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Kadina SA. A Brilliant Blend

Only 148 kilometres from Adelaide, Kadina is the largest town on the Yorke Peninsula, with a population of around 4,000.

It houses The Farm Shed Museum & Tourism Centre, and a Banking and Currency Museum. Kadina is also one of the homes of the Kernewek Lowender festival, the world's largest Cornish Festival held every two years on the uneven years since 1973.

The name Kadina is believed to have come from the Aboriginal word Kadiyinya meaning 'lizard plain'. Today Kadina is the main commercial centre for a very prosperous agricultural region. However, copper mining was once the main industry for this town; hence Kadina is part of the Copper Coast, which includes Wallaroo and Moonta (also known as 'Little Cornwall').

Copper was first found in 1859 at Wallaroo Mines near Kadina. The population in this area quickly grew and the town of Kadina was surveyed in 1861. The main ethnic group to arrive in this area was the Cornish, bringing with them their mining techniques, labour practices, architecture and the Methodist religion. In 1862 the Wombat Hotel (named after the animals that had discovered the copper) was open for business and a horse-drawn railway was operating at the Wallaroo Mine. By 1891 there were 12,000 people living in the Copper Triangle. The mines closed in 1923, however in this time they removed 170,000 tons of copper.

The original European settlers from this area were mainly Cornish, and examples of Cornish architecture can be found in Kadina including the Royal Exchange and Wombat Hotels (originally a boarding house for new miners), the Kadina Hotel (originally a single storey hotel called the Miner's Arms) and a number of the churches. Kadina has great walks around the town looking at these old building as well as being a base to explore the surrounding mines.

Kadina offers all the facilities of a large town and a wide range of accommodation as well as been close to a number of stunning scenic and family friendly beaches, in Moonta Bay, Port Hughes and Wallaroo. In addition to this it great base for exploring the northern end of the Yorke Peninsula and its rich history.


KADINA. YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Sat 11 Jun 1904, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904) Trove

This wonderfully improved town is a couple of miles from the Wallaroo Mines, and about six from Port Wallaroo. It thus secures the bulk of the trade negotiated with the mining population, in addition to its farming connections. During the past four years the business and residential portions have developed most remarkably. Large, well-built premises now occupy the vacant spaces which occurred at frequent intervals in the main streets, while older buildings have been renovated and enlarged to provide accommodation for the increase in trade. Residential building allotments are at a high premium; and, in order to allow of further construction, it is proposed to petition for right to build on some portion of the park lands. The town of Kadina, which is situated on the railway line to Moonta, about 118 miles from Adelaide, in the County of Daly, is a compact settlement, with a population of 2,000. The total number resident within the boundary of the Hundred of Kadina is estimated at 9,750, including, of course, the Wallaroo Mines. The rateable value of property in this district is £10,240. There are, besides, suburban extensions of the town.

—Officials.—

The officers of the corporation are:— Mayor, Mr. J. Mitchell; Crs. T. A. Southwood. V. P. Kendell, W. Growden, W. H. Rogers, .J. H. Pengelley, W. F. Taylor. W. Symons, and F. Potter; and clerk and overseer of works, Sir. J. M. Inglis. Business is conducted at the town hall, which has recently been extensively repaired and added to. About £250 has been expended on renovation, the money being raised by public subscription. Thanks to the munificence of Mr. D. R. Squibb, a former old resident of Kadina, the town possesses a tower and clock, which will cost over £1,000, and recently the council placed a tablet in position to commemorate the generous gift.

The members of the District Council of Kadina are:—Crs. Paul Roach (chair), Peter Roach, D. Taylor, J. Malcolm, A. Rodda, H. Fuss, T. J. Harris, and J. Tait. clerk, Mr. T. W. Taylor; overseer of works, Mr. D. Smith. Good roads and tree planting are leading features of this council's operations. An excellent band rotunda has been available for entertainment for some years in the reserve facing the post office and town hall. The Government officials are;—Post and telegraph master, Mr. W. A. Allen; state schoolmaster, Mr. F. Fairweather: police officer and clerk of Local Court, Cpl. J. P. Dowling; and station master, Mr. W. Southwood. The institute librarian is Mr. J. M. Inglis; and the Rev. A. K. Chignell (Church of England), Fathers Hourigan and Adamson (Roman Catholic), Rev. A. A. Smith (Taylor Street Methodist), Rev. B. Dorman. (Congregational). and Mr. B. J. Moysey (Church of Christ), conduct religious services.

—Athletic and Racing Clubs.

The Kadina and Wallaroo Jockey Club (secretary, Mr. J. Willshire), the football club (secretary, Mr. J. Birtles), cricket club (secretary, Mr. A. Dodd), and several other athletic bodies provide excellent recreation for the population. Mr. H. Woolcock is conductor of the Federal Band.

—Professional.—

There are two banking establishments— National, Mr. J. S, Brook, manager; and Union, Mr. G. Hamilton. Drs. H. A. Powell and H. R. Letcher are the resident medical practitioners; Messrs. H. W. Uffindell (of Moonta), E. A. Beare. and R. J. D. Mallan, are soliestans; Mr. J. Cornelius is local manager for Messrs. T. Reed and Co., auctioneers.

—Mercantile-—

The prominent tradesmen of Kadina are; —Messrs. D. Taylor, T. M. Rendell, Hall and Co., C. Moore & Co., E. A. Ham. John Hunter Co., F.B.C., J. H. Rosewarne, F. Rosewame, Tonkin & Beckwith, Wilson, Briee. & Co., Singer Company, Wertheim, W. Milliean. Russack & Tyler, J. Jones, Herbert & Son, W. Symon, L. W. E. Hardy, C. Kappe, Kennett Bros., A. R. Brooks, E. J. Paul, J. Mitchell, M. Harris, R. Truscott, Parnell & Bowman, D. Moloney, W. Hancock, G. R. Haddy. T. Burclhell, jun., T. & B. Opie, A. C. Frick, Gullidge and Furner; Page & Co., Marchant & Son, E. B. Cardell, A. Tonkin A. E. Jay, R. H. Paull, W. B. Noell. W. Jackson. F. Potter. F. Hocking. J. Fargher, J. H. Hopgood, and W. C. Rodda, and Mrs. G. Phillips.

Two newspapers—The Kadina and Wallaroo Times, issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays by Mrs. C. F. Taylor; and The Plain Pealer, published on Saturday morning.- by Messrs. J. A. Southwood and G. Spring — provide mediums for local representation and distribution of information relating to district affairs. Mr. J. Darling is in charge of J. Darling & Son's flour mill.


B-54236

KADINA: Five Buick cars stand outside D.W. Simpson's garage. They were owned by: Number 11245 F.W. Harris of Kadina; number 02020 S.J. Northey, of Kadina; number 41879 registered in 1925 to L.C. Beare of Kadina; number 7184 Eyes & Crowle (Agents); number 01239 W.J. Butler of Moonta Mines

State Library of South Australia - B 54236

B-8125

Lithographic print of a panorama of the main street of Kadina. At extreme left is Robert Hall's store. The large building (centre) is Henry Nankervis's Kadina Hotel (the chimney indicates the location of his distillery). Further to the right is the Wombat Hotel (dark roof), and at extreme right is the two-storey White Lion Hotel. The railway line to Wallaroo is situated where the cart (foreground) is running.

State Library of South Australia - B 8125

B-27670

Hodges and Cook, Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights, Taylor Street - staff assembled out the front 1912

State Library of South Australia - B 27670

B-28856

Directors and employees of the Copper Hill Mining Company

State Library of South Australia - B 28856

B-12148

Kadina Hospital State Library of South Australia - B 12148

B-28605

The Town Hall, Kadina - State Library of South Australia - B 28605

B-25061

Kadina Fire Brigade Officers with a hose reel: Fred Haines, Reg Herbert, Harry Woods (foreman)

State Library of South Australia - B 25061

B-26917

Store of E. J. Woodroffe in Taylor Street - State Library of South Australia - B 26917

B-27237

Savings Bank Building - State Library of South Australia - B 27237

B-29280

The Wallaroo Times office staff stand outside the premises - State Library of South Australia - B 29280

B-28330

Taylor Street - State Library of South Australia - B 28330

B-28699

The Kadina Flour Mill (Kimber's Mill) - men standing in horsedrawn wagon waiting for supplies approx 1872

State Library of South Australia - B 28699

B-32399

Moline Tractor 1920 - State Library of South Australia - B 32399

B-29279

The Kadina Butter Factory - State Library of South Australia - B 29279

A PENINSULA TOUR

Thu 9 Jan 1946, The Producer (Balaklava, SA : 1940 - 1950) Trove

After a few miles had been covered, we had our first sight of Kadina, or rather, the old copper mine dump, which stands out for miles around, particularly from the Balaklava—Kulpara side. We found Kadina, too, an old coppermining town still bearing many signs of bygone days. Kadina is the largest town on Yorke's Peninsula, and also possesses the biggest population. Although the town is fairly old, and as rather wide-scattered; many and varied impressions are provided. We halted first in the town's main streets —in our opinion Greaves and Taylor Streets share the honor. Here we found exceptionally fine and large shops in no small number, and all carrying a splendid range of goods, as our womenfolk soon found out, and with which they 'played hell,' as all women do when confronted with a large display of fashions: one has to admire the capacity the fair sex has for taking notice of, and remembering, such a formidable list. There's no doubt about the female ability in any direction, for that matter—providing the cash lasts! (Careful, son—careful!—Ed.).

Large shady trees make Kadina's Victoria Square an exceptionally fine asset to the district, which can be very hot in the summer. Here we noticed a children's the equipment in the usual neglected state—I say 'usual' because we did find so many such playgrounds (including our own at Balaklava) sadly ; neglected, which state of affairs cannot but have some effect on the future generation. Apparently it is not too much trouble to drill youngsters for military or political purposes, but apathy in providing the means of developing healthy bodies and encouraging an individual outlook which is the enemy of regimentation amounts to downright opposition. I mention this (believing that I have a healthy and broad outlook on most matters, particularly where our children are concerned) because I find that the shadow of Socialistic extremes is riot a fairy story, but a stark reality. The only modern playground I have seen in my travels through most country areas is at Angaston—in fact, it one of the finest in South Australia. I suggest that anyone doubting this statement take a party of youngsters on this short trip from the Balaklava district, and let them pass judgment..

While in Kadina we visited the 'trots.' The district owns a fine new trotting track, which seems to lack no requirements of the sport. Of course, every member of our party had a good day! We all do! Here I wish to make a plea for the poor bookies and all those who get their living from such sports. I wonder who pays the bookies, because we all seem to win (like hell!). Kadina staged a fine meeting, despite a very dusty day (making us quite homesick), and gave patrons a good day's entertainment. A taxi service, result of an exserviceman's enterprise, gave a metropolitan touch, and should be of good service to towns-people. Many such undertakings are gradually making headway in country towns. We commended Mr. H. B. East and Mr. Horrie Ninnes on their attitude towards a Trades School undertaking and similar enterprises which were soon to be established, and which should be encouraged in our own town. All success to those associated with Kadina's progress— their ideas are worthy of every support. Country centres will flourish only when it becomes unnecessary for people to go to the cities for their requirements, or for better standards of living, and amenities—but more of this later.


A DRIVE ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.

Wednesday 4 April 1984, Victor Harbour Times (SA : 1932 - 1986) Trove

KADINA, at the head of Yorke Peninsula, is a thriving rural town, in the heart of some of Australia's best cereal growing country.

The Yorke Peninsula 'leg', covers the two Counties — Fergusson and Daly — and within this area are a number of other I towns whose communities are mainly I dependant on rural production. These I towns include Paskeville, Ardrossan, Maitland, Minlaton, Curramulka, Yorketown and Edithburg.

The 'leg' surrounded by sea, is bordered by St Vincent Gulf to the East, and Spencers Gulf to the West: both gulfs providing deep sea ports for SA Co-operative Bulk Handling shipping terminals at Ardrossan, Port Giles and Wallaroo.

Cereal crops are the major primary effort, with the average Yorke Peninsula production figures, as supplied by the Department of Agriculture, being wheat 170,000 tonnes, barley 400,000 tonnes, oats 25,000 tonnes and field peas 25,000 tonnes. Triticale, field peas, oil seed rape and sunflower are also grown.

Livestock statistics show that there are 1.1 million sheep (wool and fat lambs), 47,000 pigs and 20,000 cattle.

Fishing is naturally another of the important industries of the Peninsula, with a flourishing fishing fleet of 39 trawlers operating out of Wallaroo during the open season, while scale fishing gives employment to a section of the community commercially, as well as providing additional incentive for tourism during the summer months.

The thousands who come to Yorke Peninsula for holidays enjoy the many beautiful beaches and rocky coastline, which provide opportunities for spear, surf and rock fishing, underwater exploration of the many coastal wrecks, swimming, boating, yachting and skiing.

The development of the 'YP Country Times', the only country newspaper printed on Yorke Peninsula is of particular interest. It is an amalgamation of 12 other papers going back to the Wallaroo 'Times' of 186S, the Southern Yorke Peninsula 'Pioneer' of 1898, the 'Yorke Peninsula Advertiser and Mines News' of 1872, and the 'People's Weekly' of 1890. The 'YP Country Times' was first published in 1968 and now has a paid circulation of 7000.

A number of State Government Regional Offices are situated on Yorke Peninsula, including the Regional Police headquarters, Dept of Agriculture, Dept of Community Welfare, E & WS Dept, Dept of Marine and Harbors, Dept of Lands and Registrar of Motor Vehicles. The Australian Electoral Office for the Division of Wakefield is situated in Kadina.

Sport is a prominent feature of Yorke Peninsula social activity, covering the wide spectrum of summer and winter sports, together with a number of clubs devoted to the less popular sports.

Kadina is the focal point of major sports. Through the Sport and Recreation Centre top grade sporting facilities are provided, as well as catering for many of the larger Peninsula social functions. Trotting is a regular feature on the sporting calendar, with the Yorke Peninsula Trotting Club holding regular night events at the Kadina track. The annual A & H Society Shows also mirror district activity.

One of the major events on the Copper Triangle — Kadina, Wallaroo, Moonta — biennial calendar is the now famous 'Kernewek Lowender' Festival held in May, attended by many thousands, who come to the area to celebrate and remember the Cornish forebears of the district who, in the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s mined large areas of copper which, at that time, made a valuable contribution to the State's economy.

The famous Cornish pasty and the alcoholic drink of the pioneers 'Swanky', are consumed in large quantities during the Festival. It is interesting to note that the 'YP Country Times' printed on its own Goss Community press, serves an area that at one time or other since 1865, has had a total of 23 other country newspapers.



GA2394 - State Records of South Australia

Kadina Primary School Date Range: 1879 - ct Inventory of Series Description

Kadina School was established in 1879. (1)

Approval was given to increase the size of the school by building new classrooms in 1905, although there were some delays in construction. (2)

In 1920 the school yard was found to be in a 'shocking condition very rough and uneven' having been under water for the winter. Approval was obtained to make the necessary improvements. (3)

In 1921 the town Clerk of Kadina offered a portion of the park for a high school in Kadina. (4) The High School was later co-located with Kadina Primary School. (5)

In 1936 Kadina celebrated the State Centenary by holding a Carnival Week. A special afternoon half holiday was granted to the schools in the area including Kadina Primary and High Schools, Wallaroo Mines, and Kadina Catholic Schools, so that their pupils could participate in the Children's Sports at the Kadina Show Grounds. In the morning, the public and ex-residents paid a visit to the schools as part of the celebrations . Another holiday was granted for schools in the area for a combined Sports Day on the 26th November. (6)

In 1938 the Head Teacher applied to the Director of Education for the school to become a 'Freedom School' in what was known as the 'Freedom Experiment' in the teaching of English. This new teaching method involved combining the teaching of oral English and formal grammar and linking it to the children's thoughts, interests and experiences. In the application to the Director, the teacher also noted that the children often found it difficult to relate to text books that were often written in the United Kingdom. The new method was approved. (7)

A new residence in Winter Street, Kadina was purchased for the District Inspector of Schools in 1938. (8)

In 1944 approval was given for a fowl house at the Kadina School to be situated alongside the vegetable plot, this was subsidised by the Education Department. (9)

A School Library was established in 1946. At this time there were ten rooms in the main building of the school and a portable room in the playground. Six were used as ordinary classrooms, and two for woodwork; one of the spare room s was designated as a Library room. The numbers of children attending the school was approximately 270 and an increase in numbers was not expected. (10)

An application for a 'proper' staff room was made and approved in 1956. The staff room referred to by the teachers as 'the morgue' was rarely used as teachers would lunch in their classrooms and was situated in an unlined, asphalt floored section of a porch partly accessed by a moveable cupboard with no facilities. The two rooms designated for woodwork were no longer needed as a new woodwork centre was being opened at the Kadina High School. Consequently, the rooms were reserved and renovations commenced for a new staff room and library. (11)

As of 27/04/2012, Kadina Primary School has an average student population of 450 with up to 18 classes. It is divided into three sections - junior, middle and upper primary and is co-located with the Kadina Pre-School, High School, TAFE and community library. (12)
Kadina Primary School will amalgamate with Kadina Memorial High School in the beginning of 2013. Two new school names have been proposed, Kadina Memorial School and Kadina Memorial R - 12 School: the new school name will be determined by the Government Geographical Name Board. It is hoped that a history book documenting the histories of both schools will be produced and launched at the new school opening. (13)

Sources:

(1) Kadina School website URL: http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/docs/ContextStatement.pdf, accessed 24/04/2012
(2) GRG 18/1, File 46/1905, File 65/1905
(3) GRG 18/1, File 184/1920
(4) GRG 18/1, File 42/1921
(5) Kadina Primary School URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012
(6) GRG 18/2, File 972/1936
(7) GRG 18/2, File 819/1938
(8) GRG 18/2, File 882/1938
(9) GRG 18/2, File 222/1945
(10) GRG 18/2, File 2626/1946
11) GRG 18/2, File 3228/1956
(12) Kadina Primary School URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012
(13) Kadina Primary School, Amalgamation Fact Sheet No. 2 February 2012 URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012

Contents Date Range Series Date Range Number of Units Public Access Series Id Series Title

1898 - 1996 1898 - 1996 6 Part Open GRS/14282 Admission registers - Kadina Primary School
1906 - 1920 1906 - 1920 1 Open GRS/14295 Teacher`s examination registers - Kadina Primary School
1933 - 1972 1933 - 1972 1 Part Open GRS/14294 Inspector`s registers - Kadina Primary School
c 2008 - c 2008 c 2008 - c 2008 1 Open GRS/14281 Photographs of school sites - Kadina Area