Massa Whitefellow Paper,—Me want to yabber long a you, long a waterhole, long a Ninnes scrub, First time massa paper you yourie that one budgery white fellow long a Kadina, what name you call him (Land Commissioner), that one yabber; me catchem big one waterhole, all about this one country. Massa, that one white fellow send him nother one whitefellow long a Adelaide, first time him put him picaninny waterhole long a Ninnes Plain, then him put him picaninny waterhole long a Thomas' Plain, and find him mungerry (very good) clay two fellow places, big one good place catchem water, mungerry place. Now nother one whitefellow write him letter long a paper—what name you call him " Fair Play," big one fool that one fellow. What for him yabber like a that; him say me no want him long a Ninnes, me no want him long a Thomas, but me want him long a my wurley. Me think that one whitefellow all the same as Emu when wild dog chase him—him, stick him head long a bush. Me think that fellow all a same big one fool. Massa whitefellow paper, me wongad a (went) long a Kadina long a that one big one corrobberry— big one tuck out—what name you call him ? Banquettey. Mungerry that one you yourie budgery Government whitefellow him all about yabber ; me big one look out waterhole long a this one country ; what for him no gib it, only gammon. Winter time run away, mucca (no) waterhole sit down, summer time comes on poor fellow farmers only catchem water, this one winter all a same as last one winter, farmers only catchem picaninny wheat, then muldappy nanto (locomotive) bring him water long a Green's Plains. Then poor fellow farmer all about catchem money long a wheat, then spend him long a water, no catchem nuff water bullocky tumble down nanto tumble down—no plough him ground— no get him tuokout, got to run away long another country. Suppose him no do that him go long a Adelaide—long a that one place where whitefellow whitewash him—'Solvence Court, you call him. Poor fellow him no gettem tuckout 'cause Government make him fool long a that one fellow. How, massa whitefellow paper, what poor farmer fellow wantem, put down big one water hole long Thomas' Plain—put him down this one moon, so catchem this one winter water then him mungerry.

Massa Whitefellow Paper, me WHEELBARROW JEMMY, long a Ninnes Plain.


Mr Wallaroo Paper, Massr—What for you no come down along a Port Wakefield three leeps ago, see whitefellow make um pickaninny hole in ground, where um going build railway. Me think you no like um Port Wakefield, cos plenty ships come here by-um-bye—no come to Wallaroo. You know whitefellow here ask Governor to come; Governor very good man ; him say yes, me come, then him very bad ; pain in him toes, so he say by-um-bye me come. Then whitefellow say, Oh! no good waiting for Governor; if he no come Wednesday we do widout him. Me think Governor no like to come cos steamer no come near shore, stop long way off, two three mile; then blackfellow go in water and carry him on back long way; that no good! Not her one big bugs asked to come. Mr Blyth big one fat man, Mr Dufiield plenty make um flour, Mr English build um town hall long Adelaide,—no one come; so whitefellow say, neber mind; we askum King Tom and him lubra old Caroline, and ask plenty blackfellow, and plenty lubra, plenty pickaninny, give um plenty tuck out. Hoorah; welly good, whitefellow. Then by-um-bye twenty whitefellows come dressed up for corroboree like Sunday and Mr Fergusson say, " Gemplemans, Governor no come ; we must do widout him." Then whitefellow dig up little ground, put um in wheelbarrow, wheel him along and I turn him over, then yabber, yabber and everybody hurrah! hurrah ! Then walk along township, and whitefellow eat plenty tuck out. Register newspaper say steamer Crest of Wave up along lamppost public-house. Plenty gammon ! He want to make out plenty water here for steamer to come along public-house. Big one lie that. By-um-bye whitefellow plenty growl cos Governor no come. Mr Bright, no come; plenty more no come—only two three white-fellows come from Adelaide. Plenty tucker left, whitefellow say dinner cost him sixty pounds; so cos whitefellow can't eat um all give um blackfellow. Plenty tuck out, welly good. Whitefellow sit down Adelaide, no likum Port Wakefield tramway; thinkum cost too much whitemoney, and no good, only bring down wheat. Blackfellow no thinkum much good. Port Wakefield welly good place for blackfellow to fish, walk out in water long way, two three miles.

THE CLARE RAILWAY BANQUET. (from an aboriginal correspondent.)

Mr Wallaroo Times,—Me sit down Port Wakefield ; sebeu leeps ago Mr O.P. him drive coach, tell me Jimmy, by me bye big one tuck out down Wallaroo, along Clare Hailroad. Welly good tuck out Port Wakefield along tramway; me say, Wallaroo tuck out all same,—me go ; lubra you come along carry ' possum rug and blanket. Byrne bye we come along Wallaroo, plenty whitefellow all about. Big chimney plenty smoke, big fire plenty makum copper. Jetty welly good, plenty deep water, no like Port Wakefield. No ships here when me come. Byrne bye steamer come; plenty whitefellow, what you call'em members come Adelaide eat tucker Wallaroo. Xah.! yah! all same blackfellow; likum good tuck out. Then whitefellow Mr Barrow, (paper massr along Adelaide) Mr Captain Smith Port Adelaide, Mr Parkin, picanniny old man whitefellow, Mr English buildum town hall along Adelaide, and nother whitefellows all walk up Mr Haselgrove's. Me go too ; get tucker all same Port Wakefield, Mr Haselgrove say what for you come here, no want blackfellow ; plenty whitefellow eat up tucker, none for blackfellow. Plenty whitefellow all about; byme bye he give me a little tucker; welly good. Me go upstairs, look in big room, plenty whitefellow sit down all round table, Mr Bower up a top 5 him got big one bird to eat. Captain Hay get picanniny pig ; other whitefellow got fowls, pigs, plenty tuck out. Plenty drink beer, wine, no get drunk. Byme by Mr Bower say gemplemans charge for glasses we drink the Queen. Me no see Queen, only drink wine and all whitefellow say Queen, Queen. Then Mr Bower say drink again, Governor, and whitefellow all drink wine and say Governor; welly good fellow him Governor. Then picaninny old man whitefellow, eyes all same blackfellow, get up plenty yabber along Parliament, say whitefellow Wallaroo no muffs; then all drink wine again and sing out hurrah. Mr Barrow, (big one paper massr 'sit down along Adelaide) yabber next; welly good this one, yabber long time all same book ; whitefellow say yah! yah! and clap hands, drink again and sing out Clare Railway hoorah. If blackfellow drink likey that, by and bye roll about and waddy lubra. Then Mr English yabber, other whitefellows yabber long time. Then say tank you Mr Haselgrove welly good man you give whitefellow plenty tuck out. Me no think welly good all same Port Wakefield, cos none left for blackfellow—Good bye.


Same day— The cutter Endeavour, 20 tons, Eeid, master, from Yorke's Peninsula. Passengers — Mr. Mole, Mr. Sharpies, 2 constables, and 4 native prisoners for sheep-stealing.

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), Thursday 14 February 1856, page 3

SHEEP-STEALING BY THE NATIVES.— The four aboriginals, named respectively Adelaide Bob, Coorowampa, Wheelbarrow Jemmy, and Tommy, who were brought into town in custody, charged with stealing 220 sheep at Yorke Valley, Yorke's Peninsula, the property of Thomas Rogers, will be brought up before the Police Magistrate this morning.

Sheep-stealing.—Four aboriginals, named respectively - Adelaide Bob, Coorowampa Wheelbarrow Jemmy, and Tommy, have been brought over from Yorke's Peninsula in the cutter Endeavour, in charge of two policemen, charged with stealing 220 sheep at Yorke Valley, Yorke's Peninsula, the property of Thomas Rogers. They were taken before the Police Magistrate on Thursday, but remanded till Monday next for the attendance of Mr. Moorhouse, the Protector of Aborigines.

Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904), Saturday 23 February 1856, page 4

Sheep-stealing.—Adelaide Bob, alias Yellana, Coorowampa, alias Karrallo, Wheelbarrow Jack, alias Wodla, and Tommy, alias Kanganni, were brought up for examination, charged with stealing 220 sheep, at Yorke's Peninsula, August 26. William Robert Rogers, sheepfarmer, at Yorke's Peninsula, stated that on the 26th August he had 220 sheep at Yorke Valley, under the charge of the overseer, Joseph Elliott, who brought to witness 13 skins, which he identified by the ear marks as his property. Joseph Elliott said the sheep were out on the night of August 26. The shepherd asked him to count the number which were missing. Did so the next morning, and ascertained that 220 were gone. Went and found 13 skins in the scrub, and Wheelbarrow Jack had a part of the carcases. Adelaide Bob was with him and run away. Found the rest of the sheep on the plains. Bob, alias Mellia, an aboriginal boy, said he saw Wheelbarrow Jack and Karrallo take some sheep from the prosecutor's yard. He saw all four of the blackfellows take them away, and put them into the scrub. Sat down with them by the fire. Did not see them kill the sheep. Was not there. The prisoners said they did not take the sheep from the yard, but their lubras found them on the plains. His Worship remarked that they were found in their possession. He sentenced the prisoners to six months imprisonment with hard labour.


Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881), Saturday 28 December 1867, page 2

The flat race, 200 yards, was won by a blackfellow, " Jemmy," who distanced his competitors, notwithstanding his spindle shanks.

We are informed that the native who won the prize at the foot race, on 26th instant (£1 5s), elated with his sudden accession of fortune, so far forgot his sense of propriety—although a married man as to make proposals to a sable Louisa to become Mrs Black Jemmy number two.
The lady, probably enticed by the wealth as well as prowess of her suitor, consented, and accompanied him to Messrs Hamilton Brothers to procure a new rig in the style of the first London Houses." Being decked out in the latest fashion, so far as the 253 would go,—including even a petite bonnet, if we are rightly informed,—the happy bride accompanied her husband to Kadina to spend the honeymoon. We are lol-l Jemmy has no intention of altogether discarding Mrs Jemmy number one, but probably thinks if he can earn money so easily he can afford to keep two wives instead of one.

One of those curious but interesting exhibitions, ceremonies, or whatever they may be called, a native corroboree, took place in the vicinity of Moonta on the evening of Feb. 3. The corroboree was a very grand one, no less than two kings being present, King Tommy and King Jemmy,
with, no doubt, the requisite number of queens,' princesses, and princes. King Jemmy is said to have been rather a remarkable man as far as
corporal structure was concerned, his frame being evidently a powerful and muscular one. Two tribes were present, numbering, in the aggregate, about one hundred and fifty persons. As the sun went down immense fires were lighted, and by the pale light of the moon, and the ruddy glare of the fires, the sable warriors yelled, danced, and performed. Each one was naked, with the exception of a cloth tied round his loins, and the paint of various colors which had been daubed all over his body. The wildness of the scene, the weird look of the paint bedaubed, pie-bald .looking blacks, the sombre relief into which the trees tod shrubs in the background were cast by the flickering light of the wood fires, formed a strange and imposing picture, vividly impressing itself on the memories of the spectators, of whom there were from two to three hundred from Moonta present.

3. On Yorke's Peninsula, George Penton, a European, overseer to Mr Anstey, shot an adult native. On the 27th January, he called at the Police Barracks in town, and re ported the following:—Some limb ago, the natives stole an axe from tbe station, and on the 20th January they made a bolder advance, and, attacking the sheep, were successful in carrying a number away. The overseer went in pursuit; he came upon a camp of about fifty natives, and found the carcases of some ot the sheep. One of the men seized a spear, and while in the act ot throwing, the overseer fired at him, and on returning to the camp next morning, ascer-tained that the native at whom he bad shot was dead. This is the overseer's report, but the statement of the natives has not been procured. This would have been procured, had not other duties called me into tbe South-eastern District. I purpose visiting this tribe by the first opportunity after this date, and, after inquiring minutely into the case, will report accordingly.

Monday, November 12.

Two aboriginal natives from Yorke's Peninsula, named Koonkoo and Watpa, were brought up, the former charged with a felonious assault on John Gall, Mr Cootes nephew ; and the latter with stealing a sheep from Mr Cootes.

There were neither witnesses nor an interpreter to go on with the case, and his Worship remanded them until the 26th instant, upon the statement of the constable who had arrested them.

Tuesday, December 4.

In the case of the natives Koonkoo for feloniously assaulting John Gall, at Yorke's Peninsula, and Watpa charged with stealing sheep the property of James Coutts, both under remand from the Supreme Court, witnesses were to-day examined before Mr Tolmer, and bound over to prosecute at the next Criminal Sessions.

POLICE COURT. Wednesday. August 29.

Henry Thomas Morris and Harry Valette Jones were charged with feloniously shooting at and wounding, with intent to murder Malappa, an aboriginal native, at Yorke's Peninsula, on the 15th August.

Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904), Saturday 28 July 1849, page 3

The shepherd Armstrong, who was lately speared at Mr G. M. Stephen's .station, on Yorke's Peninsula, died from the effects of the wounds about eighteen , hours after they were inflicted.

Many of the aborigines of the Wakefield, tribe have lately visited the genuine natives of the Peninsula, and taught them English enough to enable them to become very annoying to the settlers and squatters. Those who "give them an inch," too often finding them inclined " to take an ell," or, what is worse, inclined to requite old kind-nesses with something more serious 'than an ell-measure, if the kindnesses expected do not grow with the growth of the party which makes the appeal. In plain terms, the old hands say there is nothing like keeping them at a distance. Lime, of superior quality, and in various forms, is very abundant on the Peninsula. As a mineral field, it has yet to be examined by thoroughly practical men.

South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), Saturday 24 November 1849, page 3

South Australian Gazette and Mining Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1847 - 1852), Thursday 29 November 1849, page 3


[Before Charles Bonney, and F. S. Dutton, Esqrs.] Wednesday, 29th August.

[Henry-word missing] Thomas Morris, Manager of Mr G. M. Stephens's stations, Yorke's Peninsula, and Henry Palette Jones, gentleman, were charged with feloniously shooting with intent to kill an aboriginal native named Malieappa,


ONE of these trials terminated on Monday in the acquittal of Henry Thomas Morris and Hany Valette Jones, charged with the murder of a native on Yorke's Peninsula. There was no doubt that a native had been shot; and there were circumstances of a nature sufficiently suspicious to justify the apprehension of the prisoners; but legal proof of their guilt was altogether defective; the native evidence, in particular, on which the charge mainly rested, was a singular failure, and showed something which created a sort of impression—

Another Native Murder.

George Field was charged with murdering Nantariltarri, alias William, an aboriginal native, at Yorke's Peninsula.

Keskahrowilla, a native, was charged witb feloniously assaulting, with intent to murder, William Bagnell, on Yorke's Peninsula. JImcrack, another Yorke Peninsula native, acted as interpreter, and Mr Moorhouse, the Protector of Aborigines, attended to watch the case. It appeared from the statement of William Bagnell, shepherd to Mr Coutts, on Yorke's Peninsula, that he first saw the prisoner several months ago, while cutting grass. On the 27th of May, the prisoner and two other blackfellows, with a lubra and two children, came to the witness's hut, and asked for some water; this was given them, together! with a fire-stick, and they went on. While they were there, j witness loaded a double-barrelled gun, and gave it to a Miepherd, named McDonald, telling him to take it with ! him as a protection, but he could not say whether or not ; the blacks saw it. No sooner had they gone, than he (witness recollected that one of the blacks, named Jemmy, had ; been used to bong out about huts, and he followed them for j the purpose of calling Jemmy back to help him burn some j 11% He had not got fifty yards from the hut, and had just ' tailed to Jemmy, who was returning, when a waddy was thrown at him. He turned round, and the prisoner rushed out on him, making a great noise, and threw four spears at him. One entered his body, and another went in his shirt He pulled them out, attacked the prisoner, and succeeded in knocking him down, but he was too weak from loss of blood to follow up his victory, and prisoner made off. He" then went back to the hut, and sent the police information of the occurrence, and a description of the prisoner; but some time elapsed before he did so, as the police-station was 20 miles from their hut. The police apprehended the prisoner, and he identified him. obliged him to lay up for two or three days. The prisoner was committed for trial The wound was infiicted on the hip, and

POLICE COURT. Tuesday, June 25.

Padlarra, an aboriginal native of Yorkes Peninsula, was charged with stealing a sheep from Mr Rogers's station, on the 10th instant. Mr Moorhouse attended to watch the case for the prisoner ; and the evidence was interpreted by Jimcrack, the native interpreter. William Rogers, Yorke's Pefiinsula, said he had some sheep-stations there. The station from which the sheep was stolen was called " Rogue's Gulley.' Had about 1500 sheep at that station. Witness's son had charge of them.

Adelaide Times (SA : 1848 - 1858), Thursday 14 November 1850, page 3

Thomas Simmons was brought up on remand charged with ravishing an aboriginal girl, named ' Uurti-pitari, at York's Peninsula.



South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), Tuesday 20 May 1851, page 3

Tukkurm, Nyalta Wikkanin, and Kanger Worli were charged with the wilful murder of Maltalta, an aboriginal native man, on the 11th February last, at Yorke's Peninsula. The prisoners, through their interpreter, pleaded severally not guilty. Mr. Fisher appeared as their counsel. The Crown Solicitor stated the case against the prisoners, and proceeded to prove it by the following evidence : — Kanyana, the first witness, a boy of about 12 years old, was a resident of Yorke's Peninsula.

Monday, May 19.

Tukkurm, Nyalta, and Kangu Wurli, aboriginal natives, were charged with the wilful murder of Maltalta, an aboriginal native, at Yorke's Peninsula, on the 11th of February. Mr Fisher defended the prisoners, who were understood to plead not guilty. The particulars of this case Jiave already fully appeared. The deceased was killed, as one of the natives said in Court, because they did not like to see strange backfellows passing through their couutry.' Mr Moorhouse stated that it was an universal law among the native tribes to kill any strange native who passed through their country. They had no belief in a God, but believed in the existence cf an evil spirit Iu answer to the Judge, he said that the natives were iu great fear of the evil spirit. They believed he had great power, and attributed to him all diseases or accidents. If two tribes were opposing each other, and a man of one tribe said wc will get the evil spirit to poison our adversaries water, tbat tribe wocld believe they had the first chance, and that the evil spirit would fight for them only. They appealed to this spirit through tbe intervention of a soothsayer or wise man. The opposing tribe would generally strive to avenge themselves lo any disa-ter on this soothsayer, who Was one of the old men. A 1 old men, indeed 9 had the reputation of being soothsayers. They had an undefined notion of futurity, and believed iu the transmigration of bodies, but not of.a future state of rewards aud punishments. A stranger was one whom they had never seen befure, and who did not speak their lansuaae, A member of another tribe was not necessarily a stranger, in some of the newly-settled districts tothe u'ortil of Mount Brown, where we could bold iso communication with natives, they were still uuaware that it was wrong to slay strangers, but in all the settled districts', and where he had the opportunity-of seeing and speaking with them, a strange native wouid be perfectly safe. II the Port Lincoln natives should hear of the murder of the deceased they would not go oat of their "way to make war upon the prisoner s tribe ; out would most certainly kill any Yorke's Peninsula native who should chance to come among them. They would do this by way of retaliation. Maltalta would have been taken back to Port Lincoln by tile first ship, but he refused to wait and preferred going overland. Mr Fisher addiessed the jury for the prisoners. After alluding feelingly to t! e helpless position of the pn oners, owing to tbe want of education aud the utter ignorance of our laws and customs, lie contended tbat, supposing the facts to be proved, the prisoners must only be considered as carrying out their own iaus, aud, in fact, only fttlfi ling what ttu*y believ d to be their duty. There was in an indictment for murder in the English law a phrase, not only pecuiar, but necessary, namely, that the act is said to be committed as not having the fear of God before their eyes, but being moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil.* Fisher exposed the absurdity of giving a verdict against the prisoners which would involve a supposition of the knowledge of God and the devil on their parts ; and after arguing on the evidence that the deceased had not been identified, concluded by urging the utter want of proof that there was any malice aforethought either expressed or implied. His Honor went throngh the evidence, aud concluded with the following^remarks:—That, as he had not been altogether understood in the observations he had made in answer to the presentment of .the Grand Jury, he would state that the distinction which he wished to draw was one between the question of jurisdiction and that of punishments. On a former occasion when a native was tried, Mr Bartiey, who then conducted the defence, pleaded the non-jurisdiction of the Court, and he—the learned Judge—had then said he did not know how to draw the distinction, or how those people could object to be tried by that Court. Now the question of their actual guilt was one thing and the degree of that guilt was another, and he could not thiuk that the question of the punishment of these poor persons was so easy a one as that of jurisdiction. He felt it his duty to deal with each case brought before him ca cfully and deliberately, and give to the jury a plain direction in it As to the propriety of trying those people for offences among themselves, there mi$>ht be different views, but it was impossible to say that the same degree of guilt would attach to them as would attach to white persons committing the same crime fhey were persons without instruction, and did not enquire if they were wrong in killing a stranger. Tlieir's was a law of retaliation, and though one tribe would not go out of their way to revenge a death, they would kiil the fiist stranger that came among them, it being only a question of opportunity with them. If punishment for these offences were to take place at all, it would foe better that it should take place by law, aud he thought it better for the ultimate good of the native population that they should be punished, for if they were to be civilised there were no more eff dual means than making them understand that punishment followed crime. At the same time, he thought they should have reasonable notice that they were liable to such punishments. The jury returned a verdict of wilful murder against ali the prisoners. His Honor passed sentence of death in the usual form, aud fixed the 9th of June as the day for the execution. The prisoners, however, were informed that his Honor would make intercession for them with the Crown, and that they lives would in all probability be spared. They were then removed.

The following is a list of the 64 prisoners who received sentences of death, which were after wards commuted to life imprisonment, with hard labour:—
Tukkurm, Ngalta Wikanni, and Rangue Worli, three natives, murder of Maltalta, aboriginal, February 11, 1851, at Yorke's Peninsula; pardoned June, 1851.


SHEEP-STEALING.— Three aborigines, named Ned Tittawitta, Johnny Gumflat, and Johnny Pointpiercer, pleaded guilty to the charge of stealing 213 sheep, the property of Thomas Rogers, Yorke's Peninsula, on the 13th August last. They were committed to gaol for six months with hard labour.

At Muscle Brook, as the major has it—Mueselbrook is the modern equivalent. I fancy—he received a letter from the Government telling him that George Clarke had once more escaped by filing his irons. As they went on, the heat became very great, and no water could be found. A native named Jemmy saved them by digging in sandy places where shallow water resulted, and he also showed them the best tracks for the "wheelbarrows," as he called the drays. When he left the party he was given a tomahawk, and Mitchell is careful to explain that this is a name given to a small hatchet—evidently the word was new. Jemmy asked for something to take to his brother Monday, and was given a knife, and left well satisfied with his wages. Another black took his place.