and Morphett Vale. Mr. Newbold hails from Rapid Bay, and was a lieutenant in, the old Volunteer Company of Yankalilla. He has been, on the peninsula for close on 40 years. We took the road through Wauraltee to Port Victoria, which town had altered considerably since I was there in 1884. Towards Maitland the car ran for miles along a perfect road through a pretty avenue. The motor was almost noiseless, and it was like travelling on pavement. We passed many farms, including those of Messrs. Schrapel, Wehr, and Hastings, and through South Kilkerran with its two fine German churches. At Maitland we bade adieu to Mr. T. Brown, to whom I was indebted for the splendid opportunity of seeing the country.

—Maitland.—

Once, years ago, I passed through Maitland at night. I was now surprised to see so many fine houses. There were two ; motor garages—the hum of the motor is common in Maitland—and we went through the fine machinery works of Messrs. Harris Bros., and noted the fine stores of Messrs. J. O. Tiddy & Co. Additions were in progress at the institute, which will make the hall a large one. Next morning I visited the Rev. Mr. Strahan, who hails from Bendigo, and more recently from Clare. He is an enthusiastic breeder of black and buff Orpingtons, and also black, red, and duck wing Bantams. I am sure he will do much to promote the industry and influence the shows.

—To Moonta and Kadina.—

There was a strong wind blowing, and the road to Moonta lacked the superior quality of those we had left. Passing along was saw Messrs. Maloney & Sons homestead and vineyard; then through Weetulta, where a fine Methodist Church was seen. We reached Messrs. Hancock Brothers', eight miles from Moonta. Here were Goldlaced and Partridge Wyandottes which have made good show records. We learned that Messrs. Hancock were selling out and would purchase near to Adelaide, and enrage in poultry breeding on a large scale. During a short stay in Moonta I found Mr. Hollands had white Leghorns which will make a name for their owner. Mr. Phillips, the town clerk, is taking to poultry breeding. A quick but windy rim brought us to Kadina, where there are many enthusiastic breeders. I visited the poultry plants of the 'Messrs. Hocking Brothers, two energetic breeders worthy of high commendation for their good work. Next day a return to the city terminated a most satisfactory trip.


A TRIP ROUND THE PENINSULA. CROPS. POLITICS, AND BURNING ACCIDENT.

Wednesday 18 October 1911, Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA : 1888 - 1954) Trove

[By Mr J. P. Rooney.] No 1. Leaving Bute on October 10 reached Port Price in time for tea. The crops between these two places reveal that rain is needed very badly. There were some good crops in and around Kulpara, and with a fair amount of good luck, look good enough for twenty bushels to the acre all crops are, however, in the balance and rain or no rain means good or bad crops. The frosty nights that have been experienced are very dangerous to crops in bloom. As my countryman says, ''I hae ma doots" about the crops this year. Hay will be very scarce. Upon reaching Yarraroo took the ponies out and gave them a spell, and through the kindness of Miss Slatter had a most enjoyable stroll through the beautiful garden. Upon arriving at Price we heard that Mr D. J. Gordon was to address a meeting to be held under the auspices of the Liberal Union. Having heard and read a good deal about this gentlemen decided to hear him. He was quite up to expectations. For about an hour and a half he gave such a sound, plain, and straightforward statement of the Labor and Liberal platforms that the most illiterate could not fail to grasp the situation. After having heard such an explanation any person who, wanted to vote for Labor should go to Dr Cleland and get his head read. The hall was full. The explanation of preference to unionists by Mr Gordon was splendid, and showed how cruel and tyrannical such an act will be. It was pointed out that I we are about the most heavily taxed people in the world. If a change of bad seasons turns up our condition will be pitiable. During the past 75 years we have had cycles of wet and droughty seasons alternately, about 7 years of each. We have had 7 wet seasons, and in the natural course of events we must be on the verge, if this is not one, of the dry ones. Then we shall feel the pinch of our 'uplifter of humanity', but perhaps such a benevolent Government will then take off our taxes. About 2 o'clock on Wednesday morning a loud knocking was heard at the front door of the hotel, accompanied by shouts of "Fire." The laudlord jumped up and was informed that a man had been burned to death in a camp near by. All rushed to the camp, and brought the unfortunate man, who was still alive, but seriously injured, to the hotel, where the landlord made him as comfortable as possible. Police Trooper Wright of Ardrossan, who happened to be at Price, sent a man on a motor cycle for Dr Betts, of Maitland, who arrived about 6 a.m. After attending the sufferer arrangements were made to send him to the Wallaroo Hospital.

A PROSPEROUS TOWN.

Leaving Price on Wednesday arrived at Ardrossan same evening. The crops along the road by the sea are very poor, but near Ardrossan there are some very good wheat crops. Was informed that the crops inland are better. Put up at the Royal Hotel, and was made comfortable by the landlord (Mr J. Graham). The hotel is kept very nicely and is scrupulously clean. On Thursday morning strolled around the town, and was surprised at the number of new shops and dwellings that have been erected since my previous visit, ten years ago. Visited Smith's Agricultural Factory, and was shown over the works by Mr Elphick, who explained all the labor saving machinery which has been installed. Years ago it was thought good work to turn out one plough per week, now they are being turned out at the rate of seven per day. Also met Mr Smith, who is a most unassuming young man, and appears very young to have worked up to running such a large plant of the most up-to-date machinery. There are 150 men employed at these works, and much of the prosperity of the town depends on them. Messrs Tiddy & Co's new and commodious store occupies a most conspicuous position, and reminds one of some of the shops in Rundle street. On the occasion of my previous visit the Commercial Bank occupied an iron room next to the hotel. It is now in the centre of the town, and is a good substantial stone building.

RABBITS IN MILLIONS.

Left Ardrossan on Thursday after lunch for Port Vincent. Hugged the shore as much as possible all the way. Part of the journey is over rough solid rocks and sand ten inches deep. The crops along the track are enough to give one the 'D.T's" being from four to twelve inches high, with heads no larger than buttons. Was informed that the crops inland are very good, but everywhere rain is badly needed. In many places rabbits are to be seen in millions, many paddocks of wheat being eaten to the ground within a chain of the fences. About twenty miles from Ardrossan the land is better, the mallee being larger and the crops better. About six miles from Port Vincent saw the first binder for the season at work, which was cutting a very fair crop of wheat and oats. Port Vincent, seen from an elevation, about 4 miles distant, presented a very pretty spectacle. The bay reminds one of Sydney Harbor, being an almost perfect half circle, with rising ground all round. Beached Port Vincent in time for tea, and was made comfortable by the landlord of the hotel, Mr Ponder. The hotel is kept clean and comfortable, but should be double the size.


A TRIP ROUND THE PENINSULA. STANSBURY AND ITS LIME KILKS.

Saturday 21 October 1911, Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA : 1888 - 1954) Trove

[By Mr J. P. Rooney-] No. 2. Left Port Vincent for Stansbury about 3.30 p.m. on Friday, October 13, after seeing the steamer Kooringa alongside the jetty, it having to stand out for about an hour on account of the tide. A number of passengers landed. Owing to having to load a large consignment of wool the steamer was about an hour late leaving the port. The country between Port Vincent and Stansbury is much better than that formerly seen, and the crops look very promising. There are also marked evidences of prosperity in the district, in the general appearance of the farmers' residences. The Stansbury hotel is too small for the requirements of the place, and if more accomodation was was provided wonld, in the summer, be well patronised by visitors from Adelaide. One of the mam products of Stansbury is lime. There are eleven lime kilns within a radios of five miles of the town. Pitt's limekiln, which is situated near the old jetty, turns out 1,000 bags per week. Mr Pitt, the proprietor, is at present spending a holiday in New Zealand. The Jetty Hotel, while not a very imposing structure, is very comfortable and clean. The landlord and his wife are exceedingly kind and obliging, and I was sorry to leave.

THE SALT INDUSTRY.

Leaving Stansbury about 3.30 p.m. on Saturday, after seeing the steamer Juno arrive, directed my course to Edithburgh. The crops between Stansbury and Edithburgh are looking splendid, and give promise of yielding from 20 to 30 bushels per acre. The central opinion of farmers in the district is that they will have a another good season. Reached Edithburgh in time for tea, and made enquiries about a visit to the salt works. Interviewed the manager, Mr Baker, who courteously offered to show me the works that evening. Was very much impressed with the immense floors, which cover an area of about three acres. The works are brilliantly illuminated with electricity. When in full swing, the company employs about 150 men. In addition to the factory inspected, there are two other salt factories, the Commonwealth and the Standard. Edithburgh is a very busy town, and prosperity seems to reign all around. The Troubridge Lighthouse looks very pretty from here with the sun shining on it. I put up at the Family Hotel, which is a commodious building overlooking the jetty. It is well kept, and the landlord and his wife (Mr and Mrs Cocks) are very anxious to make their patrons feel at home.

A PROSPEROUS TOWS.

Leaving Edithburgh on Sunday about 11 a.m., arrived at Yorketow in time for lunch at the Melville Hotel, which is kept by Mr Stockings, whom I found very attentive, and who keeps his hotel well. Yorketown is the most promising town seen since leaving Bute. There are a number of new substantial buildings recently completed, also several in the course of erection. The crops between Edithburgh and Yorketown look exceedingly well, and with another rain should average from 20 to 30 bushela to the acre. In the summer Yorketown is a very busy town, wheat and salt carting then being in full swing. Was agreeably surprised to meet in Yorketown. Mr Moore, head teacher of Yorketown school, who was formerly head teacher at Paskeville, and who lived with me at the Railway Hotel, Paskeville for several years. Also met another old friend in the person of Mounted Constable Ewens, who was stationer at Snowtown for about five years. During the salt season Mr Ewens informed me that he often meets the 'cream' of society there, and many of the salt scrapers have tried to scrap him, but have not made much impression. The local manager of the Bank of Adelaide, whom I also met, is the son of the late Mr Burton, of Gawler, an old friend. He is an enthusiastic gardner, and I obtained from him a number of cuttings of choice plants.

A PICTURESQUE TOWS.

Between Yorketown and Minlaton was impressed with the absence of the growth of mallee. For about 10 miles between these two towns there is not a mallee to be seen, which appeared strange to one so accustomed to these trees. There is a large stretch of country entirely under titree, which appears to be beautiful grass country, but too rocky for cultivation. When about 10 miles from Minlaton a traveller gets into mallee country again, with beautiful crops of wheat and oats, which give promise of yielding from 20 bushels to the acre. About three miles from Minlaton there are a large number of well-to-do farmers, judging from their large and substantially built homesteads. Minlaton is the prettiest town I have seen during my trip. The main street is wide and is planted with mixed trees on each side. The Town Hall is exceptionally large for a country town, and there are a number of large stores and dwelling houes. Heard that at Yorketown on Monday night there was a fall of 15 points of rain, but not a drop fell at Minlaton. Motor cars and vehicles of all sorts are to be seen making for the Maitland Show.

Mount Rat and Port Yictoria.

Left Minlaton about 2 p.m. on Wednesday and arrived at Port Vicioria in time for tea. The land adjacent to Minlaton is mainly grazing country, but near Mount Rat, and from there to Port Victoria, there is good agricultural land with fair crops, which with half an inch of rain would be transformed into first class crops. Was surprised to see such good land and crops around Mount Rat, having heard for the past twenty years that it was poor miserable stony country. Upon arriving at Port Victoria noticed a steamer, the Investigator, and a ketch being loaded with wheat, flour, and salt. On looking out this morning noticed that they had both left. A man has, however just come into the hotel with the news that the Investigator is stranded on a sand bank, and will have remain there until the tide rises. Port Victoria is rather a picturesque spot to a stranger. Coming over the hill near the port, one looks down upon the town, the large bay and jetty. Outside the bay is a small peninsula of land belonging to Point Pearce Mission Station Port Victoria is a very busy place. In the summer, as large quantities of wheat and salt are shipped from this port. There are two banks, the Commercial and the Adelaide, two stores and a very comfortable hotel, which has just been purchased by Mr Dobbs, who bustles about and makes his patrons very comtortable. Purpose leaving for Maitland, and will I call in at the Mission Station en route.


A TRIP ROUND THE PENINSULA. POINT PEARCE MISSION STATION.

Wednesday 25 October 1911, Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA : 1888 - 1954) Trove

[By Mr J. P. Rooney. No. 3. After spending a most pleasant time at Port Victoria, through the kindness of the officers of the Commercial and Adelaide banks, who showed me over the Recreation Ground, and in other ways made my visit an enjoyable one, left for the Point Pearce Mission Station. The crops between Port Victoria and Maitland are a pleasure to look upon. Many of them look good enough for from 25 to 30 bushels per acre, and as far as the eye can see the crops look splendid. At the Mission Station there are some fine wheat paddocks, and all the crops are particularly clean, and give promise of a very heavy yield. Having been given a I letter of introduction to Mr Garnett, the manager, by Mrs Edwards, wife of the manager of the Port Victoria branch of the Commercial Bank, was most heartily welcomed. Mr and Mrs Garnett did all in their power to make my vsit a pleasant one, and their explanations about the work of the Mission were intensely intesting. It is rather a peculiar sight, when passing along the street leading to Mr Garnett's residence, to notice the houses on each side, which look very comfortable, occupied by aborigines, who are apparently very much interested in visitors. I also noticed a large number of picanninies, many of whom are not so black as some I have seen. The climate has perhaps changed their colour. On the station which has an area of 200,000 acres, of which 1,900 acres are under wheat crop, 1,000 acres under oats and barley, and 1,850 acres fallowed for next season, there are 6,600 sheep. The wheat crop is looking splendid, but the barley and oats crop is looking bad, and Mr Garnett is wondering how he will gather it as it is to short. The natives crop 1,000 acres every year under contract, this method being adopted as a means to get them to work. A fatal accident occurred at the Station on Wednesday. Three native children, who had been left at home by their mother, who went to the Maitland show, lit a fire to boil some water, and by some means scalded themselves so terribly that one of them died in the hospital. After completing an inspection of the Station, and was returning to the manager's house for a cup of tea, met Mr Henry Lamshed, formerly Member of Parliament, who with Mrs Lamshed, and four friends had motored from Maitland to have a look over the Mission Statiou not having met Mr Lamsbed for about 15 years was pleased to renew his acquaintance, and to notice that he was looking as young as he was 15 years ago. We all had tea together and spent a most enjoyable time. After tea left for Maitland, the crops along the road looking ideal.


On Yorke's Peninsula. No. 1.

Friday 3 November 1911, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951) Trove

During last month I made a big tour through Yorke's Peninsula, and made a few notes on the crops. Generally speaking the farmers will do well, although now and again I came across patches where the returns will not be so good as in some previous years. My trip started at Bute, and I spent the first evening at Port Price.

The crops were wanting rain badly. There were several goodlooking paddocks in Kulpara, and with an inch of rain they would be quite up to last year. Red rust was about and some frosty nights had proved dangerous, especially when the wheat was in bloom. The hay will be very short and scarce.

At Pt. Price a meeting of the Liberal Party was held. Mr D. J. Gordon, was one of the speakers. He gave such a sound, plain explanation of the Liberal and Labour platforms that even the dullest could not but grasp the whole situation. Any farmer or employer who would vote for labour after hearing such an explanation should visit Dr Cleland. The comment on preference to unionists by Mr Gordon was splendid and showed how cruel and tyrannical such an Act will be. Supposing the Liberal Party was in power and passed an Act to prevent unionists getting work, what an uproar there would be in the Labour Party. And quite right. Still we are told that we are living in a free country, and that the present Government is the uplifter of humanity. Taxation was thoroughly explained. We are the most heavily taxed people in the world, and if a change of bad seasons came we should find ourselves unable to meet such taxes. In the ordinary course of events we must be up to dry seasons now. In that case we shall feel the pinch, but perhaps this uplifter of humanity Government of ours will immediately take off the unbearable taxes. Then if it does, the Treasury will suffer. Instead of wiping off some of our debt while the money is flowing into the Treasury we are dipping deeper into debt.

Again, eight hours for farm labourers is a most iniquitous suggestion made by a party of selfish Socialists who do not understand farming nor do they want to know. Men in the early days went out in this country, a dense scrub. Only those who have gone through it can imagine the hardships which those men had to endure. Now through a change of seasons and phosphates they have got into good positions, and so soon as they do they are taxed or robbed to support those who never bad the pluck nor determination to face the battle through such hardships. This is part of the benevolence of our uplifting of humanity Government.

The crops from Price to Ardrossan are very poor indeed, and many of them will not be reaped. I was glad to learn that many of the crops inland are promising well. Near Ardrossan there are a few wheat paddocks looking good enough for 20 bushels. Put up at the Royal Hotel and was made comfortable by Mr and Mrs Graham. Next morning I strolled through the town, and was much surprised to notice the number of new shops and houses since my last visit, about ten years ago. I went I to Mr C. Smith's foundry, and I was amazed at the size of the workshops and the labour-saving machinery. Mr Elphick, office manager, kindly showed me all through, and explained every machine. The stability and prosperity of Ardrossan mainly depend on the factory. Mr Tiddy's new store is conspicuous. It is a beautiful large and up-to-date building. The whole town and surroundings seem in a flourishing condition.

From Ardrossan to Port Vincent I hugged the shore as close as I could all the way. Parts of the journey are very rough, with solid rocks and sand for about ten miles, and miserable stunted scrub. The crops would give you the 'blues' to look upon them—from four inches to a foot high, and heads as long as a button. There is no hope of getting back the seed off a lot of it. A farmer at Pine Point told me they would have good crops further inland even if they got no more rain. The rabbits are in millions along this track, and have eaten the crops to the ground up from a chain in from the fence. When you get about 20 miles from Ardrossan the country improves; you can see fair-sized mallee and sheoaks, and good crops of wheat and oats. About six miles from Port Vincent I saw the first binder working this season in a very good crop. The perfect semi-circle of the bay at Port Vincent and rising ground all round with trees and bushes would remind you slightly of a corner in Sydney Harbour.


On Yorke's Peninsula. No. II.

Friday 1 December 1911, Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951) Trove

The country is much better between Port Vincent and Stansbury, and the crops are looking really good. The farmers' houses and the surroundings also show improvement. Stansbury is an old township, and derives much trade from the burning of lime. There are 11 kilns within a radius of five miles. The crops from Stansbury on to Edithburgh and Yorketown are splendid, and many of them promise from 20 to 30 bushels. All the farmers feel satisfied, that they are in for another good harvest. Edithburgh is a very busy town in the summer time with the carting and manufacturing of salt, and one factory alone employs 150 men in the season. There are three factories, and sometimes as many as 150 wagons are on the road. Yorketown is a progressive town, and new buildings are going up all around. An old friend in M.C. Ewens was met with here. He told me that in the busy season some of the "cream of society" try to scrape Ewens instead of the salt, but they come off second best. Several other old friends were met at Yorketown. It is quite pleasant to come across well-known faces when one is travelling. Around Yorketown, and for a good distance on the road to Minlaton, there is not a mallee tree to be seen. To one coming from the mallee country this was quite a new experience. The land, however, grows splendid grass, but much of it is rocky, and no doubt accounts for the large tracts that lie uncultivated.

Eight miles north of the town I found my old friend the mallee, and some beautiful crops of wheat and oats. The best looking paddock of oats I have seen was on this road. All the farmers seem to be doing well if one can judge by the stamp of house they build. The whole countryside seems most prosperous. Minlaton is a pretty town and the main street is wide with a nice variety of trees on each side. All the buildings are substantial and new, motor cars and all sorts of traps are in evidence. From near Mt. Rat to Pt. Victoria there is fair agricultural country, and I was surprised at the quality of the crops hereabouts, as I had heard for the past twenty years that Mt. Rat was miserable stony country. Port Victoria is rather a picturesque little town. Coming over the hill you look down on a large bay, and the houses nestle at the head of the big stretch of water. At one side a long narrow neck of land juts put into the sea. This belongs to the Point Pearce Mission Station. Poft Victoria is busy in the summer with wheat and salt carting. There are six wheat buyers and two banks. Armed with a letter of introduction to the manager, Mr Garnett, I visited the mission station. Mr and Mrs Garnett were very kind. They explained everything about the place. The houses of the natives are on either side as you pass up to the manager's residence, and the lubras and picanninies gaze with curiosity at the stranger as he goes along. The station holding is 20,000 acres, 1,900 of which is under wheat, and 1,000 under oats and barley. Another 1,850 acres is in fallow for next season. There are 6,600 sheep. The natives crop about 1,000 acres every year on contract. This to me was a peculiar arrangement, but the blacks are so lazy that it is the onty way to get them to work. It is practically piece work, and they get paid by results. The crops around Maitland are a real pleasure to see, and they should show returns up to 35 bushels to the acre. Taken all through I had a most pleasant and interesting trip, and I feel more than ever convinced that Yorke's Peninsula is one of the most reliable and good wheat-producing areas of the State.


Forty Years Reminiscences on Southern Yorke's Peninsula.

Saturday 15 February 1913, Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

In the early part of the year 1870 Messrs James Brown, George Hoare, Thomas Correll, James Davey, James Dugan, senr. and jnr , came to Southern Yorke's Peninsula to settle on their selections near what is now known as Seven Roads in the Troubridge Agricultural Area. They had taken up land under the Strangways Land Act.

These pioneers, who have now gone to their rest had a hard time at first, as their selections had been fed off until not a bite of grass was left. It was difficult to get supplies, as their was only a small sailing craft trading about once a fortnight. Stock had to be fed on sheoak. The pioneer farmers received a weekly mail overland from Adelaide through the courtesy of Mr L . H . Giles, the manager of the Pentonvale station. A district council was formed and roads were cleared. A small jetty was built at Point De Mole now called Edithburgh. Steamers trading to Wallaroo called in and storekeepers and tradesmen came and settled in in the village. In a few years the seasons became more dry and red rust made its appearance. The kinds of wheat then grown were not so rust resistant as those now used. The farmers grew wheat year after year on the same land until the land began to grow sick, oats and barley were then tried but low prices and not much demand soon put an end to that. A large industry was worked up with hay and has been maintained till the present. At one time bricks were made near Lake Fowler but the clay turned out to be unsuitable. Before the farmers came the owners of Pentonvale station had had the salt from the many lagoons bagged and carted to the seaboard but as there was no market for it, the salt was left there until the bags rotted away. The salt trade was afterwards taken in hand by Mr Thos. Woods, then followed Henry Berry & Co. who put up refineries at the various lakes. Now, as is well-known, the refining of the salt is all done at Edithburgh where the factories work day and night. The Gypsum (sulphate of lime) which there are thousands of tons round some of the lakes has become a trade of considerable extent and gives constant employment to a number of men and teams. In the eighties we had a run of late and dry seasons, many of the settlers and tradespeople left the district. The farmers tried pig raising, poultry and sheep. At that time very little wheat went to market and at one time sheaved hay had no commercial value, the pick of a yard of horses could be bought for £10 or £12. The run of dry seasons had some redeeming features. In the seasons when the winter rains did not come till about June the salt on the lakes considerably increased in quantity and the cockspur which had overrun many farms, died out, the years were too dry for it to mature its seed. The farmer of to-day owes a good deal of his success to those gentlemen who have spent so much of their time in cultivating and selecting new varieties of wheat of good milling, good yielding and rust resisting qualities. Better kinds of grain in wheat, oats and barley, together with the use of phosphates have made the farmer prosperous in a way he never knew before. For quite a number of years the lambing trade has been good and barley for malting purposes has been largely grown with good profits. At one time the losses of cattle from dry bible was so great that farmers were compelled to turn to the goat for the milk supply. Lime burning is an industry that has been steadily increasing since the early days of the farmers. The first kilos were worked at Edithburgh and now large kilns are in many places along the coast. During the last 20 years we have a had variety of weather conditions. Some years we have had many days of south east winds in the summer months and other years hardly any. Then again we have had some years when thunder storms were frequent and cloudy days and very little rain, and others plenty rain with very little cloud. I have noticed that the years when very little south east wind blew in February and March, were dry years. Much south east wind early in the year, say January, was mostly followed by too early rains and then dry winter. Some years we have had two layers or strata cloud moving in different directions or in the same direction at different speeds—with these conditions we have had thunderstorms and good rain. It does not appear to be the want of cloud, but the want of the necessary electrical conditions to precipitate the moisture, that causes the dry seasons.


In the Early Days On Southern Yorke Peninsula.

Saturday 18 November 1922, Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

Mr. W. Correll of 18 Ascot Avenue, Dulwich, writes:—I saw by the PIONEER your reference to the early pioneer farmers visiting Yorketown Show, also your clipping re the stumpjump plow. As l am the oldest one left of those who on me with the five first selectors a reminiscence might be of interest. I will give the names in the order the selections were made under the Strangways Act, 1869 : James Brown, Alma Plains ; George Hoare, Alma Plains ; Thomas Correll, Hurtle Vale; James Davey, Angaston; James Dugan, Penwortham. The selectious were all made between Seven Roads and Diamond Lake, and each one was on his selec tion in March, 1870. Messrs. Brown and Hoare were single men. These selectors have all gone to their long home. Mr. Brown had a shepherd's hut on his block ; others had to live in tents for a while. The selections had good feed on when they were taken up, but none when we came to work them. Sheaoak had to be used for feed, and it was difficult to get chaff. We had good early rains, and feed soon grew. We received a mail overland once a week, which came in Messrs. Anstey & Giles' mail bag to Penton Vale. Mr. Harry Stockings came with Mr. Davey, and brought his family ; Messrs. Dugan, senr. and jnnr., also brought their families ; my father brought me and a younger brother. As there was plenty of clear land on all the selections the plows were got to work at once, a 2-furrow being tbe largest plow on the settlement. I plowed over 60 acres with a single-furrow plow. There were no seed sowers or drills in those days— all had to be sown by hand. We had a good season, and our crop went bushels per acre. The results of our first harvest brought a lot more selectors. Many of them had to clear the timber off first, which by hand grubbing was a slow game. As there were a number of bullock teams about the trees were pulled out by the roots. A long strong chain or a wire cable was fastened up as high as possible, and 6 or 8 bullocks soon had the tree down. The chain sometimes broke, but that did not hinder the work long, for the teamaster wound into the two end links a small coil of fencing wire, and soon had a link stronger than the one that had broken. It was a bit lonely at first, but Mr. Davey had a mason building a house who was a Methodist local preacher, and he held service in a large tent. This brought the settlers together, and relieved the monotony. After the first harvest, when the fresh settlers had settled down, a small building was erected at Honiton which served as a school (Mr. S. Carter as teacher) and also as a place of worship. The pioneer settlers were a fine lot of fellows. They arranged picnics, which were enlivened by songs and recitations. A Mutual Improvement Society was formed, and those who had books donated some and formed a library at Honiton. I look back with pleasure to the evenings spent there. We had a few good seasons, then a run of dry ones, and as we cropped the same land year after year with wheat Takeall made its appearance— but it did not take the wi!d oats or coakspor—and red rust was prevalent. Some change had to be made. Farmers began to keep a few sheep, and these soon lessened the cockspur pest, and fallowing was practised Thanks are due to such men its Messrs Marshall, Farrow, Gluyas, King, Steinwedel, and others who raised new varieties of early ripening and rust resisting wheats. Hay was cut largely for some years until it became of little commercial value. The early settlers had communication with Port Adelaide by means of a small vessel called the Omeo, sailed by a jovial old skipper, Alex. Raid. This boat was the regular trader for the stations, and was also the pub. Amongst the second year's selectors were a number of Germans, who enlivened the district with brass band music. As the selectors got settled a District Council was formed and roads were cleared. Storekeepers aud tradespeople came. Mr. E. Jacobs opened a store near the corner where Erichsen's store now stands. The township was then called Weaners' Flat, it being the station lambing paddock Mr Jacobs was also the first post-master Mr. Wm. F. Friebe, Mr. H. Till, and Mr. H. Newlin had shops at Seven Roads as bootmakers and harness makers. A township was surveyed there, but it was considered too near Edithburgh, and after a time Messrs Friebe and Newlin removed to Weaners Fiat, now called Yorketown. The shipping piace for some time was at Salt Creek, now called Coobowie and in busy times teams had to wait sometimes all day to get their load of wheat off, as the boat had to unload as well as take wheat. Two ketches were added to the trade—the Sai or Prince (Captain Reid) the Edith Alice (Captain Heath). A small jetty was made at Edithburgh. It was only wide enough for a truck, ran out to where the boat steps are at present, and had a platform and a derrick at the end. Mr. A. Martin ran a cutter called the Sultana until a syndicate purchased a small steamer, the James Comrie then regular service was established. By this time a good many settlers had made homes in the adjoining Hundreds of Dalrymple and Warooka ; and a lot of their trade passed through the Troubridge area. It may be news to many to know that bricks were made by Mr. T. Wood from the clay of a small lagoon north of lake Fowler, but the clay being unsuitable the bricks cracked in the burning, and the manufacture was stopped. One of the redeeming features of the run of dry seasons in the 70's and 80's was to increase the quantities of salt on the lakes, and the easily gathered salt did much for the salt industry. News of a new kind of a plow got among the settlers, and soon one was brought into the district. I went to see it at work near Wattle Point. It. was a cumbersome affair, with the plow bodies bolted to long heavy beams hung by the head to the front part of a square frame, so that the plow body could be lifted as on a hinge. When at work the beams and plow would sometimes nearly stand on end and come down on the back bar of the frame with a clank that could be heard sections away. It ran on four small wheels, and was kept in the ground by the weight of plow bodly and the heavy beam and weight. This plow which we will call NO. 1, had only a short innings, as they were made much lighter and kept in the ground by what is now known as the bridle draught, the draught being attached to a lever on the front of the plow, then to the plow body by a bridle. These plows did good work, but, the bridle being attached to the plow body, caught all stones and rubbish. To obviate this a horn was attached to the underpart of the beam. Some makers put the horn in front of the king bolt, come directly under it; but the best p!ace was found to be a little behind it. Most of the blacksmiths began making this No 2 pattern plow. There was diversity of makes—some made them with weight oni as well as bridles, some with long beams and the plow made movable, aud some farmers would put the plows as far back on the beams as they could get them, and then wondered why the plow would not go in the ground but hang up when it came in contact with a root or stone. No amount of arguing would convince some of them that the further they put the share point back from under the king bolt the further they were getting away from the leading principle of the jump plow. Some makers did not seem to understand the principle of the bridle draught and sent them out with weights on, which were mostly thrown away. Some made no extra holes in the draught lever so that more leverage could be put on for hard ground Others made a good implement, but spoiled it for good work by a badly set mouldboard. To bring the dif ferent makes together a plowing match was arranged and held near Oakiands, and makers from far and near had plows there. Amougst them Mr. C. H Smith, of Ardrossan, came with No 3. make, and scooped the pool. The frame of his plow was ; carried by two large wheels on a cranked axle and had a smaller wheel in front which ran in the furrow. Other makers soon got to work making this No. 3 pattern plow. The late Mr. S. Bracegirdle, of Edith burgh, sold a well-made 3 furrow, which did good work, for £22, and I had one of them. At first these plows had the pull-out lever at the back of the plow: if the reins were not to long ones you had to let them go to pull the lever down. I altered mine to a more convenient place, and, as far as I know, was the finst man to put a seat on a stumpjump plow. The principle of the plow brought out by the late Mr. C. H. Smith has not been altered except in minor details for convenience or fancy. Some like them with spring pressure, but I prefer the bridle draught. There is still room for a little improvement in the way of making the team pull the plow out of the ground. Attempts have been made to do this, but as they were not on the right principle they did not work well—but still it can be done. The stumpjump plow has proved itself to be one of the best inventions for the man on the land, and has enabled many thousands of acres to be cultivated that could not otherwise have been done. Yorke Peninsula is the home of the stumpjump plow.


ON YORKE'S PENINSULA IMPRESSIONS FROM A MOTOR CAR

Sat 21 Apr 1923, The Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1923) Trove

Leaving Adelaide at S a.m. we started for a motor trip on the peninsula. Our party consisted of four and the chaffeur. In due course we reached the Gawler Racecourse, and slowed down to watch the movements of the boys in the military camp....


YORKE'S PENINSULA—THEN AND NOW.

Wed 13 Jun 1923, The Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA : 1888 - 1954) Trove

The lapse of half a century of time naturally implies considerable changes, especially in a new country, and it is occasionally instructive and frequently pleasing to look back over the years and contrast conditions of Then and Now....


Y0RKE PENINSULA.

Sat 9 Jun 1923, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

Sir William Sowden's Impressions on his Recent Visit. Many years ago I lived awhile in the mining district of Northern Yorke Peninsula, and have occasionally since revisited that extensive and far-famed region....


WIRELESS FOR THE MAN ON THE LAND.

Sat 15 Dec 1923, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954)

Messrs. L. A. Harper and S. G. Germein, representing the Millswood Auto and Radio Company, have visited the various towns on Yorke Peninsula during the week. They have appointed agents for a new company to be known as the South Australian Broadcasting Co. Ltd. The Company will specialise in the manufacture and sale of wireless outfits. The station at Clarence Park will be the first broadcasting station in the State. Wireless is a new industry, and the possibilities are enormous. The new Company will commence broadcasting in January. The man on the land and in the country town without a wireless receiving outfit will be a back number. For seven hours daily the station will send out weather reports, market sales, time signals, prices of wool, sheep, pigs, etc., results of sporting events, cricket, football, lectures by prominent men, addresses by politicians, bed-time stories for the children, music, grand opera, etc. If you have a receiving outfit you will be able to hear all of the above. A special motor car equipment is being fitted to cars, and as the car travels along the farmer or business man can switch on and take messages from the air. The prices of receiving sets will range from £5 upwards. A most serviceable instrument for the man on the land will cost from £32 to £35. The Company has been formed, and 50,000 shares at are being offered to the public. Shares are being rapidly taken up. Look out for an important announce ment next week, In the meantime prospectus and particulars can be obtained from Mr. Geo. Rinder, Maitland; Messrs. A. E. Will and Woodard, Minlaton; Messrs. Murdock Bros., Yorketown: Mr. T. Croser, Coobowie; Messrs. L. G. Germein and A. j. Bridges, Stansbnry; Messrs. Cameron & King, Port Vincent and Curramulka; Mr. C. Hincks, Port Victoria; Messrs. J. O. Tiddy & Co. and A. J. Jarrett, Ardrossan.

PIONEER readers will no doubt remember that Mr. S. G. Germein, who is a Director of the new Company, is well known on Yorke Peninsula. He was a successful farmer at Stansbury, Black Point, and Maitland, and a member of the Yorke Peninsula and Minlaton District Councils. Mr. L. A. Harper was Postmaster at Stansbury for several years, and afterwards took charge of the Motor Department of the S.A. Farmers' Cooperative Union. The Company have erected a two-storey building, and will receive wireless news from all parts of the world.



DIARY OF FOUR "TRAMPS."

Sat 29 Aug 1925, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954)

A Tour of Farming Areas on Southern Yorke's Peninsula.

By Munchausen de Rougemont in the " Register."

A winter camping holiday What madness! B-r-r-rh! Four men and all equipment in one motor car, is it possible? Needs must when the old gentleman is the chauffeur, for at no other time was a holiday possible, and specially equipped motor caravans are a diversion of the idle rich, and we were of the new poor, and we must go sight-seeing, and we must make use of the 1920 vintage Dodge. We had cold high tea at the Y.M.C.A., and talked over details and plans. Talking over plans is more than half the fun with these expeditions. It enables you to test out any mean spots in your future tent-mate, and with good road maps, and no knowledge on their part of your fishing and shooting skill, you can spin out your geographical knowledge by a little faking, and bring out all your reminiscences with such adornment that you hardly recognise them yourselves.

—The Personnel.—

You can plan such a welter of equipment. You can pile up the rifles and the fishing rods, the changes of clothing, the blankets and folding stretchers, the tent-poles and pegs, the crockery and tins of petrol, groceries and stores, mountains high and the beauty of it is you don't need to lever yourself into a small corner of the car somewhere with a shoehorn, and sit like a crushed concertina amid mountains of luggage, as the hard reality of the thing would force you to do. Did we need condensed milk? A shovel and tackle for getting out of bogs? Fire kindlers? Solemnly we debated it, item by item, and, as the case might be, the ayes had it or the noes wiped the floor with the preposterous proposition. Perhaps I might introduce ourselves to the gentle reader. There was first and foremost all through, myself, Munchausen, chosen as scribe because of undeniable claims to verisimilitude in my chronicles, a man of splendid appetite, hardened to my fare, and a wonderful knack of making myself comfortable anywhere with my neighbour's bootlace, or a borrowed tie, or somebody else's blanket There was Walter as manager, whom we allowed to come because he had the car and was the only one who could drive it and knew all its tricks. There was Bob the sculptor, who supplied the lion's share of the comic relief, and besides was a most excellent cook, and there was. Laurie the artist who got in on the fact of having a camera and the rumour that he could paint wonderful sunsets, with pink suns and violet seas, and impossibly beautiful ships sailing about on them, and who lived up to bis reputation thoroughly. How many meals we went late for or missed through him, how many times we nearly left him behind just wanting to finish this little sketch, how many times he allowed the soup to spoil and the damper to burn, like King Alfred and the cakes, would take an American cash register permutator to calculate.

Was it a success? Let statistics speak for themselves. Treating ourselves like lords in the way of the larder, spending six days in the car cruising through all kinds of scenery, camping here and there, spending in all 12 days in the far corners of the State, driving in all in the neighbourhood of 500 miles, fishing, shooting, bathing, walking, boating, and allowing for our quota each of the car expenses at 6d. per mile running costs, we had the most wonderful and educational and health-giving fortnight the earth can afford at a total cost of £4 14/4 each, and even that might have been cut down, I could never quite make out what that 4d. was for.

—On the Road.—

Looking like the complete campers out, we left Adelaide from the vicinity of the City Baths—ominous spot— with Walter at the wheel on a Monday morning in a dense fog. Were we Don Quixotes and Sancho Panzas embarked on a folly of Utopian travels, calculated to end in the ravages of indigestion and the fatal throes of pneumonia? Who knows? We were in a fog, and wiped the windscreen with handkerchiefs clean for the last time for a whole fortnight. Each had a sworn by all the ashes of his sires neither to shave nor wear a collar again for two solid weeks. How frail is human resolution! Looking back it seems that the whole fortnight was dizzy succession of shaves in all kinds of impossible attitudes, attire, and conditions, the resurrection of innumerable collars, twisted and often soiled, for regal and State occasions, for mysteriously enough every Jack one of us found collars and shaving material in a kit which was to be cut to the utmost limits!

Let the reader mark and take note of our car. The running boards were packed with boxes, buckets, groceries, crockery, tent and fly, suitcases, poles, shovel,dietz lantern, &c., tied with abundance of rope. It was discovered too late that we should all have to climb in, to which I stoutly objected, owing to my being an outsize in avoirdupois, but in which I was overruled and compelled ignominiously to make use of myself by sitting on the stronger spring of the two at the back. We amused ourselves the first 12 miles by simple addition of our respective weights, adding the calculated weight article on calculation bringing the total in the vicinity of five tons, and stances I thought his speed of be 10 and 20 miles an hour, and indeed his petrol consumption (as we found afterwards) of about 19 miles to the gallon, remarkable for the car. Muffled to the eyes, and hooting through a dense fog, we steered northward and passed the Bolivar without stopping for mushrooms or refreshments, and came to the edge of the bitumen, and the beginnings of trouble, on the world's worst road. For the benefit of racing patrons. Little Para is out of heaven into hades, a tropical allusion to the edge of bitumen track at this point. Within a few miles we developed spring trouble, owing (it was alleged by Bob) to my excessive weight, but as I was over the spring which did not go wrong, I resented the allusion keenly. A roll of rubber from an old tire, a piece of cut, green mallee stick wherein our camp tomahawk was first called into service, and some farmer's fencing wire soon made an excellent and permanent buffer, and prevented the tire wearing itself out bumping the body work. It is hoped that the invention may later be patented, and I am claiming the royalties as having first thought of it, but, as Walter made it, he also is putting in a claim which may possibly occasion litigation and delay.

—Townships Passed.—

We were soon whizzing along again Windsor, Wild Horse Plains, with one half starved-looking white horse which looked too sad for sound or foam, Dublin, Inkerman, we reeled off the miles and camped at the roadside for coffee a la thermos and sandwiches a la packed by a loving wifey in the morning. Swinging along, we came to Port Wakefield, a fine town at the head of St. Vincent's Gulf, clear air, clean buildings, a railway centre, south of a big tract of marshy looking swamp country. We were adjured to keep off the beach track round the peninsula, and go through the Hummocks, sturdy big hills lifting out of the flat plain, if we desired to reach the peninsula without being bogged. After taking in tea and more supplies we rolled northward, still amid magnificent cloud effects and wonderful aeroplane scenery, looking back towards the gulf from the heights towards Kulpara. Along lovely limestone roads, through Melton, and on we pushed, still ambling at about 16 to 18, and brought up in warm, sheltered mallee scrub by the shores of the gulf on the other side on the peninsula at Port Clinton, which isn't much if you take away the sea and the wheat shed and the post office .

—A Busy Evening.—

What a hubbub and a to do! Water to beg water to cart! Fire place to make fire to billy to boil, frying pan to set sizzling! Holes to dig, masts to step, sails to spread, guys to fit tent pegs to hammer, stretchers to set up, beds to make, crockery to un-pack with darkness gathering aface. What peace, what joy the warm camp fire, eating camp fare! It was 8 o'clock when we rolled, tired and happy, into our bunks. Unfortunately Bob thought it necessary, to introduce some excitement, having a serious accident with his collapsible stretcher, which he said was lent to him by a pseudo-friend. It certainly was collapsible. At various unexpected moments throughout the whole tour it showed off its various methods of collapsing, horizontally, perpendicularly, silently, nosily, pancake fashion, and concertina fashion. I never saw a foot ruler fold up more neatly than Bob did. His cries rent the air, and murdered the peace of the stilly night. This reminded him of a long anecdote which he was still narrating when we all went to sleep and remained thus till freezing dawn, when, cold and rheumaticky, we wended our way after breakfast to the local post office, and sent wires to wives, telling the news that we had weathered the night successfully, and were happy and well, and had plenty of bedding and red flannel stomach protectors. What a hero man is!

—Lovely Coast Scenery.—

Leaving Port Clinton we shot a rabbit about 10 chains out. Bob dropped the gun, and the rabbit dropped dead, and the car stopped short, and all our mouths fell open with wonder. I pleaded with Laurie to paint the sacred scene and immortalise it. But he warmly accused the sheepish Bob of having aimed at another rabbit and let the gun off by accident, but magnanimously forgave him, as the rabbit was a big fat one, and would keep us going, fried with some onions, for lunch, provided he cleaned it and cooked it. Oh, that lunch! We steered south along the coast to Port Price, and running through prosperous farms and the busy port of Ardrossan, with its surprisingly large implement works and opulent homes, came through lovely coast scenery to a little short of Muloowurite, or Pine Point, and swerving away from a sea-fog coming up the coast, steered diagonally across the leg of the Peninsula for Minlaton. Some of the road was good, some of it rough limestone ridges, very bumpy: and we stayed on the road to cook the rabbit. Shades of Methuselah! Of all the tough old buck rabbits this was the toughest. The onions were good, anyway, and we hastened on, after interviewing the loneliest looking man on the Peninsula, who, in response to the query whether it wasn't a quiet sort of spot, us vehemently it was a very busy place, sometimes as many as six cars going along that very road in a day.

—Social Progress.—

Yorke Peninsula has an individuality of its own. People may tell you as often as they please that there was a time when the whole of the people were bankrupt, and that "super made the Peninsula," and may spin yarns till further orders concerning the time when dad and mum and the girls went stump-picking in the paddocks, and now they drive a 69 horsepower Hissing-Spanisneeziola, a sort of reversion of the Gilbertian. "She told me her age was five-and-twenty, and of cash in the bank of course she had plenty, and now we live in a top back room!" All I can say is those days must have been a good long time ago. There seem to be more magpies, motor cars, tractors, ten-horse teams, palatial implement sheds, and young men with motor bikes to the square inch in Yorke Peninsula than anywhere else on the inhabited globe. Limestone, sheoak, mallee, and Methodist Churches seem to thrive in abundance. The people have hearts of gold, and from what I could see countenance of good of some of them good British oak.

—Flourishing Centres.—

We skimmed past Curramulka on our left, were passed by the motor mail with it's load of passengers and it's quaint little trailer carrying the mailbags, driving like Jehu, and capable by the looks of things of "doing fifty." And now we were on one of those peculiar and happy possessions of the Peninsula, a first-class limestone road, smooth as a billiard table stretching through a park-like avenue of plain fields and trees for miles. We warmed up the old tea kettle and set the engine sizzling, and Walter the driver, stood on the accelerator and our quaint Noah's Ark waltzed along into Minlaton like the latest thing on wheels, considerably startling the natives. 'Minlaton is a fine town. It is a sort of capital city of Yorke Peninsula, which has more contestants for the capital site than the Commonwealth of Australia. Bisecting the leg from the knee to the small of the foot you have, running south. Kadina, Maitland, Minlaton, and Yorketown all splendid centres. In one of the, large and commodious stores, Waller ad Bushranger was able to purchase for the ferocious-looking crew a firstclass newspaper, onions, trouser buttons, fish hookes, butter, bread, and other necessities of broken-down millionaires disguised as tramps. Still diagonalling across the Peninsula we steered from Brentwood through more wild and romantic country. There were hills and trees and sand and rabbits galore, and Bob now showed his true powers as a marksman by missing several of them by what I should describe as a record number of yards and points of the compass. I assured him he would do better if he shut his eyes, but he pointed out with superior disgust that lit thought the gun must have got the barrel bent when we put it under the case of petrol. It must have been a very bad bend.

—At Minlacowie.—

In the late lovely afternoon light, with glorious clouds overhead, we pulled up at Minlacowie, on the instep of the Peninsula, a place for ever blest of dear memories. The port is a considerable one, 800 tons of super coming in for the season, the wheat-sheds being enormous and only yet half emptied. A fine little jetty, rolling sand dunes; and rock-circled bays and busy fishing boats afar, which immediately seduced Laurie into painting an impossibly beautiful evening sketch. I revelled in breasting the wide waters of the bay with powerful and tireless strokes for a 30 seconds swim in the cold waters. I like to be clean. Now, Laurie is a meticulous and fussy chap. He is always washing his hands or his paintbrushes, or else having a shave and cleaning his teeth. At odd intervals he appears with a clean shirt or a starch collar. He is not a fit subject for a camp. Bob cooked the tea. Our camp was a lovely, homely spot, a deserted shed. which we appropriated, containing a table and other unaccustomed luxuries. We should have been there yet, only the morning after the morning after, the Quorna steamed up to the deserted jetty and whistled and the harbour-master appeared in blinding rain, and several wharf workers appeared out of nowhere in a Ford car, and we were innominously bundled out in double-quick time to make room for 60 tons of super. What a wonderful time we had there! What rabbits Bob nearly shot and frightened! What lovely whiting we caught off the local fishermen with silver bait! What plunges from the jetty into the deep, icy waters! What glorious sketches! If one had to toss a penny, Heaven or Minlacowie, in such company, one wouldn't much care which way it fell.

—A Week's Camping Out.—

Imagine us next afternoon, having passed through the town of Warooka, and fallen grace to the extent of having lunch at the local hotel, savoury stewed steak and mushrooms, rolling smoothly along through enchanting vistas of tea-tree, on the long, 20-mile stretch to Corny Point. We were adjured in Warooka not to look forward to wild blackfellows, and trees full of gibbering monkeys, and jungles of wild tigers, it was not so far from civilisation as you might imagine! What a camp we had there! We stayed a week, and wished it were a month. We were surrounded with kindness on every side. It would take a book to describe it. Our headquarters was a one-time schoolhouse and chapel, now a wheat barn and camping cottage. It is true we had to put a tarpaulin over the thatch, mop up water from the floor with bags, and shoot at mice and rats with a rifle. What roaring mallee root fires we had! What lordly times rolling over the country in the car! What hospitality of the residents! What a sensation we cut at the local Saturday evening dance! And the sing-songs we gave! Bob was subject to a grave metamorphosis at this time. He acquired local fame as the sad balladist of the company. His predeliction for mournful and lugubrious ditties, sung in a soft and pitiful tenor, was something to wonder over. He chose themes like this:—

"O lather, dear lather, come home to us now,

We want your trousers to pawn?

You promised that you could come home to us all.

When all of your wages was gone!"

Or with his head on one side, like a dog accompanying a harmonium, he would narrate:—

"The boy stood on the railway track. The engine gave a squeal. The guard took out his pocket knife And scraped him off the wheel!"

Chorus: "It ain't gonna rain no more," &c.

But the tears stood in the bright eyes of the large congregation of local hearers when he sang "He is a Single man." accompanied by the inimitable Walter, his masterpiece, "Larboard Watch," technically known in camp as "Cardboard Watch." There was prospect of us all going home mournfully to bed and a sleepless night, when Bob began to regale the company with several immense jokes, all delivered with the same harrowed countenance, which sent us all into gales of laughter, with the startling result that whenever after any of the local inhabitants caught sight of him, they went almost helpless with hilarity at his mere gesture or saying. Bob is a character all right.

—Salt Scraping.—

We set out homeward in the early morning, and steering back to Warooka replenished petrol and oil, and made eastward for Yorketown through some of the salt lake country. I will here describe the salt industry with apologies for the obscure technical terms involved in this complex industry. It seems that what you do is to have a nice tidy size lake tucked away in a corner of your estate. You then, in order to grow your crop, sit down and wait for the right season to come around, and when the water is quite dry you gather it in the peculiar manner of going out and scraping it up. After this you put it in a wagon and ship it away and collect your cheque. It is the lazy farmer's idea of paradise. Yorketown is a city of thriving and throbbing activity. By the look of it the residents have far more money than they know rightly what to do with, and we cut quite a pitiful figure, our equipment stained with mud and weather, and our weather-beaten appearance such that our own maternal relatives would cut us dead in the main street. We purchased souvenirs at the go-ahead offices The Yorketown Pioneer, and forwarded some execrable verses dealing with our trip to the poor harassed editor. We then thought it advisable to move on, and heading for the east coast ran through Stansbury in the early afternoon.

—Grand Scenery.—

Here we come to one of the finest scenic drives in the treasure house of well-stored memory. Mile after mile of coastal scenery, on our left the great fields under the busy plough and drill, on our right sea, even and anon flashing up like a great burnished jewel. All alone the coast alternate the high cliffs and the quiet somnolent valleys, and here and there, notably at Port Vincent and Black Point, the sandbars run out at right angles a couple of miles into the sea, making splendid harbourage, and these points are favourite runs for the yachting enthusiasts from Port Adelaide, who run across the gulf for a spin. Bob further disgraced his well-known record with the gun by standing up in the car, held at the coat tails by the united company, and shooting a goodly hare about 80 yards off. The look in the eye of the hare of surprise and pathetic rebuke at Bob, the gay deceiver, was only equalled by that in his own eyes as he gathered up the carcase and gave expert directions as to how it should rightly he jugged.

All through the long afternoon we rolled on, through Ardrossan again, and northward for our first camp at Port Clinton, the gun banging furiously right and left galloping rabbits, with few casualties however.

That night we camped with practised efficiency, as to the manner born, in the warm, snug mallee nest we knew, and with the stars had breakfast in the cool dawn under the stars by the blazing camp fire, while Bob vainly peered in the north-west for the dawn, and announced finally that there wasn't going to be any sun that day. Back to Port Wakefield en route, driving down lovely dawnlit aisles of eucalipt fringed roads, and on the dunes and swamps, pausing a while to gather buckets of mushrooms for families at home. South, ever south, to the unfamiliar traffic of busy suburban streets and city life. Home again, healthier, happier, harder, browner, and more glad to sleep between sheets after a hot bath than ever before in one's life. A great fortnight, rejuvenescent, and littered with thronging memories of sights and scenes and experiences which memory will cherish for ever. The sun and the wind and the fields and the stars, our ultimate dearest friends! Go thou my gentle reader and do likewise. Re a tramp de luxe, and emulate your friend Munchausen.


THE SOUTHERN END OF YORKE'S PENINSULA. A WONDERLAND FOR THE GEOLOGIST, THE CHRONOLOGIST, THE AGRICULTURALIST, AND THE PASTORALIST WITH SPECIAL MENTION OF YORKETOWN AND EDITHBURGH.

Tue 15 Jun 1926, The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929)

By a Special Representative of The Register.

If our readers will glance for a moment at a map of South Australia they will note what peculiar geographical features Yorke's Peninsula possesses. Surrounded on three sides by the sea, with an outline similar to that of Italy, Yorke's Peninsula to a certain extent resembles the shape of a "Russian" boot. Its long coastline, broken into innumerable little bays, with 18 jetties or more, offers splendid facilities for the shipment of its products. On its eastern and western sides are St. Vincent's and Spencer's Gulfs respectively, while in a southern direction between its foot and Kangaroo Island is Investigator Strait. Capt. Matthew Flinders, the renowned Australian explorer and navigator, sailed along its coastline, and in March, 1802, named Yorke's Peninsula in honour of the Right. Hon. Charles Phillip Yorke; a well-known Englishman, who accompanied Flinders Flinders on one of his voyages in the Investigator. Yorketown derives its name from the same origin. Many other localities close to Yorke's Peninsula were named by Flinders after other prominent men of his time and company. Originally the peninsula was a happy hunting ground for aboriginals, and now many of the towns bear names derived from the natives. A few of these which may be cited are Coo-bowie, Minlacowie, Port Moorowie, Booblacowie, Orrie Cowie, and Moldarby; the termination of "owie" denoting fresh water, in the native language. The County of Fergusson was named after the late Sir James Fergusson; formerly a South Australian Governor: Edithburgh after his wife's name, and Kilkerran after his Ayrshire estate in Scotland.

A Barley, Wheat, and Wool Producing District.

The majority of the farming land in the vicinity of Yorketown is best adapted for barley and wheat growing. In most in-stances a first-class sample of barley is produced, which is keenly sought by maltsters. The district is well suited for the growing of export lambs. Messrs. Goldsbrough, Mort, & Co., Limited, last year shipped from Edithburgh alone over 4,000 fat lambs on account of Messrs. Angliss & Co., of Melbourne. The present lamb season promises to be even better as the district generally is in good heart. More farmers are specializing in cross-bred lambs also. A fine type of sheep is bred in this district, and a good class of wool is grown, although the highest prices are not realized on account of the clover burr, and condition in the wool produced by rich feed. Messrs. Goldsbrough, Mort, and Co., Limited, opened a branch office at Yorketown in March 1925, and report very favourable business of a sound financial nature. During the past 12 months the company has been responsible for the sale of 15 properties in the district, at gradually increasing values, ranging from £5 to £16 10/ per acre, according to the quality of the land and improvements. Numerous sales of sheep, cattle, and horses have also been effected, and markets are held periodically by the company at Warooka and Yorketown. The lower end of Southern Yorke's Peninsula varies from good barley-growing land to grazing country of several classes. Some 500 square miles of this part is virgin country consisting of Crown leasehold, ranging in value from 10/ to £2 per acre, and in some cases higher. It is used principally for grazing purposes. Cattle and horses both do well in this country, but sheep suffer from coast disease in certain parts if left there for any lengthy period. A change to cultivated areas further north soon rectifies this disorder; in fact, it may be prevented altogether if a change of pasture is given for a few weeks several times a year. In the opinion of one of the leading stock-men of the district, the advent of cultivation and the use of superphosphate in these parts would totally overcome this, and sheep could be carried throughout the year with better advantage to the grazier. He considers also that a number of the holdings are far too large for cultivation purposes, and that if they were smaller could be worked to better advantage. Much of this country, if properly cultivated, would produce barley crops equal to those at present grown on land which in better situated areas has a selling value of from eight to ten times greater. The progress of some of this inland country known as the "Bottom end" has been very materially delayed by its inaccessibility, due to bad roads and scattered ports, and it is strongly felt in many quarters that better facilities should be provided. The country has a good rainfall, and should have a big future before it.

Yorketown has two local auctioneers, Messrs. H. Dalling and N. H. Eichner, both, of whom report good business during the past year. Mr. Dalling during this period handled 21 clearing sales, besides stock market and private sales. He also sold, a large number of properties on the peninsula, the turnover in land sales alone being approximately £80,000. The turnover in private stock and sheep sales totalled £25,000. During the past 12 months Mr. Eichner has been responsible for the disposal of 10 farming properties — valued at £40,000— both on Yorke's and Eyre's' Peninsulas. He states that a number of Yorke Peninsula farmers will shortly be leaving the district for the west coast where properties are much cheaper than in their own locality. Since last Christmas he has sold three large properties in the Kimba district, and hopes very shortly to be doing further business there.

The Southern Yorke's Peninsula Agricultural, Horticultural, and Floricultural Society began its fine career at Yorketown in 1876 so that this year will be its jubilee year. The show meeting is claimed to, be one of the best on Yorke's Peninsula, and the society shows every sign of vigorous prosperity.

The President of the society is Mr. A. P. Piggott, with Mr. N. H. Eichner as secretary. Practically the only fruit gardens on the peninsula are close to Stansbury. These supply fruit to surrounding towns in limited quantities. In the Warooka district splendid vegetables are grown. Yorketown is noted for its beautiful flower gardens.

A Paradise for Geologists.

The climate of Yorke's Peninsula is a pleasant one, and is found specially agreeable by tourists. Surrounded as it is by the sea on three sides, with no hills to intercept wind, the peninsula is subject to heavy gales in winter, whilst in summer it is fanned by cool breezes. The physical features of the southern portion of the peninsula, are very singular, and are of considerable interest. It is a paradise for geologists, because of its peculiar formations and deposits. Shells of many varieties abound on its beaches, and conchologists from afar make the trip to secure the specimens spread in profusion. Nautilus shells, so much prized by the collector, may be found on the south coast beaches in the season. Throughout the large area of country south of Yorketown, forming the foot of the peninsula, there are no running streams or rivers. The country is mainly of an undulating character, with no hills or gullies of any size. The saucer shaped salt lakes scattered irregularly all over the country form a natural draining for surface water, very little of which flows into the sea.

Yorketown.

The aeroplane view of Yorketown as illustrated in this page shows how the centre of the town is intersected by live main roads. These roads lead to Edithburgh, Stansbury, and Coobowie, Minlaton and Moonta, Warooka and Cape Spencer, and Port Moorowie. The picture also shows, the strange prevalence of snow-white salt lakes, which are numerous for many miles in all directions. Yorketown is situated in the Hundred of Melville, 10 miles inland from Edithburgh, and was the first town established on the peninsula south of Moonta. The town is governed by a corporation, proclaimed on February I, 1879, the first Mayor being Mr. E. Jacobs. At present the town rate is 6d. in the pound, the assessment being based on the unimproved value of the land, and, as a consequence, the council is somewhat hampered by a small revenue. The assessment on town blocks is based on the nearness, of the property to the convergence of the five roads; each hundred feet from the point of assessment dropping 2/6 per foot of frontage. The corporation area extends out from the centre of the town for approximately a half-mile. Outside of this area is controlled by the District Council of Melville, the largest towns in its confines being Yorketown, Edithburgh, Honiton, Wool Bay, and Coobowie. The Chairman of the district council (Mr. E. H. Giles, M.P.), is a practical agriculturist and pastoralist, and knows the whole of his district thoroughly. Yorketown can boast of having over 1,000 residents, this being the largest population of any town on the peninsula south of Moonta. Originally Yorketown was known by the name of Weaner's Flat. Close to the town in olden days Messrs. A. Anstey & Giles owned a sheep station, at which lambs were weaned each season, and in this way the name originated.

One of the oldest Yorketown residents (Mr. F. W. Friebe), who arrived in 1871, states that the first building (the Melville Hotel) was then being built. Kangaroos were prolific at that time, and emus were occasionally seen in the township locality. A flourmill was built 40 years ago adjoining his premises, and some years later, in drought time, the local wheat reaped was insufficient to supply the district with flour, and the mill was demolished. Mr. S. Woods, another of the old residents, tells of how he first came to Yorketown in 1873, arriving in the first place at Salt Creek in the ketch Edith Alice. He managed a store for. Mr. C. T. Lohrmann, and 11 years later purchased the business which is at the present time carried on by his two sons, and known as Wood Brothers. In those days there were only four stone buildings, in Yorketown, the Melville Hotel; the- store, and residence of Mr. E. Jacobs, the old Roman Catholic Church, and a two-roomed building where the Bank of Adelaide building now stands. There were four slab buildings also. What is now the main street was then scrubland, with only a track winding in and out along the route.

The Coming of Superphosphate.

Before superphosphate was introduced to Yorke's Peninsula, the country could hardly be considered suitable for successful cropping, although it was then widely known for its stock breeding qualities. With the advent of modern agricultural machinery and super, conditions underwent a complete change, and now some of the best barley in the world is grown in the district. The characteristics of the soil are such that superphosphate have given better results here than in any other part of the State.

Peninsula farmers owe much of their present-day progressiveness to such men as Lawes, the English experimenter, who first introduced superphosphate; to Mr. R, B. Smith, an elder brother of Mr. Clarence H. Smith, of Ardrossan, who invented the stump-jumping plough, and to Ridley, the inventor in South Australia of the stripper, without which factors the country could never have made the agricultural advance that if demonstrates today. Power farming at the present time is becoming very popular, and horses are gradually being replaced: In Southern Yorke's Peninsula there are from 80 to 100 tractors in use among farmers. A local tractor expert states that there is a continual demand for tractors in this district.

A remarkable number of Yorketown and district residents own motor cars, and on any day of the week many of these cars can be seen in the main streets of the town. The town has three garages, to cope with repairs for the district's great fleet of cars. Messrs. Murdoch Brothers are the proprietors of a modern garage fitted with all the latest Ford equipment imported from Canada. Many of those who were a few years ago strongly against the introduction of motor vehicles now possess a car themselves. On account of the heavy carting carried on throughout the year good roads are a necessity. Most of the roads on Yorke's Peninsula are built of limestone, everywhere accessible, but too soft a material for heavy traffic. Most of . the roads close to Yorketown are in good order, and compare very favourably with those to be found in many northern districts, although some of them are neglected on account of the council not having sufficient finance. The principal reason why good roads should be provided is that the peninsula has no railways, and depends solely upon its roads for essential transport. No hills need surmounting, nor are cuttings, culverts, or bridges required.

The younger generation, of farmers and pastoralists are very enterprising and progressive, and are more and more using all the latest agricultural machinery as well is concentrating upon the best quality of mixed farm stock. Close to Yorketown there are several well-known sheep stud farms. Mr. J. A. Bishop, of "Oaklands," exhibits his merino rams at shows throughout the peninsula, and has won a number of prizes at local and Adelaide shows. Mr. E. C. Jung is another successful breeder of both longwools and merinos at 'Sunbury', three miles from the town. As an instance of the excellent barley crops produced, Sir. George Droser, of Warooka, last season reaped 450 acres of barley, which averaged 38 bushels per acre.

The Railway Department at the commencement of this year inaugurated a daily motor service for passengers, mails, and parcels between Yorketown and Paskeville connecting up with the Adelaide-Moonta train service. For many years people residing on Yorke's Peninsula—more particularly in the southern districts— have suffered for the want of an adequate service, and welcome the innovation. A modern safety motor coach to accommodate 18 passengers as well as mails and luggage leaves Yorketown daily at 5.15 a.m. and returns to the town at 5 p.m., the passenger fare to Paskeville being 12/.

Home of the Salt Industry.

Yorke's Peninsula is the home of the salt industry, the best. quality article in the world being produced here. The country abounds in rich lakes, and well equipped factories convert the crude article into a delectable snow-white table commodity. Within an eight-mile radius of Yorketown there are over 200 salt lakes, the largest of these being Lake Fowler (which is 15 miles in circumference and has an area of 2,500 acres). On the south-eastern boundary of this lake there are millions of tons of gypsum in its powdered form, large quantities of which are shipped to New Zealand annually. Salt is harvested in payable quantities each summer from most of the lakes. A number of the farmers have lakes on their own properties or hold mineral leases to gather salt, so that when farming operations are completed salt-scraping is a useful standby. Most of the salt lakes and lagoons occur in the Hundreds of Dalrymple, Melville, and Moorowie, east of the Pusy Swamp. Measurements taken a few years ago by the Government Geologist, not including very small lagoons or low-lying areas of swampy land, showed the Hundred of Dalrymple to contain 2,285 acres of salt lakes. Melville 5,880 acres, and Moorowie 550 acres, a total of 8,715 acres. In the early days the lakes in some instances yielded very poor crops of salt. Munkowurlie Lake is an example of this. For many years its surface was composed principally of mud, but gradually salt came to the surface, until to-day the salt gathered is worth hundreds of pounds. The reason advanced by local residents is that the land in the locality was cleared of the dense scrub and was fallowed, thus allowing the water to soak through to the limestone below and wash salt into the lake. Two and a half miles from Yorketown is the Pink Lake, so called from the pinkish tinge in its salt crop. The salt gathered is of a purer variety than the usual salt deposits. Sticks or tins recovered in the summer time after some months in the lake are encrusted with a crystallized pinkish coating.

Close to Wool Bay, at Kleine's Point, the Adelaide Cement Company, has erected a concrete jetty for shipping its products. The cliffs abutting the sea are composed of limestone marine deposits in unlimited quantities, which are used in the manufactory of cement at Birkenhead. A new crushing plant and engines of 250 h.p. are at present being installed. The stone is quarried from the cliff into trucks, which are emptied into the crusher. It is then elevated into storage bins, and from thence to boats by an endless conveyer with a loading capacity of ' 250 to ' 300 tons per hour. At the present time 45 men are employed in this work.

The lime industry, which provides work for many men, is carried on at Coobowie, Wool Bay, Stansbury, Port Vincent, and Minlaton.

The Government in 1911 constructed a steel track (at a cost of £18,000) between Edithburgh and Seven Roads (a point seven miles from Edithburgh, where roads intersect for all directions) to facilitate the carting of the salt from Lake Fowler. Owing to the heavy salt traffic the track wore out in many places, and is at the present time being replaced by a 20-ft. macadamized road at a cost of £1,000 per mile. The method of haulage in regard to the salt industry is being changed from horses to tractors. During the past season there were six Fordson tractors in use between Edithburgh and the various lakes, each of these hauling from 8 to 10 tons. Gypsum works are operating at Cape Spencer and Marion Bay (situated nine miles apart), approximately 60 miles in a southwesterly direction from Yorketown. The Peninsula Plaster Company has a modern factory at the former locality, at which plaster of paris is manufactured, and this is delivered all over Australia. Fibrous plaster is also largely manufactured. The gypsum at Lake Fowler is of a different quality, being more in the form of earth, and is used principally in the manufacture of cement in New Zealand.

The flux industry was years ago successfully carried on at Port Turton, but has now closed down, the Broken Hill Proprietary Company finding that it can more economically work Wardonp Island and Iron Knob deposits. Flux is formed of large petrified shells, and is used in the smelting of ores.

A resident of Yorketown states that indications of oil have been found at various times in the southern portion of Yorke's Peninsula. A number of samples have been located on the seashore in one particular bay, while other specimens have been found 20 miles inland in country of a cavernous nature.

Mr. F. E. Swincer, of Minlaton, has oil claims pegged out in the Hundreds of Carribie and Warrenben. His samples have been analysed by Professor Wood, of the Adelaide University, who has visited the locality.

A Busy Centre.

Yorketown can boast of being served by two local newspapers, The Pioneer and The Clarion. The Pioneer, a four-page page production of good standing, with a circulation of 1,200 copies per week, is owned by Mr. Richard Wilkinson. It was established in 1898 by his brother, Mr, B. L. Wilkinson, who subsequently purchased The Border Chronicle at Bordertown. The Clarion, owned by Mr. R. T. Macfarlane is also a four-page paper. First printed in 1904, it circulates throughout southern Yorke's Peninsula and in other parts of the State. A large amount of job printing is executed at both of these printing offices. The Yorketown Hospital is one of the best to be met with on the peninsula, complete as it is with isolation wards, large operating theatre, comfortable nurses' quarters, and maternity wards. Plans for extensive additions to the hospital are in course of preparation. It serves two corporations and three, districts, each of which contribute to the upkeep in proportion to patients tended. The hospital is a part-time training school for general nurses, as well as a training school for midwifery nurses.Dr. Dr. W. H. Russell, who is medical officer in the hospital (also President of the South Australian Hospital Association) will shortly be leaving the town (after a resilience there of 16 years) to take up a practice at the Semaphore. His position at yorketown will be filled by his brother, Dr. A. V. Russell, of Minlaton. Yorketown is the biggest mail centre on Yorke's Peninsula, 120 private boxes being provided at the post office, of which 113 are in use. The town is connected with a daily mail service to Adelaide, via Paskeville. Yorketown streets are well lit with 16 electric lights, situated at convenient points. Over 128 consumers are connected to the service, and power, is used by a number of the local industrial concerns. The powerhouse, established by Mr, G. H. Riddle, in 1921, is now owned by Mr. S. W. Grabia. Originally one kerosine lamp did duty in the centre of the town. Later 16 acetylene lamps were placed at various points in the streets. The present system, however, has been found to be much better, and perhaps more economical than previously. A number of farm homesteads outside of the town area have private electric light and power plants. Yorketown is the business centre of southern Yorke's Peninsula. The largest general store business in the town is that of Messrs. Ericsson & Co., founded by Mr. E. Jacobs in 1867, and for many years carried on in the front part of the present site. The business has grown since then in keeping with the progress of the district and new departments have been added. During the past 10 years the floor space has increased to six times its former size. Mr. R. T. Macfarlane opened a general store 43 years ago in the main street at Yorketown. He later owned implement and furniture factories, as well as saddlery, harness making, and house and coach painting businesses; Prior to the war period he at one time employed 20 hands in the different departments. Now he has confined his business to the sale of general merchandise of every description.

Mr. William Riddle established a business at Yorketown in 1874, which has flourished ever since. At present thee various departments include blacksmith, wheelwright, machining, undertaking, windmill manufacturing, and ironmongery. There is good hotel accommodation at Yorketown, the Melville and the York Hotels providing every necessity for the comfort of travellers and tourists. Wireless sets have been installed at both hotels. New additions to the Melville Hotel are now being carried out, electric light and hot water services and a septic system are being installed. The additions are to be comfortably furnished, and will have spacious parlours. The hotel, when completed, will have 30 bedrooms. Two upto-date shops are to be erected adjoining the hotel, which will be a decided acquisition to the town. The Yorke Hotel was established just 50 years ago, so that the present is its jubilee year. For the past five years the hotel has been under the management of Mr. T. Horgan. Two years ago the building was completely renovated and enlarged, and nine new bedrooms were added.

On the outskirts of the town along the Stansbury road is the Soldiers' Memorial Park, with a large pavilion erected at a cost of over £1,500. Surrounding this oval are some 300 ornamental trees, each one of which was planted in memory of a soldier who went from the district to serve in the war. Football, cricket, and other sports are actively engaged in on the ground during the seasons. One of the great drawbacks of the district is the lack of a high school within reasonable distance, the nearest high school on the peninsula being at Moonta, 80 miles away. Other much needed conveniences are water and railway services. The religious welfare of the town is catered for by seven churches —two Lutheran, the Anglican, Methodist, Baptist, Roman Catholic, and Salvation Army.

A fine croquet ground was opened at the beginning of this month at Yorketown.

Edithburgh.

Edithburgh is a pleasant five-hour sea trip across St. Vincent's Gulf, a distance of 58 miles from Port Adelaide. Troubridge Lighthouse stands out six miles from the town in a seaward direction, its twinkling lights at night time warning mariners to keep away from a rocky reef. Edithburgh stands on a headland, while the low lying coastline of Yorke's Peninsula stretches away to the north and south.

Edithburgh is classed as the fourth shipping port in South Australia, and occupies a unique position of importance as a commercial coastal town. It owes much of its fame to the two large salt refineries there, which together ship away 30,000 tons of salt per annum to Adelaide, the other States, and New Zealand.

The Standard Salt and Alkali, Limited, and the Castle Salt Co-operative Company, Limited, both convert the crude article, into the delectable snow-white table commodity used in all our homes. Opposition in the salt market is very keen at the present time between the Edithburgh and other salt companies. The sample at these, two refineries has improved very much of late owing to the improved refining methods. At the present time 50 to 60 men are employed in the industry; in the town, although in the summer time this number is increased to 300 men (including salt scrapers and teamsters). Gypsum, lime, barley, oats, and wheat are shipped away from the port in large quantities. Edithburgh has the advantage of having deep, sea water, so that ocean going steamers can berth alongside the comparatively short jetty in safety.

The present system of daily mail service is not at all satisfying to residents of Edithburgh and of its surrounding district. Formerly mails were carried across St. Vincent's Gulf direct to Edithburgh, on the Warrawee. Since the beginning of this year they have been carried overland via Paskeville and Yorketown, so that residents are not able to receive their mail until late in the evening. The electric light scheme at Edithburgh is considered by residents to be second to none in country districts of South Australia. It was installed by Messrs. Deland, Wyllie, and Davies, of Adelaide, in December last. The town streets, are lit with 13 street lights, while there are 70 consumers beside.

The town is governed by an active corporation, with Mr. H. J. Middleton at Mayor and Mr. J. E. Abbott as Town Clerk, and as a result streets and footpaths are kept in good order. Town buildings consist of three general stores, shops of all descriptions, two hotels,fine institute (to accommodate an audience of 400), three churches, garage, and two salt refineries. In subsequent issues, whole page articles referring to Minlaton, Maitland, and Ardrossan progress will appear, which will be of interest to Yorke's Peninsula residents.

MR. W. R KELLY : Mayor of Yorketown. He started practising as a barrister and solicitor at Yorketown immediately after his admission to the Bar five years ago. For the past four years he has been a member of the town, council. He holds numerous public positions in Yorketown, including President of the local branch of the Liberal Federation, and Vice-President of the Liberal Federation District Committee, President of the Football and Cricket Peninsula Golf Association, and also of the Vigilance Committee.

MR. W. R. KELLY, Mayor of Yorketown. photo

Gypsum Deposits on the Banks of Lake Fowler, three miles from Yorketown. photo

Edithburgh, a Busy Shipping Centre on Yorke's Peninsula, and Fourth Port for South Australia. photo

MR. H. J. MIDDLETON, Mayor of Edithburgh and local manager for the well-known firm of Messrs. J. O. Tiddy. &, Co. For the past six years he has been one of Edithburgh's: Councillors. He is Chairman of the local Board of Health and also of the oval committee, Patron of the cricket and football clubs, and vice-captain of the golf club. photo

MR. E, H. GILES, M.P., of Yorketown Chairman of the District Council of Melville. He was born and has lived close to Yorketown all his life. In 1902, when but 10 years of age, he was appointed as clerk of the District Council of Melville, which position he held until 1920. He has aways taken a prominent part in the progress of his district, and was some time ago chosen to fill the vacancy in the House of Assembly caused by the death of the late Peter Allen. photo

Yorketown from the Air. photo


MINLATON - STANSBURY - PORT VINCENT. PROSPEROUS YORKE'S PENINSULA DISTRICT.

Sat 3 Jul 1926, Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931)

By a Special Representative of The Register.

Minlaton is the trading centre of a prosperous agricultural area on Yorke's Peninsula, 18 miles in a northerly direction from Yorketown, and 17 miles inland from Port Vincent. It is probably the best laid out country town in South Australia, for it is bounded by four terraces—North, South, East, and Weet—which are again surrounded by well-fenced parklands 297 acres in extent. Avenues of ornamental trees beautify the main thoroughfares, while the streets are all spacious, and are uniformly called First, Second, Third, Fouth, and Fifth streets. The town is subdivided, into blocks of land, each containing an area of half an acre. A number of modern bungalows and villas have recently been erected, and there are now over 125 houses in the town. Roads in the district, all of limestone formation, compare favourably with those in other country districts. The main road from Yorketown to Paskeville is undergoing reconstruction and repairs at the present time in many places. A Federal grant of £1,500 has been given to the District Council of Minlaton for main road work, And this sum is being spent on work along this route. From Minlaton township, roads branch off for Stansbury, Port Vincent, Curramulka, Maitland, Fort Rickaby, Brentwood, and Yorketown.

Minlaton district is composed of the Hundreds of Minlacowie, Koolywurtie, Curramulka, and Ramsay—an area altogether of 229,028 acres—stretching across Yorke's Peninsula from gulf to gulf. A new assessment of property in this district is at the present time being undertaken by Mr. R. W. Langman, of Adelaide.

An Aboriginal Hunting Ground.

Close to Minlaton, on tbe eastern side of the town, lies Gum Flat, so called by reason of its many stately gums, similar in variety to those met with along the River Murray. The flat, some 50 acres in extent, is the only part of Yorke's Peninsula in which native gums have ever grown. Each winter the rains convert most of this flat into flooded swamp, and this perhaps, is the reason why a number of the old trees are dying. The old Gum Flat homestead was situated among the trees, only half a mile on the eastern side of Minlaton. The flat was a favourite hunting ground of the aboriginals in the early days, and many of their remains have been found at various times in the swamp land region. At one time kangaroos, wallabies, and emus abounded in the locality. Kangaroos are still plentiful in the Stansbury scrub, although wallabies and emus have completely left the peninsula. Between Minlaton and Stansbury there is a tract of scrubland country, 10 miles in extent, which is reckoned to be a worthless area, unsuitable for agricultural purposes. The scrub is gradually being encroached upon by farmers whose holdings adjoin it, and there is every probability that it will in the future be brought into crop-yielding order. At Minlaton this scrubby country is known as the "Stansbury Scrub," while Stansbury residents speak of it as the "Minlaton Scrub," neither town seemingly desiring to own it.

Automobiles Popular.

It is understood that Minlaton district has more motor cars per head of population than any other district in South Australia, with the one exception of Maitland. This to a great extent is due to the fact that there are no railways on Yorke's Peninsula, and residents must depend on their cars for getting about. Practically every family in the district owns one or more cars, while in Minlaton township alone there are 50 cars. To keep this fleet of cars in good order there are three local garages. The Southern Yorke's Peninsula Motor Works, managed by Mr. W. J. Riddle, attends to all classes of engineering and motor work. Apart from general business, the firm generates electricity for the town. The intersections of the streets are lit by 11 street lights, while besides this there are over 100 consumers of light and power. The consumption of electricity during the past 12 months has increased by 50 per cent. The firm at present engaged In installing an auxiliary engine and generator of three-quarters the size of the present plant. The engine at present runs constantly for 13 hours each day. A kerbside pump has recently been installed by the garage in the main street. Messrs. Freeman & Dunnet, of Ardrossan, in February. 1925, took over the garage at Minlaton formerly carried on by the late Harry Butler. The present plant is quite up-to-date, and the garage undertakes all motor repair and engineering work. The firm controls eight different car agencies, and reports 61 car and motor cycle sales during the past 12 months.

Minlaton has since January 1 last been served by a daily railway motor bus service, which passes through the town on its way from Paskeville to Yorketown. Residents can purchase a return ticket to Adelaide for 27/ first class and 22/ second class; which carries them per motor bus to Paskeville, thence by train to Adelaide. The car leaves Minlaton for Paskeville at 6.10 a.m., and returns to the town at 4.8 p.m. Mails, luggage, cargo, and passengers are all catered for on the car. It is excacted that as soon as the railway line is broadened from Bowmans to Kadina an even better service will be given. Saturday afternoon in Minlaton is the farmers day in town, and on this day dozens of motor cars may be seen lined along the main street. Saturday is the busiest day for the storekeeper, too. Irregularities in regard to the weekly half-holiday in the neighbouring towns to Minlaton is very unsatisfactory. Minlaton, Stansbury, and Port Vincent stores close on Wednesday afternoons, Yorketown and Edithburgh on Friday afternoons, and Curramulka and Maitland on Saturday afternoon's.

Up-to-date Farmers.

The latest power farming machinery and agricultural implements are being generally called into requisition by tbe Minlaton farmer of to-day. Since the introduction of superphosphate to arable land near Minlaton years ago by the late Mr. Joseph Parsons, land then worth in the region of £1 per acre-immediately rose in price, and since then values have steadily increased with succeeding years. Minlaton farming property at the present time is being sold for from £8 to £18, the average value of agricultural land in the locality being estimated at £12 per acre. Practically every farmer in the district combines sheep and cattle with his wheatgrowing operations. Foremost among breeders are Messrs. H. Mumford, S. F. Hoyle, F. H. Tonkin, Brown Brothers, G. R- Giles, and T. J. Butler. Among well-known primary producers are Messrs. J. C. Gersch, J. Brown, F. H. Tonkin, F. Mahar, and T. Brown, and there are many others too numerous to mention. Many successful farmers have just recently retired, and have settled down in Minlaton, building for their own comfort substantial bungalows and villas. Among these may be included Messrs. P. G. King (Koolywurtie), James Brown (Koolywurtie), J. Martin, the late Simon Vanstone (Brentwood), H. Boundy (Brentwood), and A. Bishop. Minlaton has three local stock and auctioneering events who act for the farmers and graziers in the surrounding districts—Messrs. Goldabrough, Mort, & Co., D. M. S. Davies, and Elder, Smith, & Co., Limited. The introduction of superphosphate to the district has not only benefited the wheat and barley production, but has been the means of increasing the carrying capacity of land for stock, as well as for sheep. The Central Yorke's Peninsula Agricultural Society holds its annual meeting on the Minlaton Showgrounds. There is some controversy as to the date of its first meeting, although the general opinion of residents is that it was held in 1877 on a small township allotment. From its inception the society gradually progressed. Five years later 10 acres of park lands was reserved for show purposes. A further seven and a half acres was added in 1902, and thus the present showground is one of the largest in country areas. The grounds are excellently situated, and are surrounded by a substantial stone wall. The ring itself—one-third of a mile in circumference—is surrounded by lofty gum trees. The late Mr. D. J. Teichelmann was the secretary of the society for 29 years, during which time it made splendid progress. The gate money in 1882 amouonted to £40, and entry fees £31. At last year's show meeting, held on October 28, 1925, those totalled £318 and £172 respectively. At this meeting cash prizes awarded amounted to £508, in addition to 49 cups and trophies, valued at over £230. Motor cars parked around the grounds numbered 1,200. This year the oval is to be enclosed by a substantial fence, and considerable extensions to the main show building are contemplated. Sheepyards of concrete and galvanized piping, equal to any in the State, were erected on the ground two years ago at a cost of, £300. The society is fortunate to possess such men as Messrs. C. H. Boundy as President and D. M. S. Davies as secretary. A successful sheep-dog field trial was held in April last in connection with the agricultural society on the Minlaton Showgrounds. The trials continued for three, days, and there were 72 entries. Some of the sheep dogs in the locality are trained to a remarkable degree of perfection in droving sheep, and several among them are valued by their owners up to as much as £40 each. Close to Minlaton, along the main road to Maitland, is the butter and cordial factory of the Yorke's Peninsula Co-operation, Limited, at which large quantities of butter are manufactured. The cordials supply the demand throughout all the districts between Arthurton and Yorketown, and in the summer season ice and icecream are manufactured. Most of the shares of the company are held by local producers, who send in their cream to be treated. Since the establishment of this factory two other similar factories have been opened at Yorketown and Stansbury. During the past few years the dairying industry has made great strides, as most of the land in the district is suitable for dairying. The managing director of the company is Mr. E. Jaehne, the Chairman Mr. D. M. S. Davies, and secretary Mr. D. Nickels.

Minlaton has for the past three years had a continuous telephone service. At the present time 138 subscribers are connected with the local exchange, and additional homes are continually being linked up. The recent expansion in telephone business is attributable to the instinctive progressiveness of district farmers, the better facilities given by the Posal Deparment, and to the enthusiasm of the postmaster (Mr. E. C. Melville). Being the centre of a large outlying district, the Minlaton Post Offiee officials handle a large amount of postal matter. Minlaton has four churches, the Baptist, Methodist, Anglican and Roman Catholic, all of which contribute to the religious welfare of the district. A parish hall in connection with the Church of England has just been erected adjoining the church, at a cost of over £2,000, A successful dance is held fortnightly in this hall, proceeds from which are in aid of the new building. The Minlaton Institute—with seating accommodation for an audience of 800—is one of the largest of its kind in the State (in country areas). Towards the end of last year two new dressing rooms and a billiard, room were built at the rear of the hall. The Minlaton Hospital, opened in l909, was erected by presidents of the district largely as a result of the organizing efforts of Mr. P. C, King. The institution provides invaluable hospital treatment for a country population spread over a wide area. A new isolation block, a welcome addition the hospital, was opened in March last, by Sir David Gordon. Dr. C, Richards, of Moonta, has just recently taken over the practice at Minlaton, formerly carried on Dr. A. B. Russell, who now resides at Yorketown. Minlaton Hotel prominently situated in Minlaton main street, caters for a big section of the tavelling public.

Minlaton has two banking institutions in its main street, The Bank of Adelaide, and the Commercial Bank. Both of these have been established locally for many years, and efficiently conduct the financial transactions of a primary production area of more than ordinary wealth, there being probably no sounder or surer crop district in Australia.

The two largest stores at Minlaton are those of Messrs. Trehearne, Limited, and E. Jaehne, which, between them cater for the large and varied demands of this prosperous district. Messrs. A. McKenzie end Son established a leather business in Minlaton in 1902, and have kept abreast of the times in the trade, although, owing to the increase in the number of motor cars, the harness trade has suffered. The firm is now concentrating more actively on the boot and shoe department. The Minlaton Racing Club was formed less than two years ago, and has up to the present time held two successful meetings. Results from the meeting held in March last showed a net profit of £185. The club secured a long lease at a peppercorn rental of 80 to 100 acres of land situated two miles north of the town. All improvements are of a substantial nature. The running track, fenced in on both sides all, the-way round the course, is considered by owners and trainers alike to be one of the best running tracks outside the metropolitan area.

A Popular Holiday Resort.

Port Vincent, 10 miles north of Stansbury, and 40 miles across St. Vincent Gulf from Adelaide, is one of the prettiest seaside resorts on Yorke's Peninsula. The town itself is built on ground that years ago was under water, while behind the houses stand what were originally seacliffs. Two steamers visit the port weekly; the Juno calls every Tuesday, returning the following day to Port Adelaide, and the Warrawee arrives each Friday, sailing again on its return journey on the same day. Both of these boats carry away large cargoes on every trip, these being comprised principally of lime, grain, and farm produce. Just lately 150 ft. of new wharf has been added to the present wharf, which, when completed will greatly improve landing facilities. The two local lime kilns export between than approximately 1,000 bags of lime per Week to Adelaide. Port Vincent is a receiving depot for the grain grown in the Minlaton and Curramulka districts, and in the wheat season is a very busy port, the grain being shipped to Port Adelaide mostly by ketches. An average of 60,000 to 100,000 bags of grain are shipped from Port Vincent each year. The town has a fleet of fishing boats, and large quantities of whiting and other fish are shipped away on the steamers every week.

Curramulka

Curramulka is a progressive township nine miles in a north-easterly direction from Minlaton. It is tbe centre of an agricultural and pastoral area in which farmers are conspicuously prosperous. Curramulka has its store, bank, garage, post office, hotel and other public buildings. During the past year seven new residences have been erected in the town, and a movement is now on foot to provide a new private hospital. There is a fine soldiers' memorial in the centre of the town, surrounded by gardens, and by a substantial cyclone fence. A coursing meeting—one of the biggest events of its kind in South Australia—is to be held at Curramulka in July next. .

Mr James Martin,

Chairman of the District Council of Minlaton for the past three years. He has held many public positions at Minlaton during his 33 years of residence in the locality, and always been a keen agriculturist and pastoralist. photo

Stansbury—a Progressive Yorke's Peninsula Seaport. photo

Mr. E. W. Jaehne,

Proprietor of the Jubilee Stores, at Minlaton, and managing director of the Y.P. Co-operative, Limited. He is President of the local Boy Scouts, and also of the cricket club, and Patron of the football club. Another of his many public positions is that of superintendent of the Minlaton Methodist Sunday School. photo

Capt. John Gennein,

a well-known resident of Stansbury, who traded as master of The Ceres, between Port Adelaide and Yorke'a Peninsula ports for 27 years, and for a few years prior to that he was captain of the ketch Edith-Alice, which traded to Salt Creek. He retired from the sea in 1903. photo

A View of Port Vincent, looking from a northerly direction. photo

Sacred to the Memory of the Glorious Dead — Minlaton's Soldiers' Memorial.


PENINSULA RUN

Saturday 18 December 1926, Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) Trove

Sixty-miie Trip. Few motorists have exploited the possibilities of the foot of Yorke Peninsula, which from the scenic point of view has much to commend it.

The first stage of the journey lies over the route between Adelaide and Port VVakefield— a distance of 60 miles. That portion of the trip provides fairly comfortable riding, except for a, few short intervals, particularly at Two Wells, where the road contains a number of pot holes.

After passing through Two Wells the road to the left should be followed, and by keeping to the main road Lower Light, Dublin, Windsor, and Inkennan will be passed at intervals of a few miles each. On reaching Port Wakefield the railway line should be crossed. About six miles out of Port Wakefield a turn should be made round the top of St. Vincent Gulf, following the telegraph line to Port Clinton. From there it is six miles to Port Price and a further 11 to Ardrossaan.

The scenery prorided along the coast after continuing through Muloowurtie and Port Vincent is particularly fine.

At Port Vincent a slight deviation to the westward — about a mile is necessary to get on to the road leading to Stansbury (10 miles). Coobowie is the next township reaehed and Edithburgh is a few, miles further on.

GOOD CAMPING GROUND

From there turn west and keep on the road to Yorketown. Interestang country is passfed through and the roads to VVarooka and Dairy Station are easily negotiable- Coirney Point, about six miles is beyond Waropka, provides an excellent camping ground.

The track southward from Corney Point to Daly Head is perhaps the roughest stage of the trip. Further south in spite of the somewhat desolate limestone country in the vicinity of Carrtibie Station, the grandeur of the scenery along the road is particularly striking.

At Stone Hut, Cape Spencer is seen on the west and the Althorpe Islands, stand out prominently some miles out to sea. There is good fishing at this point and inland emus and kangaroos are to be found. The remains of wrecked vessels strewn on the shore are noticeable.

Yorketown is reached after travelling some 40 miles east from Stone Hut and return journey may be made by way of Minlaton and then through Mount Rat to Maitjand, Artthurton, Melton, and Kulpara are reached at easy stages, and a return to Adelaide may be made through Port Watefield.


YORKE PENINSULA. A HOME OF PROSPEROUS FARMERS.

Tuesday 25 October 1927, Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Trove

Isolated from markets and handicapped by the Reed for a railway and good water supply. Yorke Peninsla farmers enjoy a prosperity many settlers in South Australia have cause to envy.

The visit of a Parliamentary party, conducted by Messrs. H. G. Tossoll, M.P and E. H. Giles, M P.. to Yorke Peninsula during the week-end enable residents to bring before members their needs. Among those who welcomed the party at Paskevilie on Friday was Mr. T. S. Honner, president of the Maitland Agricultural and Horticultural Society, whose knowledge of the district has been gained from practical experience. His father, Mr. Richard Honner, was one ot the pioneer settlers in the district, and the son has carried on his work. Mr. Honnor was enthusiastic about the prospects of the district, and the appearance of the country justified his optimism. From the top of Schilling's Hill on the road from Paskeville to Mainland, wheat fields spread out to the horizon in every direction, and, although the season has not been so favorable as usual they gave promise of good returns. The practice generally adopted in the district is to alternate wheat and barley with fallow, but occasionally two consecutive crops of wheat are taken off the same area. As an example oi the productivity of the land a second wheat crop on Mr J. S. Coleman's land was inspected, and proved one of the best seen on the journey.

Land Values.

The pioneer work in the district was discouraging. Between Arthurton and Maitland were many farms which were simply left by their first owners when they found that they could not make them pay. The same farms to-day could not be purchased for £20 an acre. One settlor who obtained a holding for 7/6 an acre after the first owner had walked off, recently refused £25 an acre for the land, which is at present bearing a good second wheat crop. The test of the value of the land is its productivity, and without doubt it is returning good values in grain. Every settler in the district is comfortably situated, and the majority are prosperous. For purposes of Commonwealth Taxation, the unimproved value of the land is fixed at up to £30 an acre.

Self-Supporting Community.

If ever a community was self-supporting the settlers on Yorke Peninsula the settlers built stone houses, which would not he out of place in the suburbs of Adelaide, are on every block. In the majority of cases they are equipped with the latest labor-saving devices. On one farm the owner has built a garage, which is equipped to handle repairs to the fleet of motor waggons he uses for carting his wheat, and he has made the greater number of the tools and implements used on his land. Residents are thrifty and hard-working; but they have a number of grievances. They complain that their district is neglected by Parliament. The recent enquiry by the Railways Standing Committee into the need for a railway from Paskeville to Maitland was the result of an agitation which began in 1912. The members of the Railway League, of which Mr. Honner is president, were pleased when the committee recommended the proposal, but they were disappoicted that Parliament, has not gone further with the proposa!. The three chain road which runs from Paskeville to Maitland would be the route followed by the railway for the greater portion of the journey, with a possible detour at Bolliver's Hill. It is claimed that the building of the line and the provision of a water supply would increase the productivity of the district. Between Paskevflle and Maitland no water is available, but the land has been cleared of mallee and is fully cultivated. Maitland is the centre of a thriving district. From the hill on the golf links the visitor can look down over the beuutiful Yorke Valley stretching to the horizon — a draught-board of green squares and brown fallow. The streets are wide and well laid out, and the houses and business premises solidly constructed, with an eye to architectural beauty. A new building to be the home of State Bank is being erected next to the post-office. The town is proud of its showgrounds. The indoor pavilion is a fine structure, and the sheep runs and stock yards, built with gas-pipe rails, are an interesting departure from the usnal wooden structures, and serve their purpose better. The Agricultural Society has just concluded its jubilee celebrations, which were marked by a week of festivities. The gate takings at the annual show, which usually exceed £400, must be the envy of similar bodies throughout the State. The road to Port Victoria from Maitland is bordered by farms and homesteads which, in many cases, are a tribute to the qualities of the German as a settler. Many of the present owners are descendants of original German settlers, whose thrift and good farming practices converted mallee scrub lands to waving corn fields. A number of well-built Lutheran churches were passed on the journey.

Port Victoria.

Port Victoria is one of the peninsula ports from which wheat and barley are shipped to Wallaroo and Port Adelaide. The town marks a division between the better class lands in the Maitland area and the thinner lands towards Yorketown. The wheat crops along the road were patchy, and in places near the coast were of no value. The magnesia in the soil affects the growth, but this effect is much more pronounced in a dry season than in a wet ones. Across the bay from Port Victoria Yorke Peninsula is seen jutting out towards Wardang Island, over which the masts of a sailing vessel stand out aginst the horizon— as a fitting monument to the many vessels that have been lost in the vicinity. The lower end of the Peninsula occupied by the Point Pearce Aboriginal Mission Station.

Minlatan to Yorketown.

In place of the mallee-lined road with cultivated fields stretching out on each side of the road from Paskeville to Port Victoria, the road to Yorketown presented a varying panorama of cultivated fields and patches of mallee scrub. The country is not so valuable as that round Maitland, but the cleared land is worth up to £20 an acre. The Maitland district can boast of its good horses. A detour was made by the Parliamentary party to enable ministers to visit the Lundus and Stud Farm the property of Messers. J. Francis and Sons. The Clydesdale stallions and mares seen here won ribbons against all comers at Adelaide, Sydney, and Melbourne shows.


INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE.

PIONEERING YORKE'S PENINSULA. DEVELOPMENT. WEST AND SOUTH.

Wednesday 26 October 1927, Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Trove

If the more closely settled areas of Yorke's Beninsula impressed the Parliamentary party; the little known and less worked country between Yorketown and Cape Spencer amazed them. During the week-end they saw some of the finest coastal scenery in the State, enjoyed wonderful hospitality in a model self contained industrial settlement, and passed through hundreds of thousands of acres of agricultural country awaiting cultivation.

At Edithburgh members of the party were told to remember that the peninsula did not end until they reached that centre; the next day they found that in many respects the peninsula does not begin until Edithburgh has been passed. To those who have not studied the map it is amazing that there is such a huge tract of country stretching away to the southern-most point, most of it undeveloped. In fact, almost the whole of Southern Yorke's Peninsula is still in the pioneer stage. Huge tracts of scrub country are held on pastoral leases. In patches barley and wheat are being tried with encouraging results. This part of the peninsula also supports the gypsum industry.

Tourist Country.

The party, accompanied by the Chief Inspector of Mines (Mr. L. J. Winton) and the Mayor of Yorketown (Mr. J. Ferguson) and others, left Yorketown on Sunday morning, and was motored across to Warooka, before Betting out for Cape Spencer. The Warooka district is worse off this season than in 1914. But that is not so bad as it reads. In the drought Warooka was more fortunate than most other districts, and had an average rainfall. This year the falls to date are two or three inches less than in 1914; but, notwithstanding the dryness, the crops will not yield very much less than usual. From Warooka the cars struck south across the peninsula, at its narrowest, and followed down the coast from Sturt Bay amid delightful coastal scenery. The grandeur of the scene increased every mile. Rising from the low land arouud Marion Bay, the party accended the headland of Stenhouse Bay and looked out over a seascape, formed by Cape Spencer and the Althorpes, slightly resembling, but excelling, the view overlooking Victor Harbour. The party vas met at Stenhouse Bay by Mr. W. R. D. Innes. All the members of the party, even those who had previously visited Cape Spencer, were impressed by the progress made there and the extent to which the settlement has grown. Substantial houses dot the scrub on both sides of the valley overlooking the gypsum lake. In the afternoon they were given the opportunity to get an idea of the immensity of the gypsum deposits in the vicinity, the growth of its manufacture, and the neglected beauty spots. The rugged cliffs, huge seas, combers and breakers, sandy beaches, shell beaches, islands, and pleasant climate should make this one of the choicest holiday and tourist resorts in South Australia; but up to the present it is little known. The Tourist Bureau, however, is at present considering running trips to southern Yorke's Peninsula, and a project for a chalet or holiday house is also mooted. The visitors were motored across the corner of the end of the peninsula to near the wreck of the Ethel by West Cape, end to Brown Bay, noted for its fishing, and Pondalowie Bay, one of the prettiest spots on the coast.

Inneston— Communal Life.

The whole settlement, formerly known disparagingly as the cape, or the camp, but in future to be called Inneston, after the founder, is controlled by the Inneses, Mr. W. E. D. in Melbourne, and Messrs. J. A. S. and H. at Cape Spencer. Not only have they shown great enterprise and determination in working the gypsum, but they are at the same time clearing and cultivating the land, and by producing good barley crops proving the possibilities of agricultural development. Beginning in isolation, their company, the Peninsula Plaster Company, has established an industrial settlement which is practically self-contained, and which it would be difficult to excel for prosperity and contentment. The workmen receive good wages, have their houses rent free, and every facility for welfare. The settlement is electrically lit, and every institution— all of them run by the company— is modelled on the most modern and complete lines. In view of the enthusiasm displayed in the Parliamentary visit, it was fitting that Inneston should have been the scene of the most speech-making of the tour, and of a review of impressions. Every member of Parliament spoke and expressed surprise at the extent of the operations, and commended Mr. Innes for the fine spirit of co-operation which existed between master and men. They agreed that the name should be changed to Inneston, and said it was encouraging to fee industry carried on under the existing difficulties without help from the Government, and gave the peninsula credit for not requiring spoon-feeding. Special mention was made of the fact that the agricultural possibilities were also being tested, with encouraging results, judging by the barley crop, which promised to yield between eight and 10 bags to the acre. The local members, Messrs. Tossell and Giles, pointed out that injustice had been done to the company; as it had built its own jetty, but was now being charged jetty dues, to ship over its property. They also stated that the residents wanted a straight road to Warooka, and suggested that application should be made to the Commonwealth Government to construct the road as a developmental work. They thanked those who had helped in arranging the trip, Mr. K. Wilkinson, of Yorketown, and the motor drivers, particularly Messrs. G. Kemp and J. Chinner, of Yorketown. and Messrs. G. Croser and S. Vigar, of Warooka, and suggested that Inneston should be made a ward for the Warooka council. The speakers were Messrs. Shepherd, Anthoney, Pedler, Thompson, Jettner, and Sutton.

Lakes of Gypsum.

Work was begun on the gypsum in the southern extremity of Yorke's Peninsula in 1889, and the industry promises to become one of the most important on the peninsula. Two companies are operating — the Peninsula Plaster Company, at Inneston, and the Victor Plaster Company, a new concern which took over from A. H. Hasell at Marion Bay. Fourteen years ago Mr. W. Innes went to Cape Spencer with horses and a dray and began work in the scrub. Since then the company has spent abont £100,000 in the plant and settlement, and, working on one lease, has extracted nearly 30,000 tons a year for the last 10 years. Originally the gypsum was shipped away for treatment, but since 1916 it has. been made into plaster of paris on the field, turning out 10,000 tons a year. Messrs. Innes showed the visitors over their factory, which works three shifts seven days a week. Handled by machinery from the time it is dumped, the washed gypsum is dried, ground, burned, and bagged. Four miles of track have been laid to the company's private jetty at Stenhouse Bay. The whole plant is so well equipped that all repairs are done on the spot and much of the plant made there. Eighty men are employed. School chalks are also proiluced. At the other works the manager, Mr. L. S. Davis, conducted the inspection. The gypsum is taken from the lake, a mile square, and shipped to Melbourne for manufacture. The company's output in the Melbourne factory is 25,000 tons a year. Fifteen men are employed at Marion Bay. The company have extended the jetty by 1,300 feet, and ship away 800 tons a week. At present two shifts of 12 hours are being worked. Mr. Davis also had a grievance with the Harbours Board for levying jetty, dues over the jetty built by the company and in refusing even to grant ground moorings.

Roads and Shipping.

The southern end of the peninsula, being still most undeveloped, has many needs, and on the run back to Warooka some handicaps to progress were indicated. The party returned along the mail track to Corny Point, along a road upon which the Councillors of Warooka themselves took an axe and cleared scrub. The party were entertained at tea by the Warooka District Council. The Chairman (Mr. E. Barlow) presided, and welcomed the visitors; and Mr. T. Taheny, in support, stated that Warooka would have refused a subsidy for their new hall if they had been offered one. The clerk of the council (Mr. J. D. Penhall) aired their grievances. He pointed out that Warooka, with 642.5 miles of road in the district, had only 11.5 miles of main road; and received a main-road grant of £160. At least half of the Corny Point road should be a main road, because 30,000 tons passed over it annually. The lack of shipping facilities at Corny Point was deplorable. Shippers first took their cargo in a dray into tho sea to a cargo hulk, and from that transferred to a ketch. Last year, from 12,000 to 14,000 bags of barley was shipped thence, and the provision of facilities would increase the trade by 10,000 bags.

Mr. Tossell contented that a main road should start from Warooka to develop the land at the south end of the peninsula, and, possibly, the industrial works at the west end. The ladies who provided the tea were Mesdames E. T. BarIow, J. A. M. McKenie, H. T. Vigar, A. J. Vigar, T. A. Murdock, W. Keonnecke, and F. T. Taheny.

Solid Prosperity.

Warooka, thriving as it is, represents solid prosperity derived from hard work. Fifteen years ago it was scrub land, like much of the undeveloped corner of the peninsula. It is blessed with a good assured rainfall. Thorough farmers have laboured unremittingly in working the soil, and to-day they had their reward in splendid returns. A paddock of barley on a Warooka farm reaped 46 bushels to the acre. After spending the night at Yorketown, the party took the railway bus to Paskeville on Tuesday morning, and returned to Adelaide by train.


OUR EARLY SETTLERS. THE TRIP TO YORKE PENINSULA.

Fri 6 Jan 1928, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954)

Towards the end of the sixties, the farmers on the South Rhine and Eden Valley were having a very bad time through red rust reducing the yield from 20 bushels to or 4, and as most of them were on rented land from 10/-to 12/- per acre, and reaping by sickle, which cost 12/- per acre, you will readily understand why they were looking further afield. Nearly all the wheat from Eden Valley went per waggon to Jno. Dunn & Co.'s mill at Mount Barker.

About that time the lower end of Yorke Peninsula was being surveyed. The first hundreds were Melville, Moorowie, Para Wurlie, and Dalrymple, and were held by Anstey and Giles, of Penton Vale Station; Wm. Fowler, Moorowie; Roger Landers and Stephens, Lake Sunday; Thos. Rogers, Carribie; and Orrie Cowie, by Jas. Gilbert. It was rich grazing country, and it was no wonder they did not look pleased to see the 'cocky" inspecting the land. As soon as the land was thrown open a good lot of it was taken up and "dummied," generally securing the water. At that time no one person could take up more than a square mile. The price started at £2 per acre, and gradually came down to 20/- per acre. After it had been open for selection a certain time it then could be bought right out for cash at 20/-. Limiting selection to 640 acres was a mistake. No one could carry on mixed farming on that acreage, as nearly all the land was very rough and stoney. In 1870 the late F. W. Friebe and I took a run over to see what prospects there were to open a shoe shop and store. We left Port Adelaide per "Edith Alice," and arrived at Salt Creek one Sunday morning in May, tramping it to Middle Hut, which was located near Seven Roads. Mr. H. Newland, saddler, was already established at Seven Roads, where Mr. Dugan was going to lay out a township later on. Mr. Newland kindly drove us as far as Orrie Cowie. At that time there was already a sprinkling of settlers. Mr. Friebe decided to try his luck, and joined Mr. Newland at Seven Roads, but I was not impressed; the land seemed too rough for successful farming and the settlers too scattered to start a store. At first everybody wanted a block with a little clear land and avoided those with lakes as much as possible. The Government would not cut the lakes out. They had all to be paid for as land. By degrees the whole of the hundreds were taken up. As a good number of the settlers were old customers of ours from Eden Valley, we, our firm of Gottschalk and Klem, decided to follow them, and opened a general store at Edithburgh. In 1872 the late C. Kruger had taken up land at Oaklands, so we arranged to go overland together. We left Eden Valley in 1872, C. Kruger with an English waggon and five horses, and I with a van and four horses, leading five behind. We went via Angaston. Tanunda, Gawler, and Two Wells to Port Wakefield. It was very wet season, and the road track from Two Wells was in awful state. We got bogged a good number of times. The track from Two Wells was not grubbed, and there was scrub malice on both sides. The mail coach from Adelaide to Moonta had leather springs. No other kind would stand the rough stumps. We got to Port Wakefield on Saturday and that night there was a tidal wave. In the morning our conveyances were in water up to the axles, and we could not get near them, but the water soon soaked away, and in the afternoon we managed to get round the swamps and camped at the foot of the bald hills at Yarraroo. We then went by easy stages, following the coast track, all scrub, till we got to Oyster Bay, now Stansbury. There we found a Mr. Taylor building ketch called the "Elizabeth Ann." We asked him why he was building ketch there. He told us he could get all the naturally crown timber for ribs. The young sheaoak trees were the very best for the purpose. I think he built three ketches there. An old friend of mine bought the "Elizabeth Ann" when she was ready for sea for £l,200, and we often loaded her at Edithburgh with wheat. A very good stout boat she proved to be. Next morning we went to Haywood Park and camped. Not knowing how we were going to get to Edithburgh, we rode up to Seven Roads to see our old friend, W. Friebe, and get directions. At that time there were only tracks from one shepherd hut to another from the head station. H. Newland and F. W. Friebe returned with us to spend the evening with us at camp, as Mr. Kruger was close to his selection, and we were to part company, so we put the whole of our flour together and made an old man damper. When we rolled it out of the ashes it was nearly as high as our front wheel. It was pronounced by our visitors A1. Next morning we passed Penton Vale, and got badly bogged several times, and saw a stack of salt about 80 tons there in bags The late Mr. L. Giles had it scraped to see if it could be sold, but I believe the bag rotted and the salt melted with the rain. After we got established at Edithburgh we tried to sell it for him, and submitted samples to all the leading merchants at Adelaide. They all declared it valueless, not even good enough to salt hides. So much for prejudice.

Now we know of no other salt. We reached Sultana at Edithburgh night. Next morning we hunted up our allotments and shifted on to them and struck camp, and glad the over land journey was over. Edithburgh at that time consisted of the Troubridge Hotel, half up, being built up Jas. Young, of Port Wakefield, and two-roomed cottage with thatch, occupied by Mrs. Eastern, who cooked and washed for her sons, near by. Not much of a space to build a general store, you will say, but we knew when we decided to go to Yorke Peninsula that we should have to go after trade that is why we took over a van. We soon got busy, got a van load of goods over, and made the first trip. We had to keep the pot boiling while the store and dwelling for my partners family were being built.

Soon after we arrived we had an open air meeting at Seven Roads to erecting a jetty. W. V. Cornish Sail Creek was a very energetic young man, and he and the skinpers of the "Sailor Prince" and "Edith Alice" told us some Murchhouson stories of the dangerous position, with no holding ground, etc., at Edithburgh, but the meeting carried Edithburgh for jetty. We know the Government made lots of mistake in that regard but as far as Point DeMole (Edithburgh) is concerned it made no mistake. It is the only jetty that has a good depth of water. John Wisham got the tender to build the first short structure and cutting, and a good stout job he made. From then on the township of Edithburgh grew rapidly. The first mail by water was carried by A. Martin in a little 5-ton cutter called the "Sultana." He carried all our stores via Glenelg, reaching Edithburgh regularly on Sunday morning. We kept the post office in the store, and conveyed the mail to Weaner's Flat (Yorketown) on the following morning per horseback, and returned same day. Martin was almost as punctual as the steamers on his trips, The Government evidently did not have much faith in the country, as no inland townships were surveyed till (1876) Minlaton and Maitland were surveyed. Mr. Chas. Beaumont saw his opportunity at Weaner's Flat. There was a small block of land that farmers would not take up on acount of two-thirds lake and one-third land. As it had laid open the required time it could now be bought for cash, Mr. Beaumont bought it and surveyed the township called Yorketown. He persuaded H. Newland and W. Friebe to come to Yorketown and would give them an acre each for 5 pound which they accepted. Mr. Beaumont building the hotel, and with Ed. Jacobs already on the corner where Erichsen's store is the township could boast of four business places. The land was generally cleared by pulling down with bullocks in winter and broken up with a single fixed plough. That meant a pair of good horses and man to do one acre per day, or 10 weeks to do 60 acres. Today we do that in a week. On account of the tones and stumps the area was united in most cases till the stumpiump plough came into use. The late Caldwell. M P., of Wattle Point, was the first man to bring a stumpjump plough over. A field trial was held at Wattle Point. The implement was rather cumbersome and made a great noise, but all present were satiseld the principle was right. It would jump the stones and scrape off the little soil there was and best of all no one had to hold the handles. The blacksmith soon got busy. Once they saw the idea, they soon improved it from year to year Clarence Smith, of Ardrossan, is to my mind the king of the stump-jump plough. Mr. Heazegirdle, of Edithburgh did a roaring trade with a 3-furrow for £22. There was a fine spirit of self-reliance the old pioneers, such as clearing roads, scraping and cleaning out wells. The Oakland' farmers wanted, buy wheat at Wool Bay (now Pickering) but there was no jetty nor cutting. They volunteered to make the cutting, fence a block of land all free, and 40 men turned up with picks, shovels, and crowbars, making the cutting in one day. Mr. F. L. Barnes, of Oaklands, carted the 8,000 bags that we took in there on account of John Darling & Son for 1d. per bag. Folk in those days did not run to the Government for every 2.5d. job that wanted doing, but did it themselves. Getting back to Edithburgh, the late Mr Ben Rose was soon on the job to build a little chapel, and never grew weary of the theme, so it was derided that he should see what could be done re material. A block of land was already bought, and subscription lists were got out to see what cash could be raised. Mr. Rose soon had all stones, sand, lime, and water. Even the young men gave labor, but I don't remember how much cash we raised Mr. E. Guilon got the job to build, plaster, and paint at 2/9 per yard. How does that compare with to-day? A good job he made of it. When the building was completed we were £80 debt, which we got from the Home Fund, but had to pay off £10 per annum. Four ladies gave a tray each for a tea meeting, the £10 was forth coming each year, and when it was reduced to £40 eight gentlemen came forward and gave £5 each, so in 1879 the building was free of debt. The Rev. Robt. Kelly, a single man, was our first preacher. He came by the little "Sultana." and we conveyed him on horseback to Weaner's Flat. Mr. Kelly boarded with Mr. Macklin at Sunbury, where I think they had a small building for school and service. All of Mr. Kelly's work was on horseback, and his circuit as far as Maitland at times. He had a fine lot of local men assisting him, including R Caldwell. Jas. Caldwell, J. Bartram. S. Woods, Thos Barnes and F. Havey. The Edithburgh Chapel was opened by Mr. Kelly on Christmas Day 1874, with a tea meeting. It was a great success. The first steamers to call at Edithburgh were the Lubra, Kangaroo, and Royal Shepherd, on their way to Port Augusta, and calling in on their return Fare, 15/- each way, but they took no cargo. It was a good service until the steamer Glenenelg was put on. Her capacitv was 1,200 bags wheat—a very good boat calling at Glenelg for passengers to help the Glenelg Railway. Later a local steamhip company was formed, and Mr A Martin was sent to Scotland to buy a suitable boat He purchased the lame Conmrie?." but on arrival we found we had to spend £400 to make her suitable for the trade. On the way out from Scotland we got her to call at Newcastle and filled her with coal at 7d per ton, which helped to bring her out. Our first schoolmaster was Mr Jas. Gelled, a fine type of man and an ardent Methodist. He was very musical, which was a great help at the church. Our first doctor Dr. A Vonuida, coming from the Bilimman Mine. A team and waggon brought his furniture all the way overland, a great journey. He resided near Lake Fowler, Iater he built in Yorketown ( V ( '.. Rerh-• now ..1 ,TV.i<• — ' The d'.'1-tor was fiirioii- driving AUvavan. l would gallop them ed 'I • 1 li k. I>1 poiti. to where he was called. The first agricultural show was held at Edithburgh. Held alternately at Edithburgh and Yorketown. The first concert was a Catholic one, held in a barn between Yorketown and Seven Road-—a great success. We had to go through a sheet of water near Sheehan Well for finite a quarter of a mile. The late Ebenezer Ward in the 70's selected land at Para Wurlie. He received the gold medal at the Paris Exhibition for wheat grown at Para Wurlie. He was instrumental in getting the crossing over the Peesy Swamp made, and it was named after him. He also gave a recitation when the Edithburgh Institute was opened_ Jno Smith was the first manager of the National Bank, kept at the back of our store till they built in Blanche Street. The dairy at Comey Point got its name because Rogers' people milked a great number of cows there and made butter and cheese and shipped it to Wallaroo Mines, and made £7,000 that way. We sold our store to Mr. Geo. Hart, and went into contract work, carting, lime burning and wheat buying, etc. till 1879, When we dissolved partnership I decided to go on the land. My friends did all they could to persuade me not to go to Corney Point. Said I would starve there, the land was no good, etc. My only experience in farming was wh 10 vears old to carry a bullock whip Inside a team of bullocks in a single furrow plough, near Pewsey Vale, and I don't know whether I or the bullorks were most frightened, but they saw bought experience is best. True, I had a pretty bad spin for a time, what with kangaroos, wallabies, and poor crop, but all was altered when super came, which increased the yields 100 per cent. Now we are coming to the next stage of progress, viz.., top dressing, and I predict that within five years top dressing pasture land will be as universal as for cereals. That top dressing will increase the carrying capacity 100 per cent, is beyond dispute, and if any doubting Thomas' are about let them come to Corney Point, and I will show them rough stoney black grass land which will convince them without a shadow of doubt, thanks to science and chemistry. No wonder there is a boom in land values in good rainfall districts. Maitland land is fetching almost £30 per acre, and yet before super several farmers were ruined through poor crops, which were as low as and 4 bushels. Now, in conclusion, to justify the Maitland-Paskeville railway, or better still right down to Edithburgh, we want oil or coal that folk say are in abundance at the lower end. Nothing but boring will prove it, and boring costs money, and folk are not very keen to invest what they cannot see. I hope the effort that is being made for a trial bore will be successful.

By Mr. O. Klem, of Corney Point.


THE MAN ON THE LAND "BACK TO THE HORSE"

Fri 26 Sep 1930, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

Writing to the "'West Australian" he stated that some four years ago he was persuaded to dispose of a team of horses and buy a tractor, since when his farming has been done by it and a team of horses....


A Trip Down Yorke's Peninsula.

Wednesday 18 January 1933, Burra Record (SA : 1878 - 1954) Trove

Speaking editorially, the ten or eleven days during: Xmas and New Year is the one period during the whole 52 weeks to which we look forward to having a good holiday. It is the time when we know we can forget all about newspapers news and advertisements for one issue of 'The Courier.' Consequently we always endeavor to make the most of the short holiday.

This year after much planning we hooked a trailer loaded with provisions and camping equipment, behind the car and on the day before Xmas Eve started off on our 200 mile journey down Yorke's Peninsula to a place called Corney Point. If you will take a look at the map you will notice that the Peninsula is shaped something like a huge leg and Corney Point is situated right on the top of the abnormally high instep of the foot belonging to the leg. 'Kufus' in his column in the 'Advertiser' had made many remarks concerning the excellence of the fishing in that locality, hence the attraction of Corney to us.

We took the route through Balaklava and Port Wakefield and the country surrounding those two towns is much the same as one sees about here only it is not so hilly. At the former place looked up Mr. H. Wilson, who used to be in Eudunda Branch of the Commercial Bank. He was full of the 'Back to Balaklava' movement of which we understand he is the organising secretary. The weather was anything but ideal, it being rainy and cold with a strong wind blowing. One thing that struck us was the fact that one could see isolated rain storms in every direction. They looked like huge black whirl winds stretching from the earth to the sky and appeared to cover but a few acres of ground.

After leaving Pt. Wakefield, which town gave us anything but a favorable impression as a sea-port, we travelled along the bitumen, which leads to Moonta or Kadina, and then after a couple of miles of smooth going turned off at South Hummocks and cut across the swamps to Ardrossan. Candidly these swamps are the most desolate and uninviting places it is possible to imagine with their mangroves and stunted bushes, and in really wet weather it would be impossible to get across them at all. The track was not at all good either and to make matters worse a SouthEast wind was sending white clouds of dust towards and into the car which made travelling unpleasant. However, what's the odds when one is on a holiday and when we came to a tumble down shack twenty miles from anywhere and saw that the optimistic owner had stuck up a notice in the front with the words thereon 'Motor Repairs,' our collective sense of humor came uppermost and we forgot about the cold and the dust and sat up and took more interest in the scenery. Sometimes we were travelling at the foot of small cliffs and at other times the road ran along the top of them. We took a hurried look at the Ports Price and Clinton in passing and made tracks for Ardrossan, which place we reached in plenty of time for dinner, which we took at the 'Royal Hotel,' owned by a Mr. Provis, who we understand once upon a time ran the hotel at Point Pass.

Ardrossan was a pleasant surprise to us with its neat up-to-date shops and wide streets, but it did not seem right when we saw a big implement factory which was once a hive of industry closed down and silent. It was here too that we got our first eyeful of the huge wheat and barley stacks, awaiting shipment and which are prominent in every town big and little along the coast. We understand too that the Peninsula grows some of the best malting barley in the world — the sea air must have some chemical effect on it. The beauty of barley growing seems to be that although it does not bring the same price per 'bushel as wheat, the yield is well over 100 per cent, more and the same land can be used every year. At Ardrossan too the mechanic of the party nearly fainted when he found the car averaging 29 m.p.g. with trailer and all.

Although we intended to spend the night at Ardrossan we heard that Pine Point was a likely spot at which to catch fish so away we went again to this place about 12 miles from Ardrossan. From now on the country got more interesting and we were travelling along well-made roads fringed with ti-tree on either side. The road stuck pretty close to the coast too and we had a good view of the sea nearly all the way. Pine Point is a tiny fishing village and the fishermen's shanties are situated right at the foot of the cliffs which at this part are about 60 feet high. These shanties, are unique in one respect, and that is that their builders seem to have been artists in making use of old kero and petrol tins. They have made fences of them, enclosed verandahs, fowl houses, and sleeping-quarters. We introduced ourselves to one fisherman who said he would have taken us out in his cutter, providing the weather had not been so rough, and if the engine had been in going order, and if his boat had not been practically high and dry. The fellows at Pine Point seem to take life pretty easily and would rather lie on the sands and talk than work. Time is nothing at Pine Point. Anyway after camp was pitched and we had partaken of a jolly good meal consisting of grilled chops and chipped potatoes, we arranged to hire a 16 ft. dingy the next day, which we did and caught about a dozen snook (a fish averaging from 18 inches to two feet long). We, 'i' would have got more only one of the party felt a bit sick as a result of the tossing about of the boat. Above we said that the people at Pine Point were not energetic, or words to that effect, in so doing we omitted to mention the boy of 14 years who came in the boat with us and insisted on pulling it about for at least three hours.

Pine Point also has a great crabbing beach, but a dog belonging to one of the fishermen took the bun as far as crab catching was concerned. He would wander round in the water and as soon as he came to a black patch of sand with a crab buried in it would let the world know. He never made a mistake either.

Early on Xmas morning we packed up our dunnage and set out inland en route for Minlaton. This was a much more interesting run than wo had on the previous day. The farther inland we got the bigger and more elaborate the farm houses seem to get. If one can visualise big £3,000 houses dotted over the landscape surrounded by tremendous paddocks of barley stubble and crops situated in undulating fertile looking country one will get some idea as to the inland appearance of the Peninsula. We were told that most of the houses were built in pre-depression days and in those good old times the farmers used hardly to think it worth while to keep any stock about the place and that some of them even used to pay the milk-man to call. The holdings too round there are very big, the smallest being 640 acres. On the way we passed through Curramulka, a town a little bigger than Robertstown. It had up-to-date shops with tiled windows and even possessed its own electric power station. Minlaton was reached about 11 a.m. and we were greeted by Mr. Fred Martin, who was going to show as the ropes at Corney Point. He proved himself to be one of the best and put himself out considerably to give us a good time. He introduced us formally to his champion greyhound dog, Ell Francis (who is said had won £1,160 in solid cash for him.)

Minlaton is a town not quite so large as Eudunda, but in common with every other town we saw on the Peninsular, it too had up-to-date spic and span shops and a bitumened main street, a fine institute, its own electric power station and a general air of prosperity. After an especially good Xmas dinner at the hotel, where the management had difficulty in filling our yawning voids, we set off for Corney Point with Mr. Martin's half ton truck leading the way to the rest of the caravan which consisted of us. Next week we will complete the. story of the trip and write about how to catch whopping big cray-fish with a line and a bit of meat, to say northing of catching whiting, rock cod, and the thrills of racing before the wind in a forty foot fishing cutter.


A Trip Down Yorke's Peninsula

Wednesday 25 January 1933, Burra Record (SA : 1878 - 1954) Trove

In our story of the 'Trip Down Yorke's Peninsula' we left off just where were setting off from Minlaton to Corney Point. The only town along the route was Warooka this is a bit bigger than Robertstown in size. As usual it had up-todate shops and its own' electric light plant. From there we passed through still prosperous country and eventually called in at Messrs Hammill Bros ' homestead. Frank Hammill was supposed to join us but owing to a bad attack of flu he declined to take the risk of camping out for a least two or three days. This was a great disappointment to all concerned It is said of Frank that he is one of the best shots no the peninsula and can hit a running 'roo with a .303 rifle at 300 yds. any time he wants to. However, both the brothers, Jim and Frank, came down the first night we were camped bringing with them a big fishing net and spears, then Jim decided to stop in camp with us for a day, which he did and eventually we managed to persuade him to remain with us for three days. By which time Frank was ready to join us.

Jim Hammill is a sportsman and a bushman to his finger-tips. He's the kind of chap that can pull a boat about all day, haul a fishing net from after tea till 2 o'clock in the morning and then be disappointed if he can't get anyone to get up at 4.30 am. and go after schnapper with him. Both brothers have been practically all over the Australian bush droving and with camel teams. Hospitality was their hobby and in fact it seemed to be the hobby of most of the peninsula people we met during the trip. Fellows camping or going to camp would hear that Fred Martin, Jim and Frank Hammill were in camp with us and it was nothing to see a car pull up and people from far and wide get out and stay perhaps for a day and perhaps for more.

However, let's get on the track again — we arrived all safe and sound at Corney and met Mr. Jack Barclay (who by the way drove a couple of miles after we'd pitched camp to bring us a couple of very big crays) and arranged about the boat and drinking water. Rain water is scarce down that way and although one can get plenty of water by digging down about four or five feet this well water we found to be unpalatable.

Spearing Fish.

That night we set off to try and spear some fish and by way of an introduction to the sport Fred Martin showed us a scar in his foot where a sting'ray had got him. He'd had the barb in his foot for six months; then it worked its way out about three inches lower down. He said it was just as well to steer clear of all such animals and to walk round the sharks — it did not do to tackle them.

We were well supplied with long fish spears and kerosene flares and there was only the slightest ripple on top of the water, which was pretty cold. To get the fish one walks in with the flare well alight, held aloft in the left hand and the spear poised in the right. The depth of the water is only above one's knees and with the aid of the flare it is possible to clearly see the bottom. Now and again a toad fish would come and have a look at us and if he was touched with a spear would puff himself up like a baloon. Then again there was the cat-fish — a fellow with a very poisonous sting — another one to be aware of. However, we did not have any luck the first night and to add insult to injury a big wave came along, douched the light and drenched us to the skin. Other nights we had more luck and brought home butterfish weighing anything up to 20.1b.

If there was ever a sport to put the wind up a man for the start it is spear-fishing. One walks perhaps 200 yards out to sea and then wonders where the dickens the shore has got to all sense of direction seems to go. Then come the thoughts of sharks and such like and then the flare begins to burn low and one feels in a nice mess with no lights, well and truly bushed, up to one's knees in water, sharks and stingrays swimming about and deep holes for the novice to fall into. However it's all in the game and one gets hardened. One particular night a person, from another party, with the aid of his flare, saw two big eyes coming towards him — being experienced he knew it was a tiger shark and if he did not do a 100 yards in even time, through the water, we did not go to Corney.

Cray Fishing with Lines.

Corney is noted for the tremendous size of its crayfish. One day Mr. Stan. Goode, a farmer down that way, let his crops look after themselves and we all went out after crays. He knows the sea floor like the back of his hand and proved he knew the exact locality of every hole amongst the rocks. How he knew where these underwater retreats of the crays were beat the band. Such a place might not be more than 12 ft all over. To get crays one ties a piece of fish or meat on a fish line and lets it down over the side of the boat then Mr. Cray grabs hold of it and the fisherman gently pulls the line in. When he gets it up far enough with the cray still hanging on he quickly grabs the strong part of the Cray's feeler and slings him into the boat. There's a knack in the game and one must look out he does not get a crack with that dangerous tail. During the trip we got quite a number of crayfish and ate so many that we got tired of them.

One of the most interesting parts of this kind of sport is that a seascope (a funnel like arrangements with glass at one end) is taken in the boat. The end with the glass in it is placed well into the water and on looking through it a good view of the sea floor is obtained. Ledges of rock of all shapes, varied colored weeds with fish of different colors can be seen swimming about to say nothing of the huge crays which can be seen crawling over the rocks looking for a feed. The view underneath the water is certainly very interesting and beautiful.

Schnapper Fishing.

We had heard many things about the wonderful schnapper fishing at Corney Point. However, in this section of the sport we did not have any luck at all. All we got were rock cods— a fish varying in color and having a peculiarly shaped mouth with prominent teeth sticking out the front. We certainly had a thrill on one or two occasions when a big dog-shark was pulled up.

In the Fishing Cutter.

Perhaps one of the best parts of the holiday was going out in that 40ft. fishing cutter — mentioned in of the boat to await transport to the markets.

Drifting after whiting is not much of a game if one is at all inclined to be seasick. The boat rolls and pitches in all directions and it is impossible to stand on the decks without support. On two occasions we were driven in owing to the roughness of the weather. It was a grand sight to see some of the boats scurrying before the wind to home and mother to say nothing of the bigger boats which would put into the bay for shelter. The biggest thrill of the lot was this race home. The wind would be very strong and slightly abeam moored about half a mile out The fisherman, a Swede by the name of Andresen, ran the boat and slept aboard. On arrival we'd wake him up and after all sails were set the and the nose of the boat pointed to our destination, he would lash the tiller and we'd partake of a very substantial breakfast in the combined cabin and galley. By the time everything was cleaned up again the whiting grounds would have been reached and the business of the day would start; First of all the live octopus, a big fellow, would be dragged out of his box and one of his feelers would be taken off and used for bait. The tiller would again be lashed, sails reefed and the boat let drift. If the fish were on the bite they'd be pulled up as fast as the line could be dropped overboard. They'd then be thrown into the well our last issue. One would be up bright and early in the morning and then row to the cutter, which was (side on), the sails would not be reefed in at all and then the boat would heel over until half the decks were awash, with spray flying everywhere. Talk about a thrill and the sensation of speed, an aeroplane is not in it. It is difficult too to pick up the exact mooring position from six or more miles away especially for the novice.

Then came dinner, after the boat had been moored and all decks washed and everything in its proper place. After that other fishermen would row over in their dingys, sprawl on the bunks and swap yarns about the sea and experiences. Andresen, or Andy as we got to know him, was widely travelled and would regale us with stories of cod, fishing in the, Berring Sea which is up near the North Pole, and Chuna fishing off California to say nothing of having been torpedoed by U- boats during the war whilst running contraband in neutral boats. He said it was the English trawlers own faults that they got sunk without warning. On one occasion the U boat skipper told a trawler captain that he had five minutes to get off the boat, the trawler skipper said "You've five seconds to get to hades'' and dropped a false hatch, revealed a gun, and blew the submarine where he mentioned. Many such stories by these old salts enabled us to spend many a happy hour.

Next week the story of the trip will be concluded.


A Trip Down Yorke's Peninsula

Wednesday 1 February 1933, Burra Record (SA : 1878 - 1954) Trove

When we finished or instalment of telling you the story of the above trip in our last issue we were well in camp at Corney Point. Naturally the usual camp jokes were played and the three tents were fitted up in 'luxurious' style.

One evening a sprightly young fellow of 80 years rode up on a young horse and instead of dismounting In the orthodox style of octogenarians jumped to the ground as if he was about twenty. He'd hardly landed when he asked us if we had heard the latest Test Cricket scores in Melbourne. Of course, we had not so he reeled off the batting score of each player on the Australian side and then told us how the Australians were getting the Englishmen out so cheaply. Thinking to take a bit of a rise out of him, one of the party asked if the Australians were bowling 'the body-line stuff.' 'No,' the old chap said, 'they are not acting the bally fool they're playin' dinkum cricket.' .With that he had a look to see if the windmill close by, was working all right and then literally hopped on his horse and cantered away. — Not bad for a man who had seen eighty summers.

On New Year's Day we reluctantly packed up camp, loaded it on the trailer (which was now known as the 'Faithful Hound,' because it followed us wherever we went) and started for home. We took a parting look at the sea, bade a sad farewell to our camp cobbers and set off for Warooka and passed over Geiter's Hill, so called because a man of that name had a row with another fellow, on top of it and chased him down to the bottom lashing him with a stock-whip all the way. The argument, was about some land in the early days and the victim who was a bit of a humourist said 'Oh well, Geiter can have his bloomin' hill' and since then it has always been called 'Geiter's Hill' At Warooka We had dinner in a baker's shop and found out that the proprietor's niece, Miss Sonnenberg, was going to teach the school at Emmaus.

From Warooka we took the main road to Yorketown. On the way we saw one of the famous salt lakes and nothing would do but to stop the car and go and have a walk on its gleaming white surface. The 'gleaming white surface' was very pretty to look at, from a distance .We got into the middle of the lake before we realised that the 'gleam' was so strong that we could hardly see — it was dazzling. Needless to say we got off that lake in a hurry. The salt is only about an inch deep and to collect it the men working use wide pronged forks and load it on to miniature railway trucks and it is run to heaps on the shore.

Yorketown was duly reached and we took a look at the place. It seems to be prosperous enough, but is not quite so spic and span as its sister towns. The reasons being that it seems to be somewhat older. From there we made down the coast to Edithburg, which seems to be one of the main shipping ports. Edithburg is not a large town but it has plenty of big buildings mostly in the wheat and barley trade. We were literally astounded at the size of the wheat and barley stacks in the locality — acres of them. It would be a very busy place during the wheat season.

From Edithburg we made down the coast towards Port Vincent and it was along this track that we called into a farm house to ask the way. An old 'Cousin Jack' owned the place and wanted to talk (in a broad accent.) So after we had discussed land, crops, rainfall and Test Cricket we noticed that he had a peculiar name stuck up on the gate. One of us had been trying to pronounce it and in desperation asked the owner what it stood for. "O" said he, "he's the 'entrails' of all me children.'' The driver, said a hurried good-bye trod on the gas and cleared out, before he realised that the old chap meant 'initials.'

The drive down the coast was exceedingly pretty and sometimes the track ran along the top of towering cliffs with little jetties snuggled at the foot. The sea was as blue, as it could be and was visible practically all the time and now and again one would see a little sailing boat with its snow white sail scudding through the water. At every small town we passed through the usual stacks of wheat and barley were in existence and sometimes one could see where a crop had been sown nearly to the edge of the cliff.

We arrived at Pt. Vincent without mishap and this place was certainly a pleasant surprise to us. It is prettily situated on a snug little bay which was full of all kinds of pleasure and fishing boats and it also has a splendid beach. Hundreds-of Sunday promenaders were walking up and down the esplanade which gave it a gay appearance. We pitched, camp alongside other campers in the reserve allotted for the purpose and curious campers came up and asked how we had done it so quickly. Nothing would do but for them to see our facilities for pitching and striking camp in a hurry.

After a good night's spell were up bright and early in the morning and had a swim before breakfast and another one afterwards before we left. We were informed that Pt Vincent is the Victor Harbor of the Peninsula and visitors come from all roads to this delightful little spot. We were certainty reluctant to leave it after our short stay and fully intend to go there for a few, days sometime in the future.

The journey was continued now towards Ardrossan and for the first few miles after leaving Port Vincent the coastal scenery continued to be beautiful and then we struch a particulariy bad bit of road over which we had travelled on the outward journey and one of the party said 'Home again' and from thereon we travelled over the route which we have already described through Pine Point, Ardrossan the swamps, Wakefield and Balaklava and then home. The further north we travelled, the hotter the weather got and we are not sure If the crossing of those swamps before Wakefield was not worse than it was coming. This time there was no wind blowing but the sun wes beating down unmercifully and it was a wonder the tyres of the car did not start to sizzle. However ee got through it alright and home safely. Right through the journey the car never gave one ounce of trouble. The trip was well worth taking and was extremely interesting. It as easy enough to find one's way about the Peninsula as the place is well serviced with finger posts, although some of them have been sadly mutilated by "sportsmen." A trip of this nature, made up of three or four men, camping out, can be done with very little expense, in fact, cheaper than it would cost the average man to go for a tripto one of the more popular seaside resorts for the same period.


A Trip to Southern Yorke's Peninsula.

Wednesday 13 June 1934, Burra Record (SA : 1878 - 1954) Trove

After leaving Stenhouse Bay we continued along the coast and passed a point known as Rhino Head because of its peculiar shape, close to this spot we could see the wreck of the collier 'Willyania.' A local resident told us that he had been getting his coal supplies for some years from this boat as after a spell of rough weather a goodly amount of coal is washed ashore, and in a good state of preservation after its long immersion in the water, considering the wreck has been lying there for nearly 30 years. Next we went on to Marion Bay and here we saw the remains of a settlement now deserted as a result of amalgamation of the Gypsum Companies. As a result a splendid jetty over half a mile long is now not used and the houses which were there have been transferred to Stenhouse Bay, whilst quite a lot of machinery and several miles of railway line are decaying because of idleness. This we thought an ideal spot for a family to camp, with its nice sandy beach for bathing and the good fishing to be had from the jetty with good shooting shore as kangaroos are numerous there. From Marion Bay we went inland for about a mile, the road leaving the coast, and passed through a number of sheep runs, the best part of which were the excellent ramps which saved much gate opening. In parts there was splendid feed as this portion of the country having recorded quite a lot of rain, looked green where cleared. Another feature being the excellent water that is available almost everywhere in shallow wells, quite a number of these being only two or three feet deep and the water almost as good as rainwater as one. could scarcely tell the difference when drinking it.' The homes in this part were mostly of the bush type of either galvanised iron or stone, and very small, some of them being no more than huts, the residents suffering many inconveniences. We found them wonderfully hospitable and one is made very welcome and feels that he is in no way an intruder and always finds the dinkum Australian cup of tea quickly made ready for him. From here en we continued toward Cape Yorke and again came into rough, scrubby country with the trees in many places brushing the sides of the car, the track also being very stony. After several miles of this we took a turn towards the coast and found ourselves again overlooking the sea at Cape York and after walking over a sandy ridge came on to a small strip of sandy beach, on both sides were many boulders. We climbed along these to obtain a better viewpoint and in many places saw the sea eddying and swirling around and booming up into crevices which made a wonderful sight. From here we saw a ship in full sail which with the sun shining through a break in the clouds made a pretty sight and of which we obtained several good snaps. On these shores we could see much wreckage and timber washed up which we presumed was from various boats that had been wrecked or were cargo washed overboard. In one particular spot we could have obtained several dray loads of good timber, in fact, all through the trip we had never had any difficulty in obtaining a plentiful supply of firewood as there was plenty of it wherever we went along the coast.

We had now come lo our last call on this coast and with many regrets decided to move along. One could easily spent a week at each of these places and the writer recommends any of them to the sportsman who likes fishing and shooting or a good camp holiday. It is quite the ideal place for the caravan, many of which we heard are there during holiday periods and quite a number of residents from other parts of the Peninsula make it an annual holiday trip. The climate is ideal and oven in the hot weather the nights are wonderfully cool and blankets aro always necessary, in fact, several mornings during our trip we found a difficulty in starting the car owing to the dampness. After leaving Cape York we went on for several miles inland to more sheep country and in coming to a homestead decided to stop. Calling in for hot water we were surprised to find there Mr. Haigh, of Clare, who had just arrived the previous day to take up land there and had travelled quite a number of stock down by road, taking ten days to do the Journey. We were, how 25 miles from Yorketown so decided to return there. After passing through about ten miles of scrub we again came to the main Yorketown — Warooka road and were pleased to be once again on a good track. On our return journey we deviated from the main road and went through Brentwood and to Hardwicke Bay. This part of the coastline being entirely different from the lower part of the Spencer Gulf, there the coast is rough and rugged, but here is a long strip of beautiful white sandy beach which extends for a number of miles and on which are held motor cycle races on the public holiday in January every year. The beach is hard and so smooth is the sand that it is ideal for this purpose. The water there is very shallow for a long way out, consequently it is a splendid beach for children and during the summer months is a great picnic resort for the people of the district. We also called at Port Minlacowie which is typical of most of the Peninsula ports where owing to there being no railways the grain is taken to these minor ports and from there is taken by ketches to the larger outports for shipment overseas. At Pt. Minlaowie we saw several large stacks of grain and a jetty leading out from a low rocky shore to deep water, the bags being trucked from the stack to the boat along the jetty. At this stage we met with misfortune in the way of a broken axle which delayed us for two days while the replacement was sent from Adelaide. During this time some friends organised for our benefit a kangaroo hunt in the Stansberry scrub and we have to thank Messrs J. A. Bishop, E. J. Anderson and W. Long for a splendid day's sport. Starting off first thing after rising and provided with good mounts we proceeded to the Stansbury scrub which is a large tract of mallee some parts of which have in recent years been cleared and worked, although these farmers are looked upon as pioneers in the district. On reaching the edge of the scrub we found a party waiting for us and numbering ten in all we made our way into the thick of it and soon found that one also took the risk of many scratches in tearing your way through thick scrub, these were included in the day's fun. At times we found ourselves in scrub so dense that it had to be pushed aside with our arms to prevent it scratching our faces and were amazed at the way our hosts were prepared to take risks by galloping at breakneck speed through the thick scrub, but after sighting several 'roos we found ourselves forgetting all risk and letting our horses have their heads joined in and quite enjoyed the fun. especially as we were present at several kills. One could quite understand what it would feel like to be lost in the scrub as we were often out of sight of the other members of the party, but usually found our way back to them. After a long day in the saddles we returned to our host's home feeling stiff and sore and were very pleased to retire to bed that night. Before leaving the Peninsula we spent a pleasant evening at the annual ball of the Y.P. Motor Cycle Club in the Minlaton Institute, which is a fine large hall with a splendid floor and is a credit to the district. There was a large crowd present and one could find no sign of depression there. During our visit we were wonderfullv impressed by the hospitality and kindness shown us by the people of Yorke Peninsula and would recommend to those who follow the slogan 'See your own State first' to include Yorke's Peninsula in a tour of S.A.

We returned to Adelaide on May 5th and home to Burra on the 6th after covering ovor 2.500 miles, during the four weeks of travel and feel quite convinced after seeing a large strin of country that as a wheatgrowing district our own is hard to beat.


SYMBOLIC OF CHANGING WAYS

Thursday 2 March 1939, Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Trove

Historic Landmarks On Yorke Peninsula.

ACROSS Yorke Peninsula from Port Vincent to Port Victoria, down its length from Kadina to Cape Spencer, ancient landmarks, reminiscent of the Peninsula's past and symbolic of its changing ways, may be rediscovered by the tourist on a leisurely trip.

These old relics are full of interest if you care to brush the dust of the years from their history and learn their story from local residents with long memories. These old men, who live mostly in the past, will point out the crude homes of pioneers which are making way for modern houses. They will tell you that romance and tragedy still lurk behind crumbling wall and sagging roof— romance of the pioneering days, tragedy of failure, of families banished from their farms only to see their lost land yield prolific crops when super, wrought its miracle to the Peninsula wheatlands. Apart from well-known landmarks on the beaten track— the historic mines at Moonta and Kadina, the salt lakes and some of the larger industries—the peninsula is dotted with lesser known relics whose histories are no less interesting. Out from Maitland along the Yorketown road, old milestones, carefully preserved, lessen the journey as their friendly white forms roll by. Mail boxes scattered along this monotonous stretch seem friendly.

The silence which shrouds the old Mount Rat hotel, out from Urania, is in strange contrast to the noisy revelry that woke the echoes years ago when the hotel was a popular rendezvous with teamsters on the long trek. Only a few walls remain today, but green kalsomine clings stubbornly to the rums as though it would retain something of the hotel's gaudy past. Opposite is the Government tank, where thirsty horses drank.

Past Minlaton the famed salt lakes appear along highway and byroad, their surfaces shimmering like mirrors in the sun. White heaps of pure salt blaze crystal highlights, and soft pink tones lend some of the lakes an unreal beauty.

Having seen reference to the Emu waterhole at Curramulka, I decided to find this unique rock-hole from which a town derived its name.

Strangely enough, despite the fact that the hole formed the basis for a publicity campaign to attract visitors to recent celebrations, and that most residents can tell you all about it four people were unable to direct me to it Each pointed in the direction in which he supposed it to be, and no two directions coincided. The fifth man told me vaguely that it was 'somewhere on May's property.'

I found it finally, a hole 5 ft. in diameter in a solid ledge of rock. Mr. May remembers the days— 60 years ago— when blacks dipped water from the hole and emus came there to drink in the soft light of the setting sun. The blacks knew the locality as Curramulka — Emu waterhole — and the town that grew in the hollow a mile away still retains that name.

Twelve miles away, in the very heart of Port Vincent, I was shown the ruins of the home built by Captain Chase, explorer and earliest settler. On one occasion Chase lay in this house seriously wounded while his wife attempted to drive away hostile blacks who stalked around the home. Here, too, died Augustus Craigie, hero of the terrible bushfire that swept across Yorke Peninsula on December 20, 1869. In the local cemetery is a stone erected to his memory by public subscription.

Stansbury boasts the longest wheat chute on the Peninsula, down which bags shoot from the cliff top 80 feet above. The bags are loaded on to trucks and hauled along the new jetty, which points scornfully in the direction of its predecessor — ancient and long since condemned.

Further down the coast, at Wool Bay, the 100-leet high tower, symbol of the Peninsula lime industry, offers a magnificent view to a visitor energetic enough to climb the steps leading to the top. Rugged coast and sparkling sea are spread out in a panorama to the horizon. Fishing boats sail like toys across the varying greens; cars and people below are dwarfed to miniature proportions.

Coobowie's chief landmark is a jetty composed solely of loose limestone dumped into the sea. Thousands of tons of stone must have been used in construction.

Edithburgh is something of a ghost town industrially, for the glamor of past activity has departed from the salt industry. A smokestack pokes its long inactive finger into the blue sky; the strange silence of dormant industry pervades the barn-like buildings, but with fine optimism the residents will tell you that the salt will boom again.

Down by the jetty the gypsum tower reminds one of another phase of industry, and the salt is accumulating on the lakes — hundreds of them, gleaming a promise of luture prosperity. So perhaps Edithburgh may yet regain something of its former industrial importance.

Out across the water Troubridge Island lies like some great cruiser, its lighthouse and scattered buildings clearly visible in the crisp afternoon light. In the local cemetery are the graves of me 40 men who perished when the Clan Ranald sank in fourteen fathoms on January 31, 1909.

Following the coast from Edithburgh one finds many interesting landmarks. The gypsum works, strangely isolated at Stenhouse Bay; the old 'plaster works' at Inneston, now in ruins; romantic Reef Head and its wrecks; Pondalowie's famed Middle Island and the great white sandhills that tower beside the track, reminiscent of the sandhills of the interior.

Back at Corny Point, with the sun a flaming golden orb dipping into the sea, I watched the white plaster walls of the picturesque lighthouse reflect the changing colors of sunset. Gold, scarlet, and deep cerise washed across them, changing their moods like expressions fleeting across a sensitive face. Gulls wheeled, screaming; the sun's last rays lit twinkling candles in the glass windows; the sea roared against ancient rocks in a constant roll of sound. It was a glorious scene.

A mailbox on the Yorketown road. In the background are the ruins of the Mount Rat Hotel. photos


YORKE PENINSULA—Where Beauty Cloaks Industry

Sat 24 Jun 1939, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954)

YORKE PENINSULA is generous to the tourist, offering beauty and knowledge to the casual traveller who cores to leave the beaten track. In this vast area you may learn about your State in a pleasant manner, for here industry and beauty walk side by side —industry lending beauty a fulle meaning, beauty cloaking industry in unusual guise.

In settled areas and cropping up in unexpected places, you will find nourishing enterprises in their heyday of production, side by side with ghosts of industries long dead.

Primary production, of course, forms the backbone of the peninsula's economic structure. The good earth has yielded, and is still yielding, rich profits. Woolly blankets of the future gambol with the lambs; woollen wealth Is apparent on all sides—in the rich green paddocks, ! beside the road, at the shipping centres.

The prosperous influence of good wheat crops is visible down the peninsula's entire length. At busy port and lonely centre khaki-colored stacks await the coming of the ketches to carry the grain to the markets. Wheat production weaves an ever-growing pattern across the whole scene. New acres are cleared, new tractors make the day noisy, new trucks hurry with their loads to the ports. This is a phase we know too well; we are apt to overlook its beauty. But this is one phase only, and there are others whose beauty cannot be overlooked. Ghosts linger on the peninsula, and a retrospective imagination can call them out and walk with them back through an eventful past.

At Moonta, once famed copper centre and origin of many a "Cousin Jack" legend, the sightless eyes of the empty miners' cottages mournfully survey the great dumps built by their former inhabitants. Mineral industry is dead at Moonta, buried in the dumps and shafts; the dust that blows in summer shrouds the ghosts of miners and straining bullocks. But there are left-overs from that era: the Cornish dialect survives, and at Moonta one can still buy the famous pasties that are well on the way to becoming legendary. There have been other mining ventures on Yorke Peninsula, and you can't help thinking that, to the tourist, these industries, dead now, offer more of romance than in the days when they flourished. The fact that many of them are found in lonely, isolated places lends color. The silence surrounding them makes you ponder on their heyday, weaving in imagination a lively pattern of what might have happened.

Between Port Vincent and Stansbury, where the red cliffs frown down on the waves that break eternally on the silver sand, cloaking the ancient rocks In a gossamer gown of spray, the openings of the alunite mines are like livid wounds in the cliff-face. Blood-red is the clay formation of the adit walls, shot through with the pristine white of the mineral seams, ragged, irregular streaks of chalk-like substance that show clearly, even in the gloom of the inner tunnel.

The failure and consequent closing down of these mines was due to the fact that alunite was shipped from Germany as ballast in such huge quantities that soon it became cheaper to buy than to mine, and this field, for which so rosy a future had been predicted, became one of the State's many ghost fields."

But not all the peninsula mineral industries are dead. Further down the coast at Cline's Point, cement centre, the sounds of activity can be heard for quite a distance. Travelling the cliff road that follows the lazy curve of the bay four miles below Stansbury, you may hear a muffled explosion, and see a curtain of ochre-colored dust sift into the air as portion of the cliff-face crumbles before the power of gelignite.

All is ordered confusion here. No sooner have the rocks stopped rolling and the dust curtain lifted, than the men are clambering precariously about the cliff, barring down loose rock. The staccato rattle of poppet-drills wakes echoes as the larger rocks are holed for charges: the giant electric shovel bites into the debris, lifting a ton in its jaws at each mighty dip; the crusher grumblingly chews at the iron-hard rock, reducing it to pebbles that are carried out on a rubber conveyor belt to the ship waiting at the jetty's end.

In the city a cement works is just that, interesting perhaps, but prosaic. Here it is vastly different. The rock is composed of fossil shell, and in the men's quarters are fossil cowries, and even sharks jaws, perfectly preserved, that must have lain in the rock for centuries.

The green waves in the bay break ripplingly on the Jetty piles, and spill themselves on the beach in a deep undertone that forms a constant background of sound for the noisy activity which is synonymous with the operation of the cement works at Cline's Point.

Still further down the coast is Wool Bay, centre of the lime industry, symbolised by the picturesque tower rising 100 feet above the beach. Almost in its shadow fishing cutters ride lazily on the waves, and fishermen sell live fish from the wells of their dinghies to visitors leaning on the jetty rails. Blue sea stretches like rippled silk to its meeting with the sky; ochre-colored cliffs march away along the coast in rugged, colorful array.

Perhaps salt lends the Peninsula more beauty than any of the other industries do. In winter the lakes are silent sheets of water mirroring the scrub that frames them in a setting of green, but summer works its miracle of transformation. Gangs work in the blinding reflected light from the snow-white surfaces of the larger lakes, where a tremendous depth of salt is left by the receding water. Trucks that go snaking out across the lakes, empty, return laden with pink-tingen crystals. The loads are dumped on the heaps which grow higher and higher.

All over southern Yorke Peninsula these conical heaps can be seen from afar, in scrub and open country, throwing back the rays of the sun in gleaming while fire that brings an ache to the eyes. Edithburgh. once famed as the Peninsula's salt centre, is quiet now. More, then two hundred gleaming lakes in this area yield but a fraction of the white wealth once scraped from them. Fifteen years ago Edinburgh was the metropolis of the industry, but a slump in production followed due mainly to the operations at Port Price of a plant which evaporated salt from sea water much more economically than the commodity could be scraped from the lakes. During the first year of the operation of this plant Edithburgh dropped 7,000 tons in production.

For years the industry languished— the total output of the lakes dropped from 24.000 tons in 1927 to 8.400 In 1932. But the salt is still there, and the optimism, end hopes are still high for the staging of an industrial come-back.

On the rugged "Lower End." where to all appearances the nature of the country has changed little through the centuries, one may drive for hours over vast stretches without seeing sign of human occupation. It is a last frontier of the Peninsula's remnant of its once prolific fauna. Here kangaroos abound among the thick scrub, and emus still stalk majestically across the clearings.

But even here industry has built a monument. Come upon unexpectedly after a drive from Pondalowie and the rugged grandeur of Reef Head, Inniston is something of a surprise. This isolated centre, with its neatly lined rows of workmen's homes, was once the heart of the gypsum Industry, but today the old "plaster works" are a mass of crumbling masonry and rusting iron, and Stenhouse Bay is today the gypsum centre.

Some miles out of Inniston, at the gypsum deposits, great grey heaps or the crystal-like substance form symbols of the industry. There are thousands of tons of gypsum spread over many acres, and the efficiency and organisation of the industry would do credit to a city enterprise.

Motor trains carry the mineral to Stenhouse; motor trains run on narrow rails around the deposits; steam shovels bite hungrily into the gypsum, for here is industry on a large scale industry that has brought life to lonely places and finds employment for many men in this isolated centre.

by a Correspondent


More Of Grandmother's Days On Yorke Peninsula.

Thursday 28 June 1945, Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954) Trove

DEAR ELEANOR BARBOUR— , Having 'shelved' other things for the time, I shall afford myself the pleasure of enjoying the really good company of your pageites. Although invisible to one another, we find so much good fellowship and have so much in common.

It is indeed 'good company' now that the colder days are here, and once again the fireside invites a cosy circle of good friends. What a thrill many of us would get if we could really gather our distant friends at will, and enjoy a hearty talk; not just passing chatter, as is usually the case these busy days. It is very pleasing to note so many newcomers to our pages. The larger the family, the keener the interest, I say, and I love the many little letters from different parts and the varied topics. Alligators and river currents, underground lakes and blowholes, gold, dust, or the beauties of nature — all make good reading for those who, unable to enjoy the privilege of travel, follow a monotonous daily routine. Perhaps there are others, many of us, who are especially cheered by the homely little incidents of real life, of the way our own folk strove to clear the land, build and furnish the homes. We are cheered to read of such times not so many decades ago when 'on Saturday night, to have a good scrub, Tom and Teddy were put in the tub — an outsize wash-tub usually — put near the fire in the large fireplace in washhouse or kitchen. A boiler was on the brandis heating the water which the older children would bring in along with the wood for the week-end. How busy and happy they were — older boys on the land, and girls in the kitchen learning the arts of home-making, of camp-oven or brick-oven baking.

What a joy for mothers of large, hungry families to own a brickoven, wherein a large supply of bread, meat, pies and cakes could all be done at once — before the advent of stoves, or 'American ovens.' and enamel or aluminiumware. Enamel piedish fruit pies were a Sunday treat and when by a stroke of ill-luck one slid off the long handled oven shovel, somersaulting into the ashes, one longlooked for gooseberry pie, done to perfection, was a big loss, truly mourned. Lifting the pie or custard from a camp-oven is not as easily done as turning out the loaf. How lucky we are to own the newer ways and means to have ready to eat foods in tins and packets, which would have cheered those early overlanders to Western Australia.

It took three weeks in the seventies to do the trip round St. Vincent's Gulf with horses and cattle. Water for stock being scarce, the cattle tried to get down to the sea to drink. The mothers and children and luggage came by sailing boat across the — to them— 'big sea,' because roads were only bush tracks. They had very little hope of going back to friends they had left, but the fine community spirit prevailed, neighbors helping each other when in need. The experienced women went to the needy neighbor in bullock dray, any time when required, over ruts and stones, where instinctively the animals took the right track and the anxious humans heaved many a thankful sigh of relief to reach home and shelter. No cosy motors, telephones, or possible hope of getting the doctor out over those roads at night. There was the winding muddy track through dense timber where later I remember the horses scurrying at nightfall, their ears pricked anxiously eager to reach home.

Many a time had my grandmother gone, at a slower pace, thankful to 'get there' and find a warm room, and boiling water, and brave hearts. Then the home truly became less desolate, although so isolated by the darkness and new track, and the fear of being left alone departed and the good neighbor was a tower of strength, more welcome than the doctor at times, for she stayed, overseeing the home, patient, new babe, and other toddlers' needs, taking her batch of dough along and baking it in the 'early hours.' What joy among the little people, to have another tiny pioneer in the home. Then, in case of accident or sickness, the 'good neighbor' was equally welcome. Miraculous escapes there were! And some strange remedies, too; but experience taught the value of simple home remedies.

There were very few sick folk, and one tiny hospital then in all our southern Yorke Peninsula, although there were many families of ten, twelve, or a few more. Many of the first homes were three roomed stone buildings. A boys' room was usually added and perhaps a dairy and a large tank as soon as time and funds would allow, and timber, iron, lime and sand could be got together. One octogenarian tells me how very cold it was sleeping in an iron tank with his big brothers on their selection for the first nights. Usually a hut was quickly erected of split sheaoak — slabs pugged with red earth and straw thatched with rushes found in the many swamps even today, whitewashed inside and outside. Calico window? Yes, some, but no fly screen or door: The cow ate more than one potplant treasured by the homemakers, and took the cloth off the breakfast table and clothes off the toes, even in my day. Imagine the bog made by bullock teams carting the wheat in German waggons when some farms yielded 1,000 bags of four bushels each, and the crack of whips and shouting! Yes, and the thirsty men, tired men whose bullocks or horses knew the way home in the dark.

There were many land girls, too, in those days in these parts, whose work took them to hay fields, wheat cleaning with the winnower (turning the handle or putting up the grain, ramming and sewing four-bushel bags are hard work) ; harrowing, stone-picking, drawing and pumping water; milking cows, tending gardens, poultry, calves harnessing them, too, in some cases where a family was not blessed with sons, or men were not to be procured when such work waited. I have been told how tired they were, and how good was the appetite; and how they put cabbage leaves inside the sun bonnets to keep the faces cool (and fair) on those hot cleaning floors when the breeze changing, meant a big 'shift around.' Many of them had the longing for a different life, but eventually married and found that woman's sphere is 'home-making' and lessons learned on a farm help considerably.

The beautiful dresses those girls made were works of art; and often several friends would help a 'bride to be' make the loveliest things, as also did they for the tiny tots. As for parties, they are a newer innovation. At Christmastime, and for weddings and christening dinners, special white sugar cakes and many slides of the good coffee cake were made, also dainty cakes (biscuits) were ordered and sent in the butter box returned from the coffee cafes across the gulf. In the eighties jam was procured in kerosene tins (privately made by gardeners). Can anyone tell when first a factory started? Honey brought over in a cask began to ooze out, so it was a case of finding bowls or dishes to store it. In those days milk was set and skimmed until grandmother's bench of three-tier, one to three gallon dishes gave way to the marvellous buzzy separator we children loved to watch while we ate her good coffee cake with plenty of 'top' on it.

Having reread 'Wistful Willie's' letter among others, I agree that there are many worse places to live in than this 'best leg' of our State. 'Johnny' possibly has not been right around the 'foot.' I really must add to her good account that thousands of tons of wheat, wool, barley and salt have gone from our 'limestone end' in large boats. The salt lakes are quite a feature too, the largest 15 miles round, was measured into blocks, and let to many surrounding farmers to be scraped but that was 30 to 40 years ago: The factories had to close, except one which still sends away crude salt. Did anyone ever see sunbeams 'sparkle' on those blue lakes? Or the glory of sunset reflected in them? I have never seen better. I would be pleased to know how 'Sue Lawson' liked the tomato pulp, for we found it the best way to preserve and have done many gallons, also cases of fruit filled when cooked as 'Meat Pie' does it. Thanks to the many busy writers for hints and the always enjoyable letters. I am always keen to learn anything of our people in this good land from north, souths east or west. Now a big cheerio to all, thanking you especially for the letters about the Royal visit and the many other topics. 'EVER PERKY KOMRADE.' (Thank you for pioneering memories, which all readers enjoy, 'Ever Perky Komrade.'— E.B.)

Queen Elizabeth, with the King and Princess Margaret Rose, recently paid a visit to the station where Princess Elizabeth is training as a transport officer of the ATS. Here the Princess explains to her mother what she has been doing to the car engine.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 12 Sep 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In this and following instalments, readers can obtain a first hand idea of what's to be seen and done when holidaying on Yorke Peninsula, an area which is fast increasing in popularity as a tourist area. The author of this article (which will be published by instalments until concluded) is a well-known local farmer with a keen appreciation of progressive ideas, and through his eyes readers will learn more of the areas concerned than a mere description of scenery would convey. Most Australians know too little about their own districts, their own States, or their own country, for that matter, and servicemen whose duties took them to many parts of this vast continent, now realise that this ignore ance has been their loss. Travellers' tales down the ages have always been welcome hearing, and the same holds for modern times. Should any other reader have been fortunate enough to indulge recently in a spot of travel, we would be only too pleased to publish a full account in these columns, and so allow others to share in the broadening influence of "seeing the world" or at least — as the Tourist Bureaux have it — "Seeing Australia First".

And now to join our modern explorers :

"The party entered Balaklava from, the Northern District surrounding the town, on one of those very dusty and warm days which this district is so noted for. One could certainly see where the dust was, coming from, and also where it was going, to some extent, from the higher undulating country surrounding these drifty areas.

As it was "Sale Day" in Balaklava, quite a large crowd had gathered, and one could not help being very much taken by the possibilities for development as a town of much more importance and attraction than it is at the present stage. One member of the party who has travelled the State extensively was quite outspoken in this direction and commented to the effect that Balaklava was very fortunate being such a centre with very little "big town"" opposition in any way, and had much of the trade and business to use to its own betterment and should realise that its possibilities were good for the future if taken notice of.

Owing to a change in the direction, of the wind, and cooler conditions, the party journeyed on through to Saints Station, Bowmans and to Port Wakefield. On this section we were very much impressed by the improvement in the sand drift position compared with the position last year when one large desert was the order of the day. The Highways Department have taken the sand from the railway line and built up the road with it, metalling the surface and making a very good road, which are the main essentials to happy tourist traffic.

A PENINSULAR TOUR

Much growth, owing to the past favourable Spring, and further helped by Summer rains, have produced excellent prospects for the next season : one could not help but notice the difference, although the very much diminished livestock were conspicuous by their absence. Perhaps it is a good thing, as over-stocking has been one of the evils in some of our drier areas.

Some time was spent in Port Wakefield, as a few of the members had rather a keen desire to quench their thirsts, and this somewhat cooler seaside town, or rather, on the head of the Gulf, was much appreciated after the warmer conditions in Balaklava. Port Wakefield, although having seen much better days, shows nevertheless a fairly progressive local interest in the town. The local swimming pool was a delight to the young fry (of which there were several) who never on any one occasion missed a chance to use every means at their disposal for a bit of fun or a joke at someone's expense. This high glee was always encouraged and also often-times endured. At one stage a trailer was unhooked from the towing vehicle by this element and one can imagine the amusement of the bystanders as the forward vehicle departed without its equipment: fortunately the driver also was in good spirits.

Journeying on, up through the Hummocks, we had a fine view of a portion of the coast, although this part is very dry type of country. We noticed the mail from Nantawarra (an old "T" model Ford) doing her best to beat the railcar to the siding, and of course "Lizzie's" reliability, which has made her famous in the past, eventually saw her through. At a point, several miles out from Port Wakefield, we turned off on to the Coast Road, as it is known. This road turned out to be something of an eye opener to all members, as a further account will show.

We journey along the water's edge for practically all the way to Ardrossan. Passing through Port Arthur we noticed several caravans and tents as here many campers seemed to want to come to be just near to the sea and spend many hours fishing or enjoying the general easy-going attitude that goes with holidays. One must bring all supplies such as water and food etc., as this small beach has not the facilities for obtaining these.

Clinton, which is a little further on, is one of those parts where one can pull up and feel that the good-will of the locals is always extended to any passing through. We always noticed this attitude to any tourists where ever we went, information regarding roads, camping, or any thing for one's comfort was not too much trouble.

Port Price looms large on the horizon, with its large dumps of salt, which always have a fascination for those not used to the processing of our common salt. A young, member of the party was heard to say, "She would certainly be a hell of a large shaker to hold that, Mum", as these clumps were chains long and many feet high. . Calling at the local "pub" after six, we realized that our liquor laws certainly need an overhaul. A farmer coming in for a drink after a hard days' work, is breaking the law if he has a drink after six, and lays himself open to a fairly heavy fine.

Tourist traffic will never be encouraged while we have such absolutely out-of-date laws. Some members of the party were inclined to "sign on" to get a drink, this seems to be the only method for an easy way round. The road winds around inland slightly after leaving Port Price, and the blue sea is hidden from view by the mangroves etc., and although this is only the beginning of the Coast Road, we find the surface exceptionally smooth and wide, and well graded.

Ardrossan is next on the list and is really the first town entered of any size this side of the Gulf. One notices many thousands of bags of wheat and barley stacked all over the town and in normal times, these must amount to some hundreds and thousands. We could not figure out why this cereal was stacked so haphazardly, as a large quantity would have to be handled so much, as same was far from the wharf. Here, as usual, the party soon started to explore the town and seaside. Firstly, the wharf and jetty attracted our attention. The rise and fall of the tide is 13 feet, and here one finds the sands are red, which is in contradiction to the usual sea sands. This is caused through the high cliffs which are of red clay, and reach down to thp water and of course making such a colour inevitable.

On the end of the jetty, the sea bed has been dredged to take oceangoing vessels to load grain and top up later at the deper ports. To stand on top of the cliffs and look out over the beautiful blue of the sea with the morning sun shining, is a sight many land-lubbers are very delighted about, and one could hear many compliments in this direction. The cliffs are about 80 to 90 feet high and this brought some very unsavoury remarks from one member of the party who had a mother-in-law complex. One look over the edge, and he said "A bonzer place to bring your sleepwalking mother-in-law," certainly hard on the old "battle axe", but he was inclined to think this reference mild, as he preferred to call her the old "battle cruiser", as she opened out on all sides when annoyed. The writer, being blessed with an extremely docile, well mannered and helpful mother-in-law, does not care to include his own views on this vexatious subject!

Ardrossan is well laid out with wide, well-drained streets, and certainly is inviting on first appearances and possesses good service stations and iepair facilities for any who need or choose to use same. A large amount of the districts goods are carried to and fro by boat and this morning the wharf was very busy and of course, interesting to those who have spent much of their time inland.

To be continued


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 10 Oct 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

Readers will recall in a recent issue the commencement of an account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsular by a party of local residents. In the first instalment we journeyed with the travellers from Balaklava to Port Wakefield and thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan, at which point we pick up the thread of the narrative.

All export goods, including cereals .are carted down the cliff to the wharf by motor lorry, then reloaded on to small rail trucks and taken down the jetty to be unloaded at the ship's side, before transhipment, and one wonders when the process will end. During the summer months fishing is very popular, and at low tide, one jmay see almost any type of small craft lying high and dry on the beach. One enterprising fisherman had made a boat from galvanized iron and, owing to her hollow bulkheads, guaranteed her to float in any position. This craft appealled strongly to the poorer sailors in the party.

We said goodbye to Ardrossan in brilliant sunshine, and for the next hundred miles travelled high above the ocean on the cliff edge. The glorious reflections and tints of the sun on the sea seemed to reflect the high spirits of the party, as the younger members engaged in much banter. We passed, an up-to-date grader, and envied the driver, his constant view of unlimited grandeur during his day's work. The traveller cannot resist giving these chaps a friendly wave, or stopping to have a yarn, as a mark of appreciation of their work, which has resulted in fine roads extending in every direction vastly different from those in our own district. Good roads mean goodwill and greater tourist attraction, and one tends to assess the enterprise and initiative of a district by the state of its roads. After seeing such outstanding efforts here on Yorke Peninsula, one realises that greater pressure for improved roads should be exerted in our own district.

At this time of the year, the country, which produces large crops of barley, seemed fairly dry. Bushy mallee and small tree growth extended right down to the sea, and here and there one noticed a caravan or car parked at a suitable place so that all could enjoy the fine scene, sometimes from as high as two hundred feet above the sea. The caravan, which has been greatly improved in recent years, is one means of travelling in comfort. We inspected one, which had a shower, a special lavatory, an electric lighting set, and a good old-fashioned beer pump for bringing water from low-level tanks. The sight of this pump, bearing an old monogram, caused a certain amount of mouth-watering on this fairly dry day, and some mumbling about the beer shortage.

We noticed several signposts along the road, pointing to "Port Julia" "Moolawurtie" and "Pine Point" "We visited all of these, and what delightful little places they proved to be! Some were revealed after travelling through very thick mallee scrub, whose green mingled with the varying shades of the ocean's blue. These small, humble ports were very homely places, and all carried the inevitable stacks of cereals, which I reflected the prosperity of this drier region. In these spots, many campers on the water's edge seemed to be there mainly for the enjoymen of old Sol's pleasant rays, and of bit of fishing. Some were farmer from nearby areas, who loved their environment and seemed contentet with a holiday not far from home— a remarkable tribute to their fine tourist paradise. This is the writer's personal opinion, but it is shared "by many others.

Back on the main road once again we were to enjoy an experience both unusual and very exciting, if taken as the younger members accepted it. Large canyons or gullies go down to the sea, and the road passes through ; these apparently regardless of depth. Here one finds all the thrills of the "Big Dipper". These gullies, taken at forty or fifty miles per hour, are equal to the best of the "Dipper", The outlaws of the party, in a modern car, tried then at higher speeds, but one attempt by the writer convinced him that he'd had all that could be desired for a motoring thrill. The youngest members of the party, among much squealing, calmly urged "Give her the works again, Pop !" which Pop did, much to his own and their amusement. Many of these "dippers" are encountered between Ardrossan and Port Vincent; the car ahead disappears from view, to arise not many hundred yards ahead. I will say to any doubting motorist "Try them yourself under the same conditions".

As we drove along the water's edge a grand panorama unfolded itself. The sun was overhead, the waters of the gulf perfectly smooth, and the fishing ketches and smaller craft just moved before a slight breeze, Emerging from a group of trees just off the coast, we had a sudden view of red-roofed houses, delightful blue sea, fishing cutters and motor-boats —a grand little settlement, perfectly situated several hundred feet below us. It was Port Vincent. Coming down into this lovely little bay I was struck by its superb beauty, while the youngsters commented on the lovely beach. The town is entered on what one might term a marine drive or parade, and as we drove slowly along, we were practically at the water's edge. At an unusual little cafe, elevated by piles on one side and built at street level on the other, we could order refreshments from the car. Or we could walk through the cafe to the beach, and practically eat an afternoon tea on the water ! The small fry were almost outlawed by the proprietress | because of their whoops of delight, and climbing up and down the steps to the beach, a few feet below. The lady in charge did everything possible to help the party ; one or two hungry members started a sandwich—eating competition, and were constantly gaining on the staff of the establishment. The Hotel Ventnor situated on the water-front, is, I believe, the only one in Port Vincent, and at this time of the year was completely booked out.

Immediately adjoining the cafe is the camping ground,. where many varieties of vehicles, tents and caravans were seen. Among them were several Balaklava identities securely entrenched; the business section of the home town seemed to be particularly represented. The area of the camping ground is too small for the large crowd, and such a place could have a ground twice its present size. We all realized that here was one of the best opportunities for large-scale development in tourist traffic in the State. I have camped in the fine park at Mount Gambier, when two hundred caravans were accommodated, so can speak from experience. Such facilities as electric power, hot and cold showers, decent lavatories, and effective control of general hygiene are urgently needed ,and must soon be the order of the day. Tourists can help by making the best of the existing conditions, as too often one sees exampies of downright abuse of public utilities.

The sea was exceptionally calm and of a very deep blue, and I could not help but notice the large number of various kinds of craft moving about—pleasure boats, dinghies, fishing cutters, and the inevitable small motor boats and launches. Port Vincent is only forty miles across the gulf from Port Adelaide, and many sailing parties travel to and fro in this direction. Christmas and New Year's Day always produce many gay scenes, when amateur, as well as professional fishermen, try their luck. We told one loical fisherman that many more Balaklavaites hoped to come here in the future, and his comment was "God help the fish'.

To be continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 17 Oct 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

Reader's will recall in a recent issue the commencement of an account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsular by a party of local residents. In the first instalment we journeyed with the travellers from Balaklava to Port Wakefield and thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan, and last week we accompanied our tourist to Port Vincent, at which point we pick up the thread of the narrative.

During different sojourns at Port Vincent, we noticed the late John Gilchrist, who was well known to the members of the party, and who will always be remembered for his pleasant manner, and his enjoyment of the seaside holidays. Mr. Roy Metcalf, Mr. Bob Bansemer and Mr. Frank Cox were also observed to be on deck whenever the fish were there in abundance. Amongst the many others enjoying this sunny seaside resort were Mr. A. C. Fraser and family of Halbury, and Mr. and Mrs. L. J. Sires, of Kybunga. Two gentlemen who could hold their own anywhere at depleting the supply of sea food, were Messrs. Roy Anderson and Fred Nenmann of Halbury. Doubtless there were many others from this district who were there at the time, but we did not see them.

Port Vincent township is not a large place, but one can spend many happy hours on its beach, or in fishing, yachting or outboard speeding on its calm blue waters. One member of the party, gazing casually over the side of the jetty, remarked, "They certainly have some nice-looking girls here, Bill" whereupon Bill admitted that here one saw as many well-proportioned lasses as at any beach in the state—but we can't disclose all of his remarks !

Murray and Keith East, sons of Mr. Jack East of Balaklava, accompanied the writer on a tour of the Peninsula, and proved to be excellent company, and thorough fun-loving cobbers. Here I may mention that the enterprise of the firm of East Bros, of Mallala was much in evidence at practically every port and wharf which we visited. This wellknown firm has done quite a reasonable amount of pioneering in the development of Yorke Peninsula.

One very sunny morning the usual restlessness which urged the party to be on its way once more, seemed to possess everyone, and so we said farewell to Port Vincent, hat lovely little town with such vast and promising tourist possibilities. We travelled again over smooth, wide roads, above the level of the calm sea, towards Stanbury, another point of interest on our ever-widening horizon. Between these two towns is the Adelaide Cement Works. One could spend several hours here, particularly if one were as mechanically minded as a few members of our party. An open cut, approximately 200 feet deep, has been developed. The limestone is hewn and blasted out in large quantities and handled by huge shovels and excavators. The worker who operated one of these enormous caterpillar-propelled machines attracted much attention from the party. All admired the ease of manner with which he handled the great machine. The open cut comes right to the edge of the road, and it was greatly extended during the war years. The factory being situated on, or in, the water, we presumed that its products were shipped further afield, as I believe the completed product is not turned out there.

Even the casual tourist cannot help but notice the large stacks of limestone which have been heaped in this part of the Peninsula since the pioneers came to these parts. We saluted the early settlers for their fine work in removing limestone from the land in order to facilitate its cultivation. One hears so much these days from the efficient young farmers on the Peninsula or anywhere else for that matter) of what they have done, and how the "Old Man" at first distrusted tractors and power-driven machines. But they, like the writer—an extremely young farmer who is reluctant to admit too much to "Dad"—have to give credit to our fathers and forefathers who laboriously removed this limestone by hand, and in horse drawn vehicles, so that we who came after, could live more abundantly.

The country around here is fairly dry, talthough it seems to produce large quantities of our most urgent need today—food. These toilers of the soil are further handicapped by being somewhat isolated and at such a distance from the Adelaide market.

I have remarked several times on the vivid blue of the sea, which, in a hundred miles along the coast, did not vary, but as much of the journey was undertaken under ideal weather conditions, this may explain the ever-present blue.

As we approached Stansbury we noticed that the cliffs were gradually becoming less steep. We found Stansbury a pleasant little town, and drove practically on to the beach under shady trees, feeling that we had every reason to tell others that these enterprising little towns are worthy of a visit at any time. There is a butter factory near the sea, and there are facilities for fishing, but particularly there is the invitation of the people of Stanbury to come and enjoy yourselves.

To be continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 24 Oct 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, at which point we again take up the story:

"Stansbury was one of the most soaked places during the summer rains early this year, 9 inches being registered. A schoolboy remarked to his mother: "The tide is high this morning ,Mum—and she's all messed up"—this referring to the brown colour of the sea in the vicinity. Stansbury took quite a washing, and was well flooded.

The fine Coast Road suffered from the usual amount of rain, but a recent report from that highly efficient organisation, the R.A.A., stated that this fine scenic way is in the best of order once more.

Here may we pass a comment, on and pay a tribute to the R.A.A. This I fine organisation has been used extensively by members of the party, and covers no less than 24 free or almost free services to motorists. Any touring driver could well be a member of this association, because in it one finds a sense of security, especially when travelling, as kindred associations are found in every State in Australia. We salute the R.A.A. for sterling service rendered us and many thousands of other travellers. The organisation is destined to be one of the greatest friends of the tourist, and will in future contribute even more to the maintenance and improvement of safety on the road, and the encouragement of the use of modern car as a means of first-rate enjoyment.

Leaving Stansbury, we drove on to a tiny settlement called Pickering, Which reminds one of many of the smaller ports, inlets, etc., we seemed to see every few miles. The country here is to use the R.A.A. strip map wording — "Level, through mixed farming lands". These surroundings were pleasant enough, as we travelled onwards, but some-what drier than usual. We emerged rather surprisingly at Coobowie, where we noticed large numbers of sea birds near the local jetty. We were now back at sea level, the tall cliffs along which we had been travelling having gradually decreased in height without our being aware of it. Coobowie was no doubt more important in byegone days than it is now, and here we draw some conclusions, of our own, which do not always conform with the conventional, as we believe that candid personal expressions of opinion make far more interesting reading than the more restrained sort of thing often found in travel books which are seldom read from cover to cover.

At Coobowie the whole party pulled up at the cheery little hotel, and here we received a right royal welcome. "Where do you come from ?", "How is old George over there and many more similar queries put us at home at once, and made us realise again what a small world it is : on our travels, we were continually meeting someone we knew, or answering enquiries about residents of the Balaklava district. The weather being warm, we thoroughly enjoyed our brief sojourn at Coobowieone could, with 'pot' in hand, admire the sea, and observe various tourists wandering around as tourists always do. Young and old alike seemed to be rejuvenated in this salubrious atmosphere.

Reluctantly — and much happier — we set off from Coobowie, and some three miles further on crossed a causeway, over a stretch of water which reaches inland for a short distance. It is quite a sensation to be travelling over the water in this way and the juvenile members of the party showed much delight, almost wanting to jump in — most kids love the water, be it salty, dirty, or even muddy.

Between this point and Edithburgh the short drive is very pleasant, as the road is again rather higher than the surrounding country, and the view across the sea to Edithburgh, with the never-ending blue, and fishing boats with sails catching the breeze, lead one to comment that the Peninsula affords ocean views equal to any.

Edithburgh stands out clearly, the once more-important gypsum works and chimney stacks towering above the skyline. We passed a large family of aborigines near the town, and the dark little faces, shining white teeth, and shy smiles of the children lead one to think that the one-time occupiers of this fine country retain some of their original characteristics, despite the largely degenerative influence of the white man. The children of our party, like children all over the world, were soon exchanging "Good-days'' with their dusky counterparts.

Edithburgh proved to be a very neat well laid out town, with one-way traffic arrangements in the main street, as in Ardrosssn. Three hotels (there may have been more) testified to the town's better days. Halting the cars outside one attractivelooking hotel, we found the bar practically on the footpath, and very much exposed to the public view : after our out-door life, it seemed that we would be very much at home here. Above the door, there was a ram's, head made of crystals specially treated in the locality. According to the barman, these crystals are gathered from adjacent lakes, and are of gypsum or salt cement: after cutting, turning and polishing, etc., they have a gleaming finish which is very attractive.

Lest the reader conclude that members of the party were a thirsty lot, we hasten to state that such was not the case. We visited many hotels on the Peninsula, for two reasons, chiefly: first, from the tourist aspect, and second, to have a friendly drink and learn from a fellow Australian more about that part of our country in which he lived, which information was always most willingly given. In the course of much discussion someone nearly always lost an argument, and had to 'buy' at the next stop ("if supplies were available") as a result. Off Edithburgh, and further down the coast, is Troubridge Lighthouse, which can be seen long before this pleasant seaside town is reached.

At Edithburgh, we saw the end, more or less, of our fine Coast Road, which continues to some extent, but not on the grand scale previously described. If one turns inland (if such a term can be used about the Peninsula) one finds that he has left a fine road only to link up with the excellent bitumen highway which extends from one end of the Peninsula to the other, in the centre, and continues right to Adelaide. Beyond Edithburgh, the maps describe the roads near the coast to Marion Bay, Cape Spencer and Corny Point as trials, etc.

Again in brilliant sunshine, we said au revoir to fair Edithburgh, and drove on to Port Moorowie, a small port with the inevitable jetty, wheat and other cereal sheds, and timber and iron for stacking and roofing this produce. At Moorowie, in the evening, the huge waves and pounding surf leave no doubts as to the power of the ocean, for here it seems unbridled, lashing with unrestricted fury at all objects in its path. From here on, the traveller may see and sense the complete isolation of this southernmost part of Yorke's Peninsula. Much of the area is uninhabited, and one soon realises that here nature in her various moods, unspoiled by man, can really be enjoyed. One member of the party, with, possibly, a thought for future depressions, considered this area one place where creditors would not worry a man. Certainly, if a man wished to disappear from human ken, he would be difficult to locate in this lovely spot. Without the least desire to corrupt anyone's moral code, we could recommend lower Yorke's Peninsula to any couple considering eloping, as an irate father would certainly do some round cursing in his efforts to trace the so-called moderns !

Westward from Port Moorowie, we kept close to the coast, the tracks being O.K. in dry weather, and quite pleasant to motor over. One day, it is to be hoped that wide, smooth roads will cater for tourists, and open up this interesting region. The view changes constantly as one drives along, mallee and low brush mingling with the blue or grey-green of the ocean.

Our next halt was at Marion Bay, and we found Marion quite a lady, too. The bay has a fairly long jetty, and it was a welcome break, after sitting in a car for many miles, to explore this pleasant spot.

Owing to a sudden change in our plans, we were not able to enjoy this marvellous part of Yorke's Peninsula to the full, but all members of our party were convinced that anyone who spent a week or so camping in these parts would always come again.

A little further along the track, Stenhouse Bay presents itself, and from here we could see the Allthorpe Islands, with the lighthouse thereon. This is an interesting spot, as most people who have been passengers on the "Moonta" or "Minnipa" on the "Gulf Trip" know that once the Allthorpes are left behind, much heavier seas can be expected, and naturally the "heavier" passengers dislike this. Which reminded us of a steward on the "Moonta" saying to a very seasick passenger trying to negotiate one of the corridors on the ship, "You can't do that here!" and the passenger's response "Can't I ? Just watch me!"

Stenhouse Bay has excellent harbour facilities, and large quantities of salt and gypsum were awaiting shipment. The wealth of sea-shore beauty makes the place cie to be remembered, with the tall cliffs, the variegated plant life, the spray on the granite rocks making an endless variety of fantastic patterns, all contributing to one's enjoyment.

To reach Inneston we travelled over a rocky road near the coast, almost in the centre of Cape Spencer (which barely warrants the title).

In these small settlements one always finds friendliness, and all the finer virtues of human nature in abundance. Wherever the traveller roams in these parts, he can rest assured that goodwill will be his lot. No tribute could be too high for these kindly settlers in a most isolated part of South Australia.

Production of gypsum and salt constitutes almost the sole employment of the people in this area, several lakes bearing testimony to this. Fish abound off the coast, and many travellers come here for the fishing alone. Our party did not include good fishermen, but even we were able to catch a few. .

Northward again, along the coast, through miles of country where Nature remained undisturbed, we drove on, sighting quite a few kangaroos on the way, and before long we arrived at Corny Point."

To be continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 31 Oct 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Stenhouse Bay, and Corny Point, at which point we again take up the narrative :

"Corny Point, with its large boulders, with the spray rising and falling, the "bridal trains" and so on, provides interesting scenery which can be watched for a long time. Here one marvels at the rapidity with which the geological formations change. There are long stretches of surfing beach, on which the breakers pound with Nature's usual regularity. We could never have enough of this type of natural, unspoiled country, but with improved touring conditions, much of this will assuredly disappear. Nevertheless, tourist attractions will remain unlimited. Here the city dweller can find all the relaxation and peace he needs, providing, of course, that he possesses the usual caravan, or well-organised and thought-out camping gear. This lower Yorke's Peninsula will be even more popular when more developed, and the lazier type of tourist who likes all civilized amenities close at hand, will be seen there in ever-increasing number. At any time, the most fastidious traveller would be well rewarded by a visit to this part of the world.

Leaving Corny Point behind us, we drove on to Hardwicke Bay, a sheltered spot which drew more expressions of appreciation from members of the party. Here the several youngsters frolicked, as they did everywhere the opportunity offered. Their spirits reflected the instinct to appreciate nature everywhere, in every mood, born in them. Children can show many adults that life is always enjoyable, providing a similar outlook in this respect is attained.

Wishing the coastline a temporary goodbye, we travelled inland, for the first time in some 200-odd miles, to the inviting little village (may we say !) that is Warooka. Here we celebrated our "return to civilisation' — as one member of the party put it — in a right royal way. Incidentally, the remark quoted evoked an immediate 'bite' from the barman, who soon quietened the would-be joker with "Where the devil do you come from—Sydney ?" proceeding to explain that Warooka was a very real place. We always enjoyed this kind of banter, and sometimes agitated in this direction, often being amazed at the prolific flow of praise put forward in defence by enterprising local residents. A fine piano on the premises was soon discovered, and many good old songs and ditties revived in typical Aussie fashion. Perhaps Ned Kelly would have mended his ways if he had joined in with a similar gang at his lady friend's hotel! We liked "Warooka on the hill-top" as it were, considering it a reflection of a small English village, and we say to the people of the Peninsula, that there one may find the very essence of friendliness and general good fellowship. We noticed at Warooka representatives of the motor service conducted by Bastins, some of these being wellknown to Balak-ites — Hughie Dunn Bernie Starr, Joe Nicholas and other courteous drivers and members of the staff. In conversation with a passenger who had just alighted from one of the buses, she remarked that this enterprise provided comfortable, speedy and enjoyable travel which left little to be desired—in fact, some of her comments were so complimentary to the drivers that they must be withheld, as they are all married men, and the writer would hate to cause any misunderstandings ! All jokes aside, though, Bastin's service was always highly spoken of by those with whom we came in contact. We were always genuinely interested in Yorke's Peninsula travel services and agencies, because here there are no railways — which probably accounts for the truly outstanding roads. This type of private enterprise could be much [jnore extensively used in our own, or any other district for that matter, but is almost impracticable by reason of bureaucratic controls and railways, which are a State monopoly. The writer has had considerable experience in road transport, and says to all on Yorke's Peninsula "Put the screws on your M.P.'s — Federal and State — damned hard". There were many stories, particularly during the war years, of injustices inflicted on travellers and travel facilities, and one may recount here the tale of the farmer who wished to shear a few hundred hoggetts, and wrote to the Liquid Fuel Control Board applying for the additional fuel required to do it. After the usual delays he was informed that the Board was not aware that pigs were ever shorn at all! I myself have experienced similar bungling from this highly bureaucratic body, and incredible incompetence has been shown me by some of the officials there. Such comments as the foregoing may seem out of place in an account of a tour ist trip, but they are the result of our own findings after conversations with a great many Y.P. residents, whose definite views on such 'mattes left no doubt as to their sincerity.

Leaving Warooka (taking with us many pleasant memories) we headed for the extremely enterprising centre of Yorketown, where we found an excellently laid out town with fine, clean streets. One of the party recalled pre-war days, when Yorketown by night, presented quite a metropolitan atmosphere. Many fine shops and very up-to-date business premises evidence the support this town must receive from its people and the surrounding district. Perhaps we could recommend (and with out prejudice) that some of the business men of Balaklava, and members of the Balaklava District Council too, tour this area, because prosperity per capita on Yorke's Peninsula must be far in excess of what it is in the Balaklava district. I make this comment firmly believing that Balaklava is at the threshold of a great future, should we residents only wake up and be modern.

One sunny afternoon, strolling through Yorketown's streets, we were delighted to find a gathering of elderly men, mostly retired farmers or townspeople. These assemblies appeared to be customary, and these friendly elders, seated in small groups in some of the pleasant, shady spots which abound here, frequently recalled old times, and were never afraid to air their views on current events, with pride in their own town and achievements always to the fore. The party spent some time shopping here, and received courteous and first-class service from ail concerned. This town certainly caters for its own community and the public in general, and an example of this was given by the efficient work done by one up-to-date garage to repair a small but annoying break-down. Yorketown enterprise need have no fears for the future if service such as we experienced is maintained and extended.

"Bill', of Port Vincent, was again on the war-path with his opinions of local feminine pulchritude, and as the party included one or two others with the same roving eye, I chanced to overhear, among the usual spate of complimentary remarks, "That one must be a cousin to Venus." Personally, I would like to agree that the number of splendid examples of young Australian womanhood augurs well for the future of Yorke's Peninsula, and doubtless many servicemen returning to these parts after an absence of many years, much of the time amongst colored peoples, found the local scenery very easy on the eye. I may add that these are my own comments, and not included under "pressure" from others in our party. It is of course for other travellers to form their own opinions on these subjects.

We spent many more pleasant hours in Yorketown (which could be called the capital of Yorke's Peninsula). much to our benefit, but one fine afternoon we again heard the call of the open road, ancl set off along the main road to Adelaide, a fine highway with a smooth bitumen surface."

To be continued :


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 21 Nov 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Stenhouse Bay, Corny Point, Warooka and Yorketown, at which point we again take up the narrative.

Taking the Adelaide road from Yorketown, your narrator and his companions then travelled inland for some miles, and because of the flat slightly undulating nature of. this country, many varied and pleasing views were presented. Farmlands, evidence of pastoral pursuits, blue seascapes, native scrub, and occasional seagulls, though common enough in themselves, are just a few of the sights that charm the traveller on his way. Mail bags and boxes along the road reminded us of the Victor Harbour — Adelaide road, although the numerous names and inscriptions were missing. One might here recall some of these names — during the construction of the Goolwa Barrage, the writer spent some lime there, and such names as "Hotazell", "Cosyasell" and even "Coldazell" could be seen in close proximity to each other. Another name was "Gundagai Man", reminiscent of the famous "Dog on the Tucker Box" vand many others too, could be mentioned were it not for my fear that the censor might step in if they were.

More delightful travelling brought us to Minlaton, a centre where private enterprise and individual initiative are found to a very marked degree. Like other Peninsula towns, Minlaton has adopted a one way traffic system, and in the centre of the roadway, gardens and shrubs in seasonal variety bloom according to Nature's order, to be admired greatly by all passing by. The Town Hall is an outstanding modern building with curved instead of square external walls : when we saw it on this occasion, it was lit with a profusion of colored lights. Over here, people laugh at power restrictions, for they are well provided for with their own highly efficient, well-cared-for power stations, in definite contrast to areas served by soulless monopolistic enterprises. But more later concerning our visits to power houses.

Strolling down Minlaton's main street, we entered into conversation with many local and district residents, for this day was "Sale Day," and the town was crowded. It is an education in itself to meet many of the intelligent citizens of this fair town, for one hears many new aspects of various problems of the day. One person in particular we well remembered for his forth-right opinions on Transport and Liquid Fuel control, these subjects being like red rags to a bull to most people on the Peninsula, because of the full scale on which road transport is used, and had there been an inspector from one of these Boards anywhere within fifty miles at least, his ears must have been burning! The writer has had the experience of a prosecuting inspector who had the audacity to try to sell him oil while representing a firm, after having taken certain action whilst under Government protection. This type of citizen could most certainly sell icecream in Hell and do a roaring trade in heavy fur coats at the same time.

To get back to our subject once more, the Peninsula folk have done a grand job under endless restriction. The shopping facilities in MinInton are very comprehensive, and we were always able to buy something out of the ordinary or of value as a souvenir. Despite the widespread shortages, we would occasionally see, in the various towns through which we passed, something which would be unobtainable in other places, and on each occasion the feminine bargain-hunting instinct manifested itself as it always does.

Minlaton can be recommended to all, not so much because it is a friendly town, but because, although not large, it gives the distinct impression of doing a large volume of trade in spite of the proximity of other towns: it must have many times the opposition that Balaklava has, as a business centre.

Enjoying Minlaton's goodwill, we strolled further afield, and noticed a number of lawns, including a very fine bowling green. Mention of such facilities in other towns described, has been omitted, but Minlaton was found quite outstanding for its fine efforts to cater for young and old a like.

To sum up, Minlaton is neat and very clean and tidy, reflecting the finer virtues of human endeavour and enterprise, and probably the fullest co-operation' between the public and public bodies generally. We farewelled Minlaton with the sentiments "Carry on your excellent work, and make your fine little town even better, particularly from a tourist point of view — you will see many of them in the years to come."

On the road once more, through varied scenery, we gained the impression that the season at the time was a little dryer than usual. We were still following the fine bitumen road, and after a few more miles, headed again towards the sea. After a dozen miles or so, we encountered large sandhills (of white sand) close to the coast proper, this area bearing a marked similarity to some parts of the South East. We spent some time in this somewhat wild country, and the youngsters spent many happy hours climbing 60 or 70 feet up a steep sandhill to tumble down to the bottom with loud yells of delight. Even some of the older members of the party were encouraged to join in "Mum's" comments about "sand in the young fry's hair, sand on the car seats, sand in the sandwiches" and so on were at least heart-felt. However no one seemed to be much put out — where ever we travelled, our progress seemed comfortable and convenient.

The writer has covered hundreds of miles through Yorke's Perinsula clad only in a pair of shorts, and on many occasions did not even wear shoes. The real beach atmosphere nearly always prevailed, and this will keep contented even the most particular person. We did not include in our number too many of that kind!

Here I do not wish to cast. any reflections on those who prefer to use the "collar and tie" method of travel, because, speaking democratically, every man is entitled to his own ideas in such matters.

Rabbits were fairly numerous hereabout, and a little competitive hunting resulted in a "bag" of about three dozen bunnies. A little further on, we encountered a couple of young fellows who were having a thin time trying to collect a few rabbits, so we turned our bag over to them. "Bill" (of Port Vincent) saying "Take this lot home — you chaps might even get a hug from your mother-in-law !"

On we toured, through very thick and stunted mallee and other native bush, heading for Port Victoria, a colorful and indeed very historical little town — or should we say port? Entering the settlement, the usual seaside town atmosphere was at once noticeable : the surrounding country is fairly dry, but nevertheless the town seemed fairly industrious. From the Port Victoria jetty, some three or four miles out to sea, one can see very plainly Wardang Island, probably the most densely populated small island in many miles of sea along the coastline. On Wardang, there exists a very busy industry established by the Broken Hill Proprietary to supply sand to the smelters at Port Pirie and other parts. This sand is loaded by up to date devices, providing an interesting spectacle for any traveller. Not being too well acquainted with the techniques of our iron and steel industry, the reasons for the use of Wardang sand cannot be explained here (perhaps some reader may enlighten us —Ed.). Wardang has its own school, and, as in most other B.H.P. enterprises, it is convenient and up to date. The writer, himself an old scholar of the Balaklava High School, believes that another old scholar, Mr. Morris Marshall, was at one time a teacher at the Wardang School.

With the motor boat chugging away, the short trip, to Wardang can be very pleasant, especially on a moonlight evening, or a calm day. We were able to enjoy a very hurried visit only, so a fuller account of the Island cannot be given here, but I advise any traveller in this vicinity to thoroughly explore this place should he have more time to spend among its excellent inhabitants.

Few people have not heard about the full-rigged ships which, used to sail the seven seas until the last war put an end to their activities. Some of them now are no more, others are abandoned bulks, a few may yet sail again, but the glories of the "grain race" from South Australian ports to Europe appear to have gone for ever. Many of these ships anchored off Port Victoria to load the golden grain for overseas, and many readers will recall the link Balaklava has with one of these gallant ships — the "Hertzogen Cecilie", if my memory serves me right. Years ago Miss Jeanne Day stowed away on her, was eventually signed on as a cabin boy or stewardess, and had many adventures before returning to her homeland.

Wheat was loaded into the big sailing ships from ketches, and the writer remembers seeing a Finnish vessel at Port Victoria very early in the war. One Sunday afternoon some of these strapping Finns came ashore, and as a few of them spoke perfect English, we were able to converse at length. One could not but admire their fine, upstanding physique and their broad outlook. For instance, as I was standing on the end of the jetty one morning, these fellows came along and with the utmost lack of selfconsciousness, shed all their clothes and dived some 20 feet into the water : all appeared to be superb swimmers. The fact that quite a number of our party were of the opposite sex caused the visitors no concern : later they told me that in their own land they generally swam 'in the altogether.' I feel certain that the lady members of our party, broad-minded themselves, thoroughly enjoyed and admired the Finn's outlook. Their physique was typical of the Nordic races, and one could only envy the benefit they enjoyed from such wholesome living. "Venus herself would never have been ashamed to choose a husband from this band."

To be continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 28 Nov 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Bal.aklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Stenhouse Bay, Corny Point, Warooka and Yorket'own. In the last instalment the author recounted the party's further travels from Yorketown, to Minlaton and on to Port Victoria, where we left him enthusing over Ithe physique of the crews of the fullrigged ships which were annual prewar visitors to this outlet for Peninsula-grown grain. NOW READ ON (as the serial writers have it) :

"Many readers will recall the famous sailing vessels or 'wind-jammers,' their romantic associations, their annual race home to Europe, laden with grain, and the stalwart members of their crews, and I believe that despite war-time losses, we may see them out here again. We salute these magnificent full-rigged ships, which even now never fail to create intense interest among the more modern seafaring men as well as the lowly landlubber.

Port Victoria is famous in its own right for its fishing, and I have seen many large hauls taken here : to see the silvery harvest being taken from the wells of the fishing craft makes an inland dweller's mouth water. Huge schnapper and tons of whiting, snook and garfish, to mention only a few varieties, are unloaded, every day in season, and when the weather holds. I would say that the future of Port Victoria as a fishing centre has much improved possibilities. I believe that there is afoot a large scale move to establish an American type caravan park and other first class facilities for holiday makers. At this news, all who love the call of the open road will rejoice. I predict that vast changes will take place in the areas being described in this series in the next ten years : many more country families will be owning their own caravans, which make it seem as if one is taking his own home around in comparison with present touring methods. I consider the caravan the ideal means (particularly for the country man) of enjoying a much needed holiday. One often hears words of praise for the attractions of cities, but I would say to all of those who like myself gain their living in rural areas, we must make more of our country centres, and take a more active part in their administration, as they are doing here on Yorke's Peninsula. I will mention at this juncture the outspoken comment on our own District Council administration, and the terrible condition of most of our district rodas, one hears day after day in the streets. This is most intended as destructive or damaging criticism, but in comparison with other districts, throughout the whole of the State, the residents of the Balaklava district have cause to complain : it is up to them all to take a much more active interest in local public affairs. I have travelled extensively throughout the State, and could identify some of our local roads blindfold, and I know of many who have complained who will agree with this with a heart-felt "too damned right!"

In Port Victoria one evening we treated ourselves to a view of the local talkies, where we were delighted with the friendliness of the local residents. They certainly put plenty of feeling into their enjoyment of the show. On this particular occasion George Formby in "Come On, George" was the feature film — one well remembered by Balaklava movie goers. Owing to a change of operators, 'George' came on the screen more often than was intended, and the reels became generally tangled, but this did not affect the enjoyment of the patrons one iota : they spent every minute of it in high spirits. It was good to see a British film, with English actors, after the eternal round of Yankee productions with their raucous slang, emphasis on gangsters, rackets and crime generally, to the detriment of the moral standards of our younger generation. It seems pertinent to ask, also 'What is wrong with Australian moving picture talent?'

After an all too short stay in this bright spot, we journeyed further afield, towards the Aboriginal Mission Station at Point Pearce. Once more good roads were the order of the day, and we found also that there is a road right through the Mission grounds, which one can travel throughout providing the living conditions of the natives are not affected in any way by such traffic. On arrival at Point Pearce, we found several streets of houses, all of a drab sameness. Scores of little aboriginal children cast many glances in our direction. The settlement has its own church arid picture Show, which compares with many of the smaller rural centres. Pigs, or pig-raising, seemed to be one of the local industries, and the numbers in evidence we concluded that they must be a mainstay of this colony.

I cannot state the number of residents the Station has, nor the proportion of half-castes (if any), but I can say that, all who were there seemed reasonably happy, and possessed of the characteristic of our black brothers of being able to take life easily, in spite of the present tendency to live as" fast as possible : maybe we will be able to emulate them one day, in this respect.

One forms the opinion that the natives are very well cared for at this settlement, and that it is unlikely that they want for anything. However, in other ways, much could be done to improve the lot of the aboriginals who have survived.: the writer has a strong conviction (not resulting from a visit to Point Pearce) that the Australian aboriginal has not always had a 'fair go,' by any means.

On leaving this area (which, by the way, has a good sea front), we noticed a group of aboriginal children in their birthday suits enjoying a splash in a dam. We stopped for a while to speak to them, and I guessed that the eldest would not have been more than four years of age. They were all good swimmers. Our own young fry were delighted with the sight of these darker versions of themselves, although the swimmers were rather shy.

Travelling inland once more, wefound the country somewhat dryer than usual, but nevertheless interesting, as in any part seen for the first time. A little later we again found ourselves on the Adelaide road, and were soon greeted with a large sign bearing the inscription "Municipality of Maitland." Passing along a tree-lined road-way, we made a slow entry into Maitland, another of the many fine towns of Yorke's Peninsula. Maitland could be termed the capital of Yorke Valley, if such a term coujd be used: and use it we did, to find several local residents wholeheartedly agreeing with us. It is something of an eye-opener to discover how proud Yorke's Peninsula residents are of their respective towns. Maitland is not a large town, but its compactness is a creditable feature. Very wide main streets and good shopping facilities are impressive, and to all appearances the centre is growing rapidly in size and importance. We took particular notice of recent tree-planting efforts, which, in spite of a dry season, promised well.

Huge stock transport vehicles were halted in the streets, and were evidence of the efficient and speedy manner in which live-stock can be moved on the Peninsula, and gave proof that modern, well-planned road transport leaves little to be desired. The people behind the private enterprise responsible are to be congratulated, and although such activity is much abused in some quarters, were it less fettered by regulations and other Governmental interference generally, we would all be much happier. Under liquid fuel control regulations, one pays through the nose for petrol, and then some upstart bureaucrat issues instructions as to how it shall be used (often the good old Aussie retort is "Like Hell!") Maitland, being a municipality, and subscribing to a progressive policy, has had an active and at times stormy history of civic progress, according to reports published in district newspapers, of which more anon.

To be Continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 5 Dec 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In view of the statements recentJiy made by the Premier (Mr. Playford), who said that it was the desire of the Government to establish a chain of camping grounds throughput the State, with no little emphasis on Yorke's Peninsula as a tourist (playground, this account of expergences on a tour of the Peninsula is most timely, and of added interest (to those contemplating the exploration of fresh fields.)

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stans(bury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, StenShouse Bay, Corny Point, Warooka Yorketown, Minlaton, Point Pearce, and Maitland. Our tourist has more to say in this instalment concerning 'Maitland and its environs before going further afield :

"Maitland has much on which to commend itself, and is a growing town, which should become a centre iof no little importance with the passing of years. It was in this locality that we saw what must have been some of the largest haystacks in South Australia — some of them appeared to be 200 yards or more in "length. "What a hell of a sight for a cocky on holiday" was "Bill's" comment, because we considered that stacking hay was one of the worst tjobs on the land, even when undertaken with the most modern plant available.

Leaving "Maitland with every good wish for its future prosperity and developement, considering the town a reflection of its good local government and the friendly co-operation of its citizens, we heard again the call of the coast, towards which we headed, towards Balgowan, a tiny port similar to many others on this scenic coastline. Our fellow-travellers made many favorable comments on the good roads — here one finds very smooth surfaces, some of natural materials, and others built up. Some very high speeds were attained by the more sporting members of our party, whose opinions made it clear that these roads were safe under all reasonable conditions, being wide and well-cared for. Road maintenance is almost a daily affair, and not an annual, or perhaps five-year event as we see here in our own district. These Peninsula roads create the much-to-be desired good-will of all tourists, and are a true reflection of first class management by local bodies. We passed through small, bush growth, and the usual native mallee, and from the higher vantage points, from which we could look down towards our immediate destination, we were surprised to find such an amazing variety of scenery — the blue sea, and the fishing fleet from old Moonta and Sim's Cove are a delight to all who behold them.

Balgowan is a spot which has been much frequented by many Balaklava people. One of these, the late Bruce Mills (R.A.A.F.), is remembered by most, but particularly by one member of our party, at whose wedding Bruce was best man. Here I will pay a brief tribute to this gallant lad, whose company was always appreciated wherever he went, and particularly when he accompanied some of us to Balgowan in the old days. Mr. Mai. Roberts is another Balaklava resident who spends many of his less busy moments under canvas at Balgowan.

The lonely atmosphere of Balgowan made some of our gang go a little wild, travelling far up the beach, where no one could take offence, and indulging in swimming and sunbathing in their birthday suits : circumstances here made it easy to forget many conventional ideas.

Timber and iron, in large quantities, previously used in covering stacks of wheat and barley, are stored at Balgowan—these endless heaps of material would make people awaiting building permits jump off the deep end of the jetty in despair. One shudders at the temptation that must be offered to many honest citizens in the area, considering that these materials are virtually lying in the bush, and the only inhabitants of the area are a family of aboriginals.

Fishing off the jetty always provides a pleasant pastime, and the sea breeze (which always seems to blow a little more strongly here) invigorates one's outlook — although I doubt if any member of our party needed any assistance in this respect. On many occasions one was in serious danger of a premature ducking. One member of our company made some wisecrack about another "having the energy of an eastern sultan." Must have been the Middle East! These holidays must improve some of the participants quite a lot.

North of Balgowan, the white crests of large sandhills contrast starkly with the very deep greens and blues of the ocean, and further on, Cape Elizabeth offers a standing invitation to travel on — an invitation we seldom had sufficient resistance to refuse. As we were now journeying near the coast, we occasionally took a short hike across the sandhills to explore the beach, and it was after one of these brief journeys that certain members of our party surprised a few of the maidens from a nearby village enjoying, in that solitary spot, an all-out sun-bath : real sun-worshippers believe in doing the job properly, and these lasses were no exceptions. Much restraint had to be placed on "Bill," who was overcome with a violent impulse to give a loud "Hoi": we almost had to tie him down. After all, many of us had at one time or another taken our leisure in this fashion, so we left the ladies to Old Sol's tender mercies, and were soon on our way .once more. A short trip through fairly dry country, and over good roads — described as 'tracks,' we drove on, and in to Moonta, a fine old town, with memories, of its stormy past, its mining activities, and its once large population, and its reputation as the home of our cheery "Cousin Jacks".

Moonta welcomes one right royally, and during our three-weeks' sojourn in this pleasant Peninsula town, the attitude of friendliness to all always prevailed. Typical of this was the answer the outlaw of our party received when he inadvertently asked the local 'Sarge' "Where can we get a bet ?" "How the devil do you expect me to know ?" was the reply.

We found that after having spent only a short time in the town, we were more or less accepted as "locals," and this we sincerely appreciated. As a town, Moonta sprawls in various directions, reflecting the very lively days of a more prosperous past. Many old ruins testify to the existence of the town's better days and the "Cousin Jack" spirit still remains to a very marked extent.

Generally, when halted, we parked our vehicles in a row, presenting a wide variety of conveyances. The cavalcade often caused a fair crowd of local residents to assemble, and such was the case at Moonta. In the resulting discussion on camping grounds, etc., all joined in, and we decided to spend three weeks at Sim's Cove, a tiny, somewhat wild point, virtually in the water, about two miles below Moonta. We eventually arrived at this spot at about 2 o'clock one afternoon, and by 4:30 p.m. the camp site had been levelled off by our energetic male members, seven ! tents erected, fitted with electric light, radio, refrigeration, and a reasonable water supply. A few people who lived here, but working in Moonta or Wallaroo, were surprised, when they returned to their fishing port that evening, to find the transformation that had taken place during their absence. As this was to be our home for the next three weeks, we wasted no time in settling down, and a very homely atmosphere soon prevailed. We had an efficient electrician, two mechanics, and handy men and women in our number, and each did his or her share, while the small fry frolicked on the delightful little beach nearby, or really, about 30 feet immediately below, and reached by steps carved out of the inevitable limestone face, as limestone here is like one's mother-in-law's "good will" — no end to it!"

To be Continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 12 Dec 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

(In view of the statements recently made by the Premier (Mr. Playiord), who said that it was the desire of the Government to establish a chain of camping grounds throughiOut the State, with no little emphasis on Yorke's Peninsula as a tourist playground, this account of experiences on a tour of the Peninsula is most timely, and of added interest to those contemplating the exploration of fresh fields.)

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence. along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Sten!house Bay, Corny Point, Warooka, Yorketown, Minlaton, Point Pearce, Maitland, Balgowan and Moonta. Bast week's instalment described Bow our tourists made camp at Sims' <Cove, near Moonta in preparation for a longish stay and now that the humming of the engines of their cars has ceased for a while, readers will be able to better appreciate the peace-ful atmosphere described this week.

— Ed.

"Now that our party has firmly established itself at Sims' Cove, I will describe our location in greater detail."

The Cove is almost mid-way between Port Hughes and Moonta Bay, and is a very slight indentation on the coastline, possessing a very fine sandy beach, which is kept very clean and tidy, particularly as regards broken glass, for the fishermen here rarely wear boots or shoes: in fact, I seldom saw them with much gear at all, only when 'uptown.' I believe this small place was named after the people who live there now — about seven houses are situated on top of the cliffs which rise some 60 feet from the beach, and in these the Sims family, three generations of them, now live. They have always been fishermen, it seems. Their environment is an interesting change from the viewpoint of a man on the land, and to spend an hour or two yarning about various aspects of the life is an edifying experience. They are justly proud of their calling, and in support of stated facts could produce cuttings from local newspapers which left no doubt concerning the issue (more of this later).

Excellent bathing facilities by day and night are afforded here, the rise and fall of the tide being very small. During our stay here, very high tides — about 6 feet at the outside — occurred twice, and then in the early morning. A small breakwater, erected by an earlier generation, protects a small portion of the Cove, and sometimes the dinghies are moored in its shelter.

At about 6 p.m. on the day of our arrival, after we had all settled down well, the first of the local fishermen arrived home: he was Ross Sims, well-known hereabouts, and to many readers of the "Producer." Ross had a large haul of schnapper, and I weighed some of his catches: one specimen weighed 27 lbs. To see these large fish, especially when they are swimming in the well of a boat, and to see the struggle necessary to get them into the dip net, is very good fun to the land dweller.

Our evening meal that night was one we really enjoyed, and in my opinion some members of our party looked a little 'heavy', and seemed to walk slowly, etc.:, perhaps my readers can themselves imagine how one feels after a large meal of fish — and I say large because the amount consumed around our camp would make many inlanders furious. The quantity of fish here was like water on Niagara Falls — literally tons of it.

Our cooking was carried out on a communal basis, one member cleaning, another cooking and a few 'hanging around' making the usual nuisances of themselves, and sharing fully in the customary banter.

The following morning we were awakened by the local residents, who at about 5:30 a.m. were setting about the day's work. Based on my own observations, and with all respect to the gentlemen concerned, I will describe their routines.

Each man owns a dinghy or two, a, net boat or sometimes a larger craft, and occasionally a cutter for winter work or special tasks. They row in the dinghy from the larger craft to shallow water, and when the tide is sufficiently high, bring the larger craft as close inshore as possible to unload the fish with the maximum of ease and efficiency. I found the process of unloading baskets of whiting, garfish etc., very interesting and not without pleasure—when one is standing in fish literally feet deep, and recalls the scarcity of fish inland, the contrast is most marked. The baskets are filled to the brim, and then carried up the ramp or steps previously mentioned to the spot where the buyers are awaiting their arrival. The buyers weigh the fish, and are on the job most evenings, with large trucks, etc., to transport the silvery harvest to the various retailing points.

I will mention the members of the Sims family in the order in which we became acquainted with them: although they may not be wellknown in the Balaklava district, their background ensures them a large circle of friends, in other districts, who will be pleased to hear more of them. -

Ross Sims is recognised as one of South Australia's best fishermen, and his father, Ben (as he is known everywhere) has proved- that cbmmercial fishing is quite an interesting and remunerative pastime, or work (it seemed more a pastime to us!). Ross and Ben once secured a haul valued at £1,100 in one day, and this fact has been reported in many local papers, including the "Recorder" at Port Pirie, where the catch was unloaded. This event took place about one or two years ago, and I believe that one Balaklava district resident was present on the occasion.

Most of the sea-going craft are fitted with various types of motors, from small outboards to powerful multi-cylinder jobs. On several occasions, the mechanics in our number had busy times doing repair and fitting jobs to some of these power plants, these actions doing a lot to cement the goodwill existing between us all. I would like to record here our appreciation of the "ways in which all at Sims' Cove Cove helped to make our stay so pleasant. The whole population treated us as fellow community members, an attitude we never abused, and which we tried to repay in any way possible whenever the opportunity offered.

Again referring to matters mechanical, ive found our fishermen indifferent mechanics, preferring to know their own calling fully, and leave even minor repairs to someone else. To modern farmers, this seemed a striking comparison: presentday 'cockies' have to be first-class mechanics, more or less, as necessity dictates, and even the maintenance of modern plant is improved by va good training in general principles.

The fishing industry has as many varied tasks as any other, and I will describe some of them, as they appear to the land-lubber, in order of ing we noticed Perce Sims, the snapper specialist and his father (usually called "Uncle" by the gang) making seaward, and as there was a standing invitation to accompany them, two of our party went along too. The fishermen sail out to sea for several miles in a day, and then apparently anchor over a school of schnapper or other fish, the position being fixed by observation, prior knowledge, a sixth sense, or radar, for all I know. To see one of these large reddish fish on the end of your line is something of a thrill, and one realises that "the one that got away" constitutes a helluva loss. The schnepper (or is it snapper?), like all large fish, puts up quite a fight. Sometimes a 10 feet or 12 feet shark will take a line, fish, hooks and all practically out of one's hands: these wicked prowlers crop up occasionally but the fishermen treat them as part of the day's work. Seeing a shark snap at anything, the sight of the formidable array of teeth makes one wonder how so many people live after being attacked by one of these monsters.

If the weather holds and the fishing is good, the fishing boat is out at sea practically all day. The snapper (or schnapper !) are kept alive until the return to the shore by being placed in the well of the boat: the well is, in other words, a section removed from the bottom of the boat, amidships, with a grating at the bottom to prevent the fish from escaping. With any sort of a catch at all, the well presents a pleasant sight as the boat is chugging homeward through the blue sea, and one can see the day's catch swimming along with one.

On reaching home, many a tussle takes place when the catch is being transferred to the dinghy, the large fish twisting and turning until finally landed, when they are gutted and placed in the baskets. These baskets are similar to "Mum's" clothesbasket, except that a lid is provided, and I can remember one member of our party putting some old baskets to many uses, some of which it would be impossible to describe, so I'll not attempt it here !

Despite the apparent ease with which our mentors seemed to catch fish, we were all convinced that the fishing industry needs experienced men to ensure success. I suspect that many individual secrets are used, as most of our fishing friends seemed to have developed their own particular methods.

Perce Sims, previously mentioned, is an extremely clever lathe operator, and particularly so when making model aeroplanes and small epgines, etc.: he also casts some of the parts required. I have seen him go to work on a block of cast iron and another of brass, and turn up crankcase, carburettor, piston, cylinder and the other gadgets necessary to make the models function. Perce's initiative and ability has to be seen to be believed, as I cannot do full justice here to such enterprise.

And so ends this instalment of my narrative. In the next, I have more to say about Moonta, Wallaroo and Kadina.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 19 Dec 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

(In view of the statements recently made by the Premier (Mr. Playford), who said that it was the de.sire of the Government to establish a chain of camping grounds through out the State, with no little emphasis on Yorke's Peninsula as a tourist playground, this account of experiences on a tour of the Peninsula is most timely, and of added interest to those contemplating the exploration of fresh fields.)

In preceding instalments of this ac.count of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan .and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Sten..house Bay, Corny Point, Warooka, Yorketown, Minlaton, Point Pearce, Maitland, Balgowan and Moonta. Then our tourists made camp at Simms' Cove, near Moonta, and in the preceding instalment, the Cove, its inhabitants, and their occupation were fully described. This week we are told more about the three towns of Moonta, Kadina and Wallaroo.

"Moonta can provide the tourist with many and varied entertainments.

The more sedate people, such as our bowlers, croquet players and so on, can disport themselves on one of the best equipped greens — as far as , night play is concerned — I have seen, particularly in the country. These greens are set, very conveniently, on one of the squares of the town, and are a source of pleasure to all who use them, as many a Balaklava bowler can testify. We used to drive up to Moonta from our Simms' Cove camp every evening for our usual icecream and cool drink, and the hot evenings passed unnoticed and pleasantly when spent in these restful green spots.

Three large hotels serve Moonta in the usual way, and they seem to be able to cater for all requirements, Beer was in short supply at times, and occasionally one was forced to endure the usual swill sessions caused when pubs open for an hour only each evening — a state of affairs repulsive even to the hardened toper. When will we be blessed with a more democratic outlook, and with the dismissal of the puritans and wowsers who tax our pleasures to the utmost — our new cars, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and so on — all downright necessities by modern standards of living, and in the 'Pursuit of Happiness' so often mentioned in the lip-service of our so-called 'democratic' statesmen; a little study of our political and economic set-up makes this present state of affairs even more abhorrent to the normally intelligent.

Moonta is also well able to cater for all church-going tourists, many fine churches reminding us of the town's more prosperous past. Large schools, both primary and secondary, are also well in evidence. Large dumps, comprising the residue of many years copper mining operations, and around the town the ruins of old buildings built in Moonta's hey-day, bear more mute testimony to past glories.

A large munition works, closed at the time, were typical of the unequal share in industrial hand-outs the country always gets, and the continued disuse of the plant ought to bring comment to local residents, who must wonder why such fine new buildings should remain idle.

This centre has its share of parks, and the central square with the Town Hall, complete with clock, give it an atmosphere of its own: we guessed that in the long ago, this square wa the scene of many gay and stirring occasions, no doubt an integral part of the town's eventful past. Present population is I understand, about 3,000

Just as city's suburbs have their own nomenclature, so do the outlying areas of scattered Moonta. A private bus service serves these parts and also provides transportation to and from Moonta Bay, Kadina and Wallaroo. The main streets here do not compare with other Peninsula towns, possessing very high crowns with correspondingly high kerbs and deep gutters. Many places would be difficult for old-timers or over-indulgent celebraters to negotiate, and one could easily find oneself in the gutter in Moonta. None of our gang, I hasten to add, met such a fate, even on extreme occasions, equivalent, say, to jollification in connection with the funeral of one's mother-in-law!

From our camp at Simms' Cove, we made many trips, both seaward and landward. One day we entered our cars and rolled along a fine bitumen road along the coast, towards Wallaroo. The country hereabouts was rather dry, and chief pursuits appeared to be of a pastoral or agricultural nature. We saw no really good crops- those we did see were very poor this season, and it seemed to me that it would be rare for this area to ever experience a really good season. Hugging the coastline still, near Wallaroo we came upon the huge new alcohol distilling plant, and I will describe this in what detail if i can for the benefit of those interested, particularly from a taxpayer's point of view! This large installation has; as yet not been put into operation, but the main gates bear all the usual notices, bicycle parks and sheds and car parks are provided, lawns and gardens established, and the whole appears in complete readiness to be merely switched to obtain full production. It is easy to imagine a taxpayer's feelings while viewing this particular Government enterprise: maintenance is costing £ 140 per week, as far as I can recall the fig— the cost of it was £425,343, and ures given in Hansard. The various buildings appear to be built of asbestolite or some similar material, and during our stay in the district we heard many estimates regarding the number of homes that could have been erected with the materials used in the construction of this apparently useless edifice. There was a time when we all hoped that some day, perhaps, useful purposes would be found for such a huge outlay, and our confidence in the Commonwealth Government might be restored in part. Faint hope, it seems! I would like to cite this one example to those who are always so ready to criticize genuine private enterprise, in which I believe so strongly myself. We ordinary people are 'sucked in' every day, and the few who stand for a better dealars opposed by many who should have a better understanding of the situation.

Mention of large enterprises brings to my mind the yarn about the Aussie and the Yank travelling South from Cairns. In Brisbane the Aussie showed the Town Hall to the Yank, whose comment was "Decent little model, Aussie!" — going one better than the Digger, as usual. On arrival in Sydney, the doughboy looked up at the Bridge in bewilderment,' and after a while said "Hell, Dig., you beat us here — your kids certainly have bigger Meccano sets than ours do."

The distillery at Wallaroo is situated practically on the sea front, and a pipe line apparently essential for the processes involved, runs right out into the sea. "They did one fine job," commented a member of our party. "So could I," replied another. " with someone else's money!" Sight of these plants invariably draws comment of one kind or another, and all Australians fervently hope that it will not be long before they are put into operation for the benefit of those who paid so dearly for them. At the moment they make glorious roosts for shags and pigeons.

Entering Wallaroo from the seaside frontage, we found the Cresco Superphosphate Works and the railway shunting yards adjacent to the new jetty, strongly built to take the heavy traffic. The old jetty stands further down. The town itself is scattered, and typical of many seaside towns in the State. Proof of Nature's conquest of man-made roofing, the sea air being no respecter of material shortages, almost every building shows effects of corrosion caused by salt.

In the Moonta/Wallaroo district, we renewed our acquaintance with railway and road crossings, non-existent during our tour of the Peninsula to date, and were reminded to take due care at such danger points.

An old town, Wallaroo bears the marks of passing years. The railway line and station roughly separates the northern and southern ends of the town. At the northern extremity is situated the large new hospital, which, being built on rising ground, has a grand sea view. In this spot, the full benefit of sea breezes should be obtained, and these alone should be a tonic to patients. Without doubt, a splendid hospital site.

The town is in the electorate of the Leader of the State Opposition (Hon. R. S. Richards) whose hold there is a strong one, on the evidence of local residents with whom we discussed the point.

A little further on, on the water's edge, we examined the works of the Wallaroo Mt. Lyall Fertiliser Company, a name a few farmers could erase from their memories. From many a farm door-mat, the name stares up at one, and in wet weather, a few holes cut in a super bag will result in a waist-coat very suitable for wearing in cold weather during ploughing time. Ned Kelly would have considered his appearance mild indeed when compared with that of a cocky so attired. The works were very busy, large loads of super being shipped by road and rail as we watched. Farmers used to deliver their wheat here, and back-load with super, Wallaroo being normally a large wheat terminal — I can recall seeing large overseas ships tied up at the jetty, taking on hundreds of thousands of bags of wheat here. Train loads of the precious grain disappeared into their holds, and the various methods of handling the cargo, and inspections of engine rooms, etc. provide a source of interest for all, especially those bred inland. The Fertiliser Works too are well worth an inspection, if one does not mind the proximity of a large amount of sulphuric acid, and the small amount of dust which is always present.

Emerging from a track near the phosphate works, we drove over a mile and a half of perfect beach — North Beach, so well known to hundreds of new year picnickers from a large inland area. Many shacks, caravans and tents testified to the call of the ocean, this beach being a firm favourite with those who appreciate a sun-bake or spine-bash in pleasant, natural surroundings. The beach is a great asset to Wallaroo, and on public holidays particularly, it becomes the playground of multitudes, making up to the town what it lacks in other directions. At the beach end of the jetty, a shark-proof pool controlled by the local swimming club is available to swimmers, and the water is so clear that a diver from the 10 feet or 20 feet board has some difficulty in determining the exact point at which he will meet the surface. The Wallaroo youngsters swim like fish, and watching their antics provides much enjoyment. Youth always adds zest to living, and here we saw no lack of it. In face and form, the local lasses left nothing to be desired, either, but of course, it is impossible to please everyone: it is time to sign off until after Christmas and to use the phrase popular with the travel-talk commentator, we say farewell to Wallaroo, with our 'hard case', Bill, on the warpath as ever, be-rmoaning the fact that French bathers were here conspicuous — by their absence!"

To be Continued.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 9 Jan 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Sten-; house Bay, Corny Point, Waroolca, Yorketown, Minlaton, Point Pearce, Maitland, Balgowan and Moonta. Then our tourists made camp at Simm's Cove, near Moonta, and Ibis nesting place was used as a base for investigations and explorations of the Moonta—Kadina—Wallaroo area, the report of which is here resumed.

"With more attention from our politicians, Wallaroo could possibly be a busy port, because it has reasonable exporting facilities, and favors the decentralisation policy. I would like to see much more of our primary produce shipped from Wallaroo and similar ports. Leaving the town, via the main street, we found ourselves once more on bitumen, this time the road to Kadina, or the "Bay Road" as the locals term it. The country between the two towns is very dry in appearance, but seems to produce good crops, etc. After a few miles had been covered, we had our first sight of Kadina, or rather, the old copper mine dump, which stands out for miles around, particularly from the Balaklava—Kulpara side. We found Kadina, too, an old coppermining town still bearing many signs of bygone days. Kadina is the largest town on Yorke's Peninsula, and also possesses the biggest population. Although the town is fairly old, and as rather wide-scattered; many and varied impressions are provided. We halted first in the town's main streets —in our opinion Greaves and Taylor Streets share the honor. Here we found exceptionally fine and large shops in no small number, and all carrying a splendid range of goods, as our womenfolk soon found out, and with which they 'played hell,' as all women do when confronted with a large display of fashions: one has to admire the capacity the fair sex has for taking notice of, and remembering, such a formidable list. There's no doubt about the female ability in any direction, for that matter—providing the cash lasts! (Careful, son—careful!—Ed.).

Large shady trees make Kadina's Victoria Square an exceptionally fine asset to the district, which can be very hot in the summer. Here we noticed a children's the equipment in the usual neglected state—I say 'usual' because we did find so many such playgrounds (including our own at Balaklava) sadly ; neglected, which state of affairs cannot but have some effect on the future generation. Apparently it is not too much trouble to drill youngsters for military or political purposes, but apathy in providing the means of developing healthy bodies and encouraging an individual outlook which is the enemy of regimentation amounts to downright opposition. I mention this (believing that I have a healthy and broad outlook on most matters, particularly where our children are concerned) because I find that the shadow of Socialistic extremes is riot a fairy story, but a stark reality. The only modern playground I have seen in my travels through most country areas is at Angaston—in fact, it one of the finest in South Australia. I suggest that anyone doubting this statement take a party of youngsters on this short trip from the Balaklava district, and let them pass judgment..

While in Kadina we visited the 'trots.' The district owns a fine new trotting track, which seems to lack no requirements of the sport. Of course, every member of our party had a good day! We all do! Here I wish to make a plea for the poor bookies and all those who get their living from such sports. I wonder who pays the bookies, because we all seem to win (like hell!). Kadina staged a fine meeting, despite a very dusty day (making us quite homesick), and gave patrons a good day's entertainment. A taxi service, result of an exserviceman's enterprise, gave a metropolitan touch, and should be of good service to towns-people. Many such undertakings are gradually making headway in country towns. We commended Mr. H. B. East and Mr. Horrie Ninnes on their attitude towards a Trades School undertaking and similar enterprises which were soon to be established, and which should be encouraged in our own town. All success to those associated with Kadina's progress— their ideas are worthy of every support. Country centres will flourish only when it becomes unnecessary for people to go to the cities for their requirements, or for better standards of living, and amenities—but more of this later.

After spending more time than we could really afford, we left Kadina, and set off on another good bitumen road, through the usual mallee, i.e., on each side of the road, for here, as in our own district, the land has been cleared to bareness. It is hard to understand why more timber was not left in isolated patches, for stock, etc., and to preserve some balance of nature, rather than cause conditions from which man is now suffering. After travelling for a few miles, we turned off the bitumen road, and drove through some delightful country to reach Arthurton. An early morning start means travelling some 20 miles with the vehicles in the shade of the taller mallee, and in hot weather this is a great contribution to one's comfort.

Inland, if so it could be termed, we found better roads, if possible, than the good ones we had enjoyed for many miles past. Exceptionally wide and smooth, one can turn off almost anywhere and find similar roads: the Peninsula excells in this respect.

Arthurton is a small but friendly town, and we pulled up at the local hotel, to find the proprietor an admirable publican—he had no shortages, and did everything possible for our comfort, which we really appreciated, because, in wartime most hotel services deteriorated to a great extent, and it was pleasant, to find one where such was not the case. Here we found two Balaklava residents lined up—Fred. Bridgman and Wes. Duck, en route to Maitland in connection with their duties with the Adelaide Electric Supply Co.

Leaving Arthurton, we headed again through what is called—officially or otherwise—Yorke Valley, and well named too, for I consider it a most fertile part of productive Yorke's Peninsula. I will give briefly my impressions of a 200-mile jaunt through and across this area, taking in Maitland, Curramulka, South Kilkerran, Urania and Kilkerran down to Minlaton and other places. No doubt my references to the Yorke Valley area and various towns, etc., raise a few comments from real Peninsulaites, but nevertheless this is is how it appeared to the writer, who maintains that the area stands to the everlasting credit of all residents there. All over Yorke's Peninsula, one sees fine homesteads and outbuildings, such improvements, I consider, being equal to any in Australia, taken on an aggregate, and certainly far in advance of those in our own district. This is not intended as a criticism, but as a statement of fact which will not be disputed by any who have travelled in those parts. Some of the homes scattered throughout this area would not be out of place in any of Adelaide's swankiest suburbs, and are a credit to their owners. Large or small, many houses had tiled roofs, and were built to modern ideas, and our reaction was "Thank God some country people appear to be enjoying all city living conditions and amenities." On Yorke's Peninsula, I have seen the following ideas. in such frequency that I will describe a few of them— most will be well known to my readers, but still one finds precious few of them in the Balaklava district.

Firstly, visiting one farm, we found a first-class hot water system supplying all members of the household and the households of employes, with outdoor hot and cold showers, which latter I tried, after a hard day's work, and found them excellent. Also seen were an electric washing machine, toasters, vacuum cleaners, cake mixers, refrigerators, irons, etc., all operating on the 32—40 volt current from the humble home lighting plants so often used in our rural areas. The washing machine operated on a 240 volt supply, and was easily converted by the use of another motor—often a re-wound generator from a 6 volt circuit, as in a car. Various firms do this work, the cost being about £4 for a quarter-horsepower motor, so it will be seen that where the means are available, a very handy domestic help can be obtained. Lighting in many homes here is equal to that in the city, despite the voltage discrepancy. Other appliances noted were single unit milking machines, a mangle electrically driven and controlled by a foot switch, electric fans, separators (with h.p. motors and V-belt drive), and, in farm workshops, soldering irons, electric drills, etc., performing well on 32 volts. To cover this subject fully would need separate articles, and Mr. Editor would probably wonder what had happened to our touring. Some homeesteads here have all the amenities mentioned above, and I myself have installed many of them, using the same voltage. It would be pleasing to see more such in our own district, especially to the housewives. Any man who has done the washing in the old-fashioned way, and then watched his wife do the same job with a modern electric washer would never again overlook the usefulness of such appliances. One farmer's wife said that the hardest work was hanging the clothes out to dry, and even this task is unnecessary when a spin dryer is used, although the initial outlay for this machine is fairly high. I would be only too pleased to discuss with those interested, the developements of electrification in country areas, and to help where possible. In my opinion we will have plenty of time to wear out our present, 32 volt plants before our highly Socialised 240 volt supply becomes available on farms—which we hope will be a reality one day, providing that a continuous supply at a reasonable cost is provided.

I asked one very charming young lady her opinion of country life as compared with city life, and she replied to the effect that if amenities like these referred to were properly developed, she would never be anxious to seek a husband in the city (my own conclusion was that she would have no trouble in finding one anywhere!) I trust that many of the fine young women of this type do remain in rural areas, for the hope of more modern trends lies with those who have the out-look, initiative and experience to keep plugging away for them.

As one who has always lived in the country, I could describe in detail all I saw in and around these many fine homes. However, to touch lightly on farm outbuildings, most of these are well constructed, conveniently located, and exceptionally roomy. Of course, there are the less-improved properties, but they are in the minority. Bad conditions on farms are not always the fault of the farmer, as many readers know. Machinery on these farms was generally of recent vintage, and there were many tractors, both wheeled and tracked. Implements such as harrows, combines, headers, etc., were wide, and were able to cover a large area of ground in a day, especially as most of the country here is very level and open. A most noticeable feature was the absence of creeks or gutters on farmland—they were practically nonexistent, this fact enabling the full use of such large machinery. The panorama to be seen in these districts when harvesting is in full swing is a sight which will take a lot of beating anywhere in South Australia, or in Australia, for that matter, and is a demonstration of the most up-todate farming methods.

We found most farmers and particularly their womenfolk well educated and friendly, and generally a highly intelligent people, worthy of engaging in our most important industry, food production.

Many fire-fighting devices were noticed, but, as "at home", really not sufficient.

It is not my desire to 'glorify' Yorke's Peninsula, as one sees the other side of the picture also, but I do believe in paying credit where it is due, and from my observations, these parts can always hold their own when comparisons are made. '

As we resume our travels, we caught many glimpses of the ocean on one side or the other. The proximity of the sea is refreshing to an inland dweller, and the sight of it during a hot day's work must have a cooling effect on farmers here. We passed through Maitland, and then through the small settlement of Agery, which is notable for a recently planted memorial avenue of trees, eventually reaching once more our camp at Simms' Cove, that delightful little spot where cool breezes and calm seas on moonlit nights could produce a most romantic atmosphere. Fish were soon cooking, and we could see the fairly large fishing fleet returning to Moonta Bay, a quite impressive sight. We were always hungry after a day or two on the road, and did full justice to our meal. Ross Simms was in again with a large haul and I remember many times his remark "We seem a few short, Ben"— some members of the party saw to this! Fish used to move remarkable distances for dead ones!"

To be concluded next week.


A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 23 Jan 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950)

In preceding instalments of this account of an extensive tour of Yorke's Peninsula by a party of local residents, readers were taken from Balaklava to Port Wakefield, thence along the Coast Road to Ardrossan and Port Vincent and on to Stansbury, Coobowie, Edithburgh, Stenhouse Bay, Corny Point, Warooka, Yorlcetown, Minlaton, Point Pearce, Maitland, Balgowan and Moonta. Then our tourists made camp at Simm's Cove, near Moonta, and this testing place was used as a base for investigations and explorations of the Moonta—Kadina—Wallaroo area, the report of which is here concluded. In this final instalment, our travellers break camp at picturesque Simms' Cove, and the final stages of this lengthy tour are described.

Before leaving Moonta, we inspected the local power station, a fine, neat unit, then in charge of Mr. G. Bridgman, a brother of Mr. Fred. Bridgman. I congratulate him on his fine management of the station, which supplies Moonta and district with electricity. Kadina's locally owned power station was also well worth the visit I paid it. One noticeable feature at the time was that during the period of restrictions in the use of electricity in Adelaide, the Kadina administration was encouraging their users to light their businesses, and churches and improve all town lighting, to improve the civic outlook. Kadina has a fine batch of well-kept Diesels, and the service seemed to be appreciated by the consumers.

One fine sunny morning, as our barefooted fishermen friends were heading seaward with their usual gear, we said farewell to them all as they sailed out in their various craft, while we, with some reluctance, loaded our equipment and moved out of delightful little Simms' Cove, which will doubtless call us back again to its fine people and ideal atmosphere of fish and sea breezes. We passed on through Moonta Bay, a holiday resort with shacks, houses and a small camping ground, which is gradually being improved to meet the needs of tourists. On a summer evening I have noticed over a hundred cars here, and have wished that more facilities were here to entertain those Who come here. A few fun devices would be a paying proposition and would help to entertain the large crowd of visitors. We enjoyed our evening here among our "Cousin Jack" friends and would have stayed longer had we been able.

On through Moonta, where we bought a few Cornish pasties as a farewell gesture. A mile out of Moonta, we turned homewards through Thrington, a tiny railway siding not far from Paskeville. Even to the last, the roads were still excellent. After turning on to the main road just out of Thrington, we were in extremely good wheat and pastoral country.

Paskeville, a small town 99% on one side of the railway line, was noticeable for its large wheat stacks and road junctions. It boasts an enormous volume of trade and production for its size, and of course never takes second place to any who dare to argue otherwise. The usual Peninsula "at home" feeling is well evidenced here, and we never tired of enjoying local goodwill whenever offered.

Down the bitumen road towards Kulpara, we pass between thick growths of mallee on both sides of the road, which is practically straight for twelve miles. We enter Kulpara, a tiny little place which serves those in the immediate vicinity between Port Wakefield and Paskeville. Here the main Peninsula road turns off to pass through Maitland, and the Bute road heads north from here, from the top of the Hummocks Range.

A mile further on, we stop and look back, for here we say farewell (or should I say "Au Revoir"?) to Yorke's Peninsula—a lovely place with so many tourist possibilities within such a small area. We review the winding coast of the Gulf down to Ardrossan and revive the many pleasant memories which it holds for us all. We salute Yorke's Peninsula—its people, their environment and their progress, and resolve to be back again one day to enjoy its many and varied pleasures.

Winding down through the Hummocks, with a colorful variety of scenery below us, ranging from blue seas to changing colors of the landscapes, we can see Port Wakefield in the distance—a lovely sight in this perfect weather. We make a brief sojourn in Port Wakefield and this time we hear more about its future as a tourist resort, and-of its camping ground. This small town seems to be awake to the possibility of a very bright future which could be its lot, should those concerned take the necessary action to keep its needs before their political representative. (No good having a well-fed horse unless you work him hard.)

On through Bowmans where we stop for a cool one, and meet a few friends on the local railway system. Although Bowmans is not blessed with the best of climates, it could be much improved with some of the attentions which small Yorke Peninsula towns get from their citizens.

After a few miles on the straight surface road, we notice the familiar Balaklava flour mill rising to greet us, and soon enter Balaklava in perfect weather, very different from that in which we left it, when one of those hot, dusty days prevailed. Balaklava has a wonderful opportunity, with its wide streets and triangular park in the business centre, to make greater use of shady trees and green spaces for the comfort of the general public. Generally speaking, here lies a first-rate opportunity for progressive citizens to use their initiative. A centre with such a large amount of general trade should have more to show, in comparison with many other towns I have visited. For many years I have spent a fair amount in obtaining all my requirements from Balaklava, and would with many others, appreciate a better township. Our local government could not claim perfection if it were to compare its roads with any on Yorke's Peninsula. From a tourists' point of view, progress and initiative of a "district are judged to a large degree by its roads, and I found this very true in many of my travels. In all of the two thousand miles I travelled on Yorke's Peninsula, I did not find one mile of bad road in any of the settled areas. I have read time and time again, in many tourist articles in various papers throughout Australia that Yorke's Peninsula possesses the best roads for such a confined area. That bears testimony to her progressive outlook and wideawake attitude to the important and profitable tourist trade. Our local council could broaden its views anywhere in the above area, for we sadly need more progress here (Ask any rate payer).

In conclusion, I would like to say that this article has been written in my everyday language from my own point of view, and I trust some have enjoyed reading it. It has been printed without any undue brushingup by our local Editor. Should any reader care to see Yorke's Peninsula as our party saw it, I will be only too glad to place all information and written matter at his disposal, because I firmly believe that a large amount of our present day ignorance could be dispensed with if we travelled more. Here I hear some say "Too costly! etc." Touring under proper conditions is inexpensive, particularly when one has had a little experience in the matter.

Now, with the compliments of all our party, I will say farewell to our readers, and trust we will meet again through the medium of the "Producer." On the way out of Balaklava we pass the Producer Office and wish the good old paper and its staff well, and hope that progress, supported by all, will be its lot in the coming years. And so, "Au Revoir till next time."


Revisiting Yorke Peninsula

Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1895 - 1954), Thursday 11 August 1949

DEAR ELEANOR BARBOUR— The arrival of a new car ordered in what seems 'back in the dim ages' made possible a recent trip to Yorke Peninsula after an absence of some 25 years. I might add that it is not the large roomy car I had imagined, but a natty little affair, and after housing us, who have spread with advancing years, there is not overmuch room for many more in it. I wonder if other farmers' wives have the same experience as I do in sudden decisions by the head of the house. Beyond a mere 'well, seeding is finished so well set off,' there was no further notice of the projected trip, and in 48 hours we were heading for Port Clinton, the first stage of our tour. We made across country to Balaklava which proved an interesting town where we wandered around to our heart's content. It is difficult to imagine the five storied flour mill, an outstanding building, having been idle for so many years, but it seems to be busy enough now.

Port Wakefield brings one into full view of the blue waters of St. Vincent Gulf, but one has to rely in blind trust to follow the road by the good old RAA route map to get right round that point of the gulf, which marks the beginning of Yorke Peninsula. Here we first saw the electric light poles being put up en route for Ardrossan.

During the few days we spent at Port Clinton I watched with interest the use of electric power from the plant attached to the farmhouse. This power, many once thought, could not with reliability supply sufficient strength to run such household labor-saving devices as washing machines, vacuum cleaners, wireless, and last, but not least the electric iron. Admitting, of course, that this part of the country has its goodly share of wind, it is a remarkably good performance on the part of a plast driven by a force as cheap as free air— and the result is a contented 'purring' housewife. Incidentally, I do believe such better housing conditions are one of the direct answers to stem the steady drift of our people to the cities.

There is also an abundance of water laid on from Beetaloo, via a huge storage dam, and so, from the Woods and Forests Department have been purchased young trees which appear to be making fair headway. There is no Area School within reasonable distance, so the four young hopefuls sally forth daily by means of a pony and jinker and make the grade in grand style.

Loading At Low Tide

Rabbits appear to be a very sore point and the farmers rally around with tractors and ploughs in an attempt to break up their warrens and reduce their numbers.

Some years ago, our hose informed us, wheat ketches used to call at Port Clinton, where they would wait for the receding tide to leave them nigh and dry to be loaded by the farmers with grain. To do so the farmers proceeded out to the boat with waggons and horses until, as often was the case, the last team would find the incoming tide lapping around the axles and legs before the job was completed.

Price, nearby, appears to have a type of dredged inlet which is difficult to see because of a heavy growth of mangroves on either side. Ketches come in for barley, and there is also a large saltworks there. Ardrossan is a town of note. Here the enterprising Broken Hill Proprietary is setting up yet another of its many works. I was told the company has purchased 25 square miles of country out of which it expects to extract dolomite to be used as a part-process of making steel. They have built a men's hostel to house, I believe, some 60 workmen. More, no doubt will be heard of this interesting venture. The broken coastline looks dangerous, and it would be as well to be sure-footed around the shores of Ardrossan. I have been hopeful that some pageite from Ardrossan would write of this B.HP. undertaking. My visit was but a fleeting one, and I do feel that only someone on the spot could do justice to this subject. As usual, such interesting places have hoardings displayed warning of trespassers — too bad, when one would so much like to peer and pry.

Port Vincent is a pleasant little town with innumerable small craft bobbing at anchor in the bay, so with the prospect of fish in plenty we were disappointed when the cafe proprietor said the boats were the property of nearby farmers in which they relaxed and enjoyed themselves. It was Saturday afternoon when we were at Stansbury, so football fans were wrapped up in their game against Yorketown. The butter factory, with its heap of beautiful six-foot lengths of wood stored high nearby, was an unusual sight as wood, I am told, is scarce in places and as high as £3 a ton in Maitland. Did you say something? No, the large lorry of cream cans did not make me homesick.

At Coobowie we stocked up with provisions for a picnic next day at Corny Point. It was a surprise, indeed, to see such attractive fruit on show so far from fruit-growing areas. Tht price was not excessive considering the cartage necessary, but with Edithburgh less than three miles distant, Coobowie has not had much encouragement to spread into a major township. Troubridge lighthouse stands like a sentinel out to sea near Edithburgh. It does little credit to my geography that I did not recollect it during those happy yesteryears when, at the conclusion of school holidays, we teachers returned regularly by the little ship Warrawee and must have passed it not once but many times.

The Old School

Gypsum and salt appear to be trucked away, but the old track lines from Yorketown have been removed. On these, in former years, hundreds of waggonloads of crude salt came in to the Edithburgh refinery. Being made of steel, they were quickly purchased for shed posts, &c., when the lines were removed. We did a quick run out to my old school near Lake Sunday. There it stood, partly filled with barley, and only a stray black board to advertise that it was once a busy schoolroom. Cobwebs and mice abounded, and the play yard was tenanted by a flock of Merino rams. The area school has ousted the small school here, as is the case in most places— a step in the right direction, I feel convinced.

Many of the old friends have passed on, and some of my old scholars in the flower of their youth gave their all for dear old Australia when overseas. I would have dearly loved to have returned here at least 15 years earlier and renewed many friendships, particularly with dear old Grandma Nation, one of the finest women I have ever known — also with my one time chairman, Mr. Ben Lloyd.

Of the remainder of our trip . I will tell you in my next letter.

Best wishes to all from 'MRS. CHIPMUNK.

(I have the rest of your description of your trip 'Mrs . Chipmunk,' and will publish it soon. How interesting it must have been for you to go back to Yorke Peninsula after all those years!— E.B.)


Mining Days on Yorke Peninsula.

Friday 10 November 1950, Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954) Trove

Eighty years ago mining was booming on Yorke Peninsula. Copper was about £120 per ton. In 1873, a small sydnicate of Moonta men obtained a miner's right over section 40 at Kalkabury and sent out four men to test it for mineral. These men, Messrs. W. Mathews, T. Davey, R. Morton and R. Martin, put down two shafts, and did a lot of costeaning work, that is, sinking small pits just large enough for a man to work in. These pits were sunk so as to cross the veins between the shafts. No. 2 shaft was sunk only about 20 feet, but No. 1 shaft was 100 feet deep, when it was no longer possible to haul the stuff to the surface without a windlass, so they closed down without having found any mineral, though indications were said to be good. The shaft is still there. The miner's hut was used for a number of purposes in the community.

Varied Use.

A day school was started with a Mr. Henry Jones from Wallaroo as teacher. Mr. Jones was an educated man, a surveyor by profession, but apparently was not adapted to schoolmastering, for the school did not last long, although one man paid 2 6 per week for his three boys, and others paid more than the prescribed 1 - for big children and sixpence for small ones, in an effort to keep the school going.

Church was also held in the miner's hut, although the first service in December 1873, and several in 1874, were held in the home of Mr. J. Colliver. The Rev. W. T. Carter and the Rev. W. H. Pollard were the first ministers, and amongst local preachers who conducted services were Messrs. N. H. Wilson, from Maitland, H. Lamshed and C. Miller.

About the end of 1874, the mining sydnicate was wound up and the miner's hut demolished, so it was necessary to find some other place for the holding of church services.

For a time, services were held at the home of Mr. D. Henderson, who then gave a piece of land at the junction of Moonta, Kadina and Paskeville roads for the building of a chapel. On it, a wattle and daub structure was erected by the residents. Mr. R. Winzer, plasterer, and Mr. Buik, a carpenter, helping largely with the work.

The chapel was about 25 by 10 or 12 feet, with an iron roof, two small windows at each side, and a front door. A subscription to raise funds for roofing materials and furniture reached £25, and the little church was opened free of debt.

Amongst well known Moonta men who conducted services in the church were Messrs. Jabez Tonkin, Brown (from Moonta Mines workshops) and John Anthony. The church was in the charge of the Maitland circuit, and the Revs. T. M. Rowe, R. Kelly and T. E. Thomas were among the early ministers. In 1882, a property was purchased in Arthurton township.

With the building of the little church, other efforts were made to give the children some schooling. A Miss Pascoe conducted a school in the church for several months one winter, then a Swedish doctor called Smidl was a schoolmaster under the Education Department before the Arthurton schoolhouse was built. But learning the three R',s was a chancy business in those days.

Mr. Colliver, from whose reminiscences this information about early Arthurton comes, tell us stories of the roads or lack of them.

Roads.

Roads of those early days. The roads were made by bullocks winding in and out amongst the tree-. The trees were so tall they met over the track top, making it very difficulte to be sure whether the right track was being followed, or to see any end to the road.

Kangaroos were so plentiful in those days, he says, that they looked like flocks of sheep in Kangaroos the mornings and evenings. One man made a practice of shooting one or two each morning and evening. From the sale of their skins he was able to buy a set of shaft and leading harness for his first two horses, besides supplying the cook with some meat.

Smith Plough.

Mr. R. B. Smith and brother, Mr. C. H. Smith started work Smith Plough near Arthurton as blacksmiths. Mr. Colliver says he cannot completely vouch for the evolution of the stump jump plough as invented and made by the Smith brothers, but as far as he could remember, the first attempt was "a disc wheel or coulter affixed to an ordinary single furrow plough to run in front of the share and a little deeper, so that when the disc struck a stump, it would rise over it, lifting the plough with it. The handles would rise over the head of the man holding them, and when the obstruction was passed, drop back into place again. Another attempt was a V-shaped frame with one wheel in front and two behind and the body of the plough fixed in between the frame on the hinge, or king bolt, with a long wooden lever to keep it down. Afterwards, an iron lever was used with a knob of iron about the size of a good pie melon on the end to make it take the hard ground." "I believe." he says, "the secret, of the first plough consisted of this king bolt, or hinge, as all stump jump emplements have it. There are many different shaped frames and devices to take the hard ground, but they all have to be hung on a king bolt to make them jump. Mr. R. B. Smith has the credit of being the inventor, but it was Mr. C. H. Smith who did the work and followed it up with improvement on the first attempt.

-—EDNA DAVIES


History of Copper Mines on Yorke Peninsula Trove

History of Copper Mines on Yorke Peninsula Trove

History of Copper Mines on Torke Peninsula Trove


Fri 2 Nov 1951, The Pioneer (Yorketown, SA : 1898 - 1954)

In recent months, people of Wallaroo, Moonta and Kadina have been tentatively discussing the possibility of some of the old copper mines in their disicts being opened up again. The September issue of "The S.A. Methodist" contained a lengthy history of the development of the mines and the towns, written by the Rev. Gordon Rowe, and we have pleasure in reprinting that article for the interest of our Peninsula readers. The first of three instalments appears below.

Let me begin with a quotation from an article which appeared in "The Register" in January, 1898. Here it is : "It would be a matter of no great surprise if the present generation did not, retain a vivid recollection of the salvation of the colony wrought through the discovery and development of the copper fields of Yorke Peninsula. It was in 1860 when the bloom of the Burra Mine was fading and the whole colony was smitter with the evil effects of drought, that a picturesque shepherd kicked up a stone saw traces of copper, and told others of the discovery, who afterwards made fortunes. Next year another shepherd picked up the first mineral stone at Moonta, ten mile away, and these discoveries laid the foundations of the copper industry of the Peninsula. From the first the mines began to pay, and properties were opened on all sides and thousands flocked to the locality. The scrub was soon changed into thriving towns and with thousands of men in employment and big dividends from the mines going into circulation a healthy condition of things prevailed throughout the whole colony.

Here is a brief reference to these mines taken from an article in the 1917 Journal ol the Department of Mines :

"The shepherds who discovered the copper stones on Yorke Peninsula were in the employ of Mr W. W. Hughes who leased the district as a sheep run. For some time Mr. Hughes had felt convinced that there were deposits of copper ore in the district as stones containing copper had been found on the beach near the head station, and fire wood used in the hut of on of the shepherds had burned with a greenish-hued flame. In consequence of these things, he instructed his men to bring him any likely-looking stones. This caused a keen watch to be kept, and one day in 1860 James Boor, one of the shepherds, came across a mound strewn with small pieces of ore thrown up by some burrowing animal, probably a native rat. He put the stones in his pocket, and few days later, when at the head station, showed them to Mr. John Duncan (later Sir John), the station manager. Mr. Duncan soon had a hole dug on the spot and sent samples of the ore to Mr Hughes In Adelaide, who thereupon took out several mineral leases, and these developed into the Wallaroo Mine. The Moonta Mine was discovered in much the same way a few months later, in 1861, by Patrick Ryan, another of Mr. Hughes' shepherds."

The article goes on to say that the development of these mines was facilitated by their proximity to Port Wallaroo where there is an excellent harbour, and also by the level nature of the country which facilitated fhe construction and economical working of tramways between both the mines and the Port. After some wrangling regarding the ownership of the Moonta property, joint stock companies were formed. The Moonta discovery was developed by the Moonta Mining Company and the Wallaroo discovery by the Wallaroo Mining and Smelting Company, by whom smelting works were erected at Pt Wallaroo to treat the ores of both mines. The original leases of 2,098 acres for the Wallaroo Mine and 2.691 acres for the Moonta Mine were granted for 14 years with the right of renewal, but these leases were later changed into leases for 99 years at an annual rental of one shilling an acre and a royalty of 2 and a half % on profits. For several years the Wallaroo Mine was managed by Captain Higgs and the Moonta Mine by Captain Hancock, and in 1889 the two companies were amalgamated with Captain Hancock as the Manager. The Yorke Peninsula Coppcr Mines were kept working for over 62 years, and produced copper worth over 20 million pounds and paid more than two million pounds in dividends.

According to the records the first miners at Wallaroo came from Burra in 1860, being brought down in a dray by Mr. John Duncan. It is interesting to recall their names. They were Walter Phillips, William Pascoe, Richard Walter and Samuel Truran. They were soon followed by many others with their families. A few month ater, in 1861, Mr. Duncan took a dray-load of men from Wallaroo to Moonta to open he mine there, but their names are not available. The mines were developed rapidly tided by their richness and by the decline of the mines in Burra, Kapunda and Calinton. For from these and other places people flocked to he new mines. Most of them were of Cornish descent, and many of them were ardent Methodists. In a report in the Wesleyan Magazine' of the enlargement of the church at Wallaroo early in 1865, when the Rev. S. Ironside was the visiting preacher from Adelaide, the report says : The population of the district is now about 9,000. Four years ago the kangaroo might have been hunted on the site of our townships, and the solitary hut of the shepherd was the humble representative of the massive buildings which now tell of advanced civilisation and settled commerce .This population was later on augmented by migrants who were brought over from the declining goldfields of Victoria, and by several shiploads brought out from Cornwall, and eventually reached from 15 to 20 thousand.


A DRIVE ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Y0RKE PENINSULA COUNTRY TIMES FOUNDED 1865

Wednesday 4 April 1984, Victor Harbour Times (SA : 1932 - 1986) Trove

KADINA, at the head of Yorke Peninsula, is a thriving rural town, in the heart of some of Australia's best cereal growing country.

The Yorke Peninsula 'leg', covers the two Counties — Fergusson and Daly — and within this area are a number of other I towns whose communities are mainly I dependant on rural production. These I towns include Paskeville, Ardrossan, Maitland, Minlaton, Curramulka, Yorketown and Edithburg.

The 'leg' surrounded by sea, is bordered by St Vincent Gulf to the East, and Spencers Gulf to the West: both gulfs providing deep sea ports for SA Co-operative Bulk Handling shipping terminals at Ardrossan, Port Giles and Wallaroo.

Cereal crops are the major primary effort, with the average Yorke Peninsula production figures, as supplied by the Department of Agriculture, being wheat 170,000 tonnes, barley 400,000 tonnes, oats 25,000 tonnes and field peas 25,000 tonnes. Triticale, field peas, oil seed rape and sunflower are also grown.

Livestock statistics show that there are 1.1 million sheep (wool and fat lambs), 47,000 pigs and 20,000 cattle.

Fishing is naturally another of the important industries of the Peninsula, with a flourishing fishing fleet of 39 trawlers operating out of Wallaroo during the open season, while scale fishing gives employment to a section of the community commercially, as well as providing additional incentive for tourism during the summer months.

The thousands who come to Yorke Peninsula for holidays enjoy the many beautiful beaches and rocky coastline, which provide opportunities for spear, surf and rock fishing, underwater exploration of the many coastal wrecks, swimming, boating, yachting and skiing.

The development of the 'YP Country Times', the only country newspaper printed on Yorke Peninsula is of particular interest. It is an amalgamation of 12 other papers going back to the Wallaroo 'Times' of 186S, the Southern Yorke Peninsula 'Pioneer' of 1898, the 'Yorke Peninsula Advertiser and Mines News' of 1872, and the 'People's Weekly' of 1890. The 'YP Country Times' was first published in 1968 and now has a paid circulation of 7000.

A number of State Government Regional Offices are situated on Yorke Peninsula, including the Regional Police headquarters, Dept of Agriculture, Dept of Community Welfare, E & WS Dept, Dept of Marine and Harbors, Dept of Lands and Registrar of Motor Vehicles. The Australian Electoral Office for the Division of Wakefield is situated in Kadina.

Sport is a prominent feature of Yorke Peninsula social activity, covering the wide spectrum of summer and winter sports, together with a number of clubs devoted to the less popular sports.

Kadina is the focal point of major sports. Through the Sport and Recreation Centre top grade sporting facilities are provided, as well as catering for many of the larger Peninsula social functions. Trotting is a regular feature on the sporting calendar, with the Yorke Peninsula Trotting Club holding regular night events at the Kadina track. The annual A & H Society Shows also mirror district activity.

One of the major events on the Copper Triangle — Kadina, Wallaroo, Moonta — biennial calendar is the now famous 'Kernewek Lowender' Festival held in May, attended by many thousands, who come to the area to celebrate and remember the Cornish forebears of the district who, in the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s mined large areas of copper which, at that time, made a valuable contribution to the State's economy.

The famous Cornish pasty and the alcoholic drink of the pioneers 'Swanky', are consumed in large quantities during the Festival. It is interesting to note that the 'YP Country Times' printed on its own Goss Community press, serves an area that at one time or other since 1865, has had a total of 23 other country newspapers.