A Pioneers Experiences MEMORIES OF THE DAYS. EARLY

Mr. O. Klem recently recounted his experience when he came with his parents to South Australia, in 1856 He said, ''My father was a professional gardener and wine-maker, and held a good position, hut through a slight accident got out of military service, and as he had two sons, decided to emigrate to a free country, and chose South Australia so that his hoys should not be brought up for cannon fodder.

On the voyage out a small fishing cutter in the North Sea ran into us and drove the bowsprit right into us. The carpenters had a job to plug the hole, but the captain told us that the vessel would not sink, as she had a full cargo of Baltic timber.

After months of the usual weather, calms, storms, fair and foul weather, we reached Kangaroo Island, near Cape Borda, but it was the captain's first voyage, and he did not like risking the Passage in the dark, so dropped anchor.

In the morning we were amazed to find ourselves close in to shore. We could see the sea birds on the beach.

All the sailors tried to raise the anchor but could not, then all the passengers and even we children helped, and at last the anchor came up. but only with one arm. It was wonderful to see the strength of man power; it saved us from being wrecked.

We got to Port Adelaide without further mishap.

Our first cottage was on North Terrace, near the Scotch Church, with shingle roof, and when it rained this leaked like a sieve.

We children used to run across the road to gather armfuls of wood, as there was plenty of timber under the gums, and all was open country.

I was seven years old when we came here, so that makes me a colonist of 80 years.

The colony was hardly ripe for professional gardeners. What were wanted were able-bodied men who could use a pick and shovel to trench the land, and father was not looking for that.

However, father's first job was at Morialta, with the late Hon. John Baker. , Mrs. Baker was passionately found of flowers, and she wanted the drives laid out. An orangery, and hot house, but the overseer was dead .against such expense, and had no time for flowers. Mrs. Baker got her way, however, and all these were carried out, while father was there.

Our cottage was at the foot of the Black Hill, where the fruit garden was and my sister, who was two years older than me, often walked to Rundle Street for groceries from McRostie, and back in the day, and was not . much worse for it next day.

It was all open country—no suburbs, just a few houses on Mount Lofty, all bush, sheoak, wattle, honeysuckle, and gums; and only a bullock track.

We often hear of the glut of fruit. Well, in 1857 we had already a glut and the peaches were as large as cricket balls, and a kerosene box full had to be hawked all through Rundle Street at 2/6 a case from Morialta. McEwin, of Teatree Gully, I believe, was one of the first, if not first, to make his fruit into jam, and splendid jam it was. That was before we had factories.

The Hon. John Baker had a crippled son. While bathing on a hot day in a waterhole in the creek his legs were contracted, and he could get no relief in Adelaide, so they decided to take the lad to England. Before he left he made father promise not to leave him till he returned, but the overseer's chance soon came to stop this "waste," as he called it, and he got rid of father.

Father's next job was at Pewsey Vale as wine-maker and distiller of brandy and cordials, and he remained there till he resigned on account of old age. Mr. Warren mentions Pewsey Vale, as Gilbert was one of many to apply for a survey in that district. I always understood that Gilbert and Jacobs made the application, and when they got it did not know how to divide the property, so lots were drawn, and Gilbert got the hills and Jacobs the plain.

Jacob's Creek runs through his property on the road to Tanunda, which now is all garden.

Mr. Gilbert was a fine old English gentleman, and one of the best "bosses" South Australia ever had. He built the beautiful little church, and I remember the first Bishop of Adelaide (Bishop Short) opening it, and it was he who taught us boys to play cricket.

Charley Morse was our bookkeeper at Pewsey Vale in those days—a fine young man—and I never heard anyone who could play an English concertina like him. He later became Canon Morse. Mr. Gilbert, when there were enough children of school age, built, at his own expense, a schoolroom and Iwelling, and paid the teacher. He Imported blood stock, bulls, fowls, deer and hares. Hares spread through the State from there.

On Yorke Peninsula.

Mr. Klem has been on Yorke Peninsula since the early seventies, of which recollections. time he has some vivid He said:—

Soon after the jetty at Edithburgh was completed in 1873, the passenger steamers Kangaroo, Lubra, and Royal Shepherd were regular traders from Port Adelaide to Port Augusta, and they made Edithburgh a port of call. The fare from Port Adelaide to Edithburgh was 15/-.

The firm of Gottschalk and Klem ran a successful storekeeping business, and sent produce to Port Augusta. All the butter and eggs that they could purchase from the farmers and stations was shipped to that port at twopence above the market rate. When the suggestion to begin a new town (at Yorketown) was mooted, Mr. Klem was asked by Mr. Charles Beaumont open a store there, but he refused, as the firm was doing quite well at the seaport.

First Wheat Shipped.

He shipped the first bag of wheat over the new jetty at Edithburgh soon after it was completed by the contractor, John Wishart. Mentioning this reminded him that he also shipped the first bag of wheat at Wool Bay, and thereby hangs a tale. Mr. Klem said the farmers in and around Wool Bav would have nothing to do with Coobowie (Salt Creek), and as they found it was a long pull with bullocks to Edithburgh, they approached him with a proposition to ship their wheat from Wool Bay Beach. They agreed to enlarge the cutting so that a bullock waggon could get down to highwater mark. The cutting at that time was only wide enough to roll down a bale of wool. It was the shipping place for the wool from Penton Yale Station. However, Mr. Klem agreed and the men arranged their working bee, and 40 were soon on the job with picks, shovels and crowbars, and in one day the cutting was completed. The farmers had 8,000 bags stacked on the cliff top, and it was there for several months before it was shipped. He went to the captains of the Sailor Prince and Edith Alice to make arrangements for shipping, and they demanded 1/3 per bag for shipping from Wool Bay as against 6d. from the beach at Salt Creek. Mr. Klem was then agent for John Darling, and he had Mr. W. Gower buying at Wool Bay, and they had only allowed sixpence per bag when purchasing the wheat. He went to Port Adelaide and all ketch masters had fixed the price at 1/3 per bag. Later he found a foreign brig whose master offered to take the whole shipment at 9d. per bag. Coming back to Salt Creek he again interviewed the local ketch masters and they compromised and accepted the job at 9d. per bag, and in one day five vessels were at Wool Bay picking up the wheat. Mr. T. Barns. with six bullocks and a dray, carted 300 bags per day down the cutting at one penny per bag.

Thirty Inches of Rain Two Years in Succession.

When Mr. Klem was building his new store at Edithburgh he was told by the manager of Penton Yale Station that it was a waste of money, as the farmers would be starved out in two years and the store would be used as a shepherd's hut. The station people, said Mr. Klem, had put up quite a lot of cackle that wheat would not grow on Southern Yorke Peninsula. They cornered the available water supplies and refused permission to the new settlers to get any for their stock. In fact they did everything possible to make it hard for the farmers to get a living. The manager of the station instructed the shepherds not to allow farmers to have water. Thev became desperate and said they would fight for it, and when they took their horses to the wells they secured supplies, and the station people lost the day. The Government Survey Department were swayed by the station owners and held up the completion of the survey. However the handfui of settlers, who had put in wheat, were rewarded with 20 bushel crops. For two years in succession 30 inches of rain felL At that time Penton Yale had between 70,000 and 80,000 sheep. The extraordinary rain of 3 inches at a time held up 40 shearers. The manager was getting annoyed at the continuous rain, remarking that the shearers were eating them out of house and home. The success of the crops caused the survey party to return and complete the work. They then travelled north picking out suitable land for the townships of Minlaton and Maitland.

The water difficulty was overcome when the settlers sunk wells on their holdings and found an abundance of water.

Mr. Klem said he could not blame the station owners for the attitude they had taken up. They were living in a paradise without restraint from anyone. They were in possession of a wonderful grazing country for cattle and horses. They leased small sections here and there and as there were no fences their cattle had free grazing on all the surrounding unleased country.

More About Yorketown.

Charlie Beaumont told him {Mr. Klem) that thirty miles was too far for farmers to travel to Edithburgh, and the proposed Melville Town, to be established at Seven Roads, would be too near. He proposed to survey a new site for a town near the Salt Lake at Five Roads, where Weaver's Flat was situated (now known at Yorketown).

At that time Rechner's Corner was owned by a Mr. MacGregor or Gregor. Erichsen's Corner had a wine shop and depot erected on the station property. It was run by Mr. E. Jacobs, who became the first Mayor of Yorketown in February, 1879. A German settler had the corner now used by the Post Office. Mr. Beaumont bought the land for the new town, including the other two corners at £1 per acre. It was a narrow strip that had not been taken up, and was situated on the south-east side of what is now known as the Yorketown Lake. He then offered F. W. Friebe and Mr. Newcombe one acre blocks each for £5 if they would come from Seven Roads and set up in business at Yorketown. They came. He built the Melville Hotel, reserving the acre adjoining it. The formation of Yorketown was a good idea as it was in the right spot.

Mr. W. Gilbert, of Pewsey Vale, was the owner of Orrie Cowie Station near Warooka, where he had large and substantial sheds, yards and outbuildings. Once a year all station owners rounded up their cattle at Orrie Cowie. The various owners picked out their cattle and horses, and after branding their young ones, let them run lose again until they were sold.

Mr. Gilbert sold his horses at Tanunda, and his bullocks and other cattle at Gawler. The late Mr. Ball, of Warooka, had charge of the travelling stock and went ahead and picked out the camping grounds on the route. The German settlers in the Tanunda district were fond of dapple grey horses, which they ran in pairs. Mr. Gilbert was able to supply their wants. He also sold draught horses up to £80 each.

First Sea-borne Mail.

The first mail to Edithburgh across the Gulf St. Vincent was carried in 1871 in a small cutter in charge of Mr. Martin. Prior to this the stationowners had provided a horse and man to travel 70 miles to Moonta and pick up the mail brought there by train. When Captain Martin ran the cutter he was always on time. He would leave Glenelg at 11 p.m. on Saturday nights and would arrive at Edithburgh at 7 a.m. on Sunday. He knew the winds and tides like a book. His first boats was the "Corsair." Mr. Klem made the journey once, but never again. The waves touching the top of the mast did not suit him. Later Mr. Martin used the "Sultana " a cutter built by Mr. Gottschalk. The mails were brought by Mr. Klem on horseback to Yorketown. He delivered them to the Weaver's Flat Post Office. The return mails were placed in the same bag.