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Named for an Aboriginal word, Kula, meaning eucalyptus, Kulpara is located on the Copper Coast Highway between Port Wakefield and Paskeville. The Hundred of Kulpara comprising the land now occupied by Kulpara, Melton, and Paskeville was proclaimed on 12 June 1862 and surveyed in 1864 with European settlement beginning the following year. Kulpara township was surveyed in 1932 and proclaimed in 1934.
On the route from Port Wakefield to the Kulpara Mine a hotel, initially called the Miners' Arms but later the Travellers' Rest, was established, a kilometre west of Kulpara, in March 1867. Destroyed by fire in 1891, it was rebuilt but lost its licence in 1910. A store had been built next to the hotel, and in the 1930s a new store was opened in the township, operating as general store, post office and petrol station.
The District Council of Kulpara was proclaimed on 28 November 1878, with John Spry as Chairman. A community hall built in 1902 doubled as the Council Chambers. In 1953 the old hall was replaced by the Kulpara Soldiers' Memorial Hall.
The government school with 12 students opened in 1877 with a new class room being added in 1957. The old building was demolished in 1969, replaced by a new building accomodating late in the same year.
The foundation of the Bible Christian Church was laid on 15 September 1879, and the opening service held on Christmas Day 1879. A Sunday School was established in 1891. In 1933 a kindergarten hall was built adjacent to the church.
Kulpara has supported numerous sporting teams through its history, with football, cricket, tennis and shooting clubs attracting members at various time over the past century.
Kulpara in the Newspapers
Is a small township, which, is to be after April next the station from which the branch mail will start to Yorke Valley and the southern townships of the Peninsula. In the hundred which bears the same name there is a good deal of cultivation at open places, the largest of which is known by the name of 'The Cocoanut,' while some distance beyond, in a southerly direction, the Kalkabury Area plainly shows itself. The cultivation there has not been very extensive, a large portion of the land being covered with scrub. What has been under crop has yielded well. The average of this and Kulpara Hundred will probably not be less than 12 bushels per acre. Water is a vary scarce commodity. There is none but what is caught and stored, and the inhabitants do not appear to have made sufficient provision for a dry season such as the last, and are now many of them carting from Kadina and the Hummocks. There is a Government dam at Kulpara, which has still a moderate supply, but the use of that is very properly restricted to bona fide travellers. If it were not so the supply would soon disappear. The line of the Port Wakefield and Kadina Railway I crossed between Kulpara and Mr. Fowler's, through whose ground it runs for some distance. From the top of the range, which is a kind of spur from the Hummocks, there is a clear view of Green's Plains, and Moonta and Kadina may be seen beyond.
Eight miles divide Paskeville from Kulpara, which is at the top of a hill forming poition of the South Hummock Range. At the time of my visit the roads were recovering from a downpour of over 2 in. of rain; which had done considerable damage to the tracks and sown land. As a set-off for the ill-effects, however, the flood waters had filled the Kulpara Reservoir to overflowing—an event not known to have occurred for more than 20 years! The township of Kulpara is adjacent to the swamps which intervene between the Peninsula and Port Wakefield. Judging from appearances, the area of country close, to Kulpara, known as the Cocoanut, is fairly productive, and after the recent heavy soakings early sown crops should make good progress. Mr. G. H. Brown officiates as postmaster at his store; the only other place of business (or rather pleasure) is the Travellers' Rest Hotel, conducted by Mr. A. R. Brown. The chief industry is agriculture.
Kulpara is located on the northern end of the Yorke Peninsula. The word was derived from the Aboriginal word for eucalyptus. The area was settled about 1862. There are two photographs stuck together. The first shows a woman and two small children standing outside a cottage that is obscured behind a wooden stake fence. The other photogaph shows a cottage in Kulpara township. This is dated much later as 1925 and shows the stone cottage with its iron roof and central door and two windows. The fence surrounding it has a low panel of iron and an ornate front gate. A horse and cart stand to the side of the cottage. 1925. State Library of South Australia - B 8000
KULPARA PLOUGHING MATCH.
This match took place on Tuesday in a paddock abutting upon Mr. River Ridgway's public-house. The land was as good as could be found for that purpose in the neighbourhood, consisting of a light loam. Owing to the late rains the ploughs did not clean themselves, but the work was creditable to the competitors, and the weather was splendid. Athletic sports added to the attraction for the young men, while of ladies there was a first-rate collection, parading the ground and amusing themselves in chit-chat. Mr. Ridgway had a booth, which was well patronised by spectators, among them three or four representatives of different branches of the machine trade, some of them distributing circulars. As soon as the competition was over the Judges were on duty, and being champion ploughmen they did not find much difficulty in deciding upon the relative merits of the competitors, Mr. C. Matthews's Young Rocket was on the spot, and although there was no prize offered for entries, this noble threeyear old colt was much admired by many persons.
Subjoined are the results of the match : —
Judges— Messrs. Lawrence, Cousins, and J. Laurie, sen., of Kulpara, and Mr. Strutton, of Cocoanut.
General Class all comers— H. Sherman, £6; W. Bradley, £4; M. McCormic, £3; S. Smart, £1.
Amateurs— P. Leonard, £4. 10s, : Donaldson's man, £3; J.Millard, £1 10s.
The award for the best pair, of horses finishing their work was to Mr. Paul Daniels, £1; second, Mr. J. Millard.
The list was read on the ground. The gathering then broke up, some going, others to a fine spread at Mr. R. Ridgway's hotel which was fairly patronised. Mr. Smith was Chairman, and Mr. J. Scott acted as Vice. During the evening the sums were paid and a number of toasts were honoured.
WANTS OF KULPARA.
A largely attended pnblicmeeting was held at the Travellers' Rest Hotel, Kulpura, on Monday, 18th inst., to consider a memorial which has been drawn up by the District Council for presentation to the Commissioner of Public Works. The memorial represented that a part of the old main road passes through the heart of the District of Kulpara; that such portion was struck off the line of main roads on account of the formation of the Port Wakefield and Kadina Railway; that the traffic on the road is not materially affected on that account; that it is in each a deplorable state of repair that unless something is speedily done probably there will be lots of life thereby; that it would be a great burden to raise the necessary funds by taxation in the district; therefore it is requested that a grant of £1,000 be made to put the road in a state of repair.
Mr. John Spry (Chairman of the District Council) was unanimously elected to the chair. He said they were called together to consider the best means to be used to repair the road over the Hummocks and to consider other pressing wants of the district. They were all acquainted with the state of the road referred to. It was in an almost impassable state. If they got a sum of money to put the road in repair, it would be conferring a great benefit on the district. No doubt the Government would grant a sum if they did not ask too much. However as the Government but rarely gave all that was asked for, be thought it would be wise to ask a good round sum to leave room for the Government to come down a little. He would call upon the District Clerk to read the memorial.
The memorial having been read, Mr. G. Daniel said it was imperatively necessary that something should be done, or very serious results would ensue. The Chairman had remarked that he had frequently been unable to come up the hill, but be (the speaker) had been quite as often afraid to go down it, and he moved that the memorial be adopted.
Mr. E. Hamdorf seconded the resolution. He had been unable to get up over the hill with four capital horses when his load did not exceed two tons. He though the money asked for was inadequate to carry out the work intended.
Mr. G. Daniel said he had only that day refused to supply a person with three tons of chaff because he was afraid he would get capsized going down the hill. It was most unsafe to take a load down.
Mr. Paul Daniel said it was with pleasure he rose to support the motion. The Government had and were at present receiving large sums of money from the district. Mr. Fowler and others were paying heavy sums as rentals for their leases; but, notwithstanding the large amount the Government received from the district, they laid out but very little for its particular benefit. The Chairman had remarked that they should ask more than they expected, bat he thought the least they could ask, if they wished to do any good, was £1,000.
Mr. E. Stephens thought that an item or two had been overlooked. He was sore that the time had arrived when it was positively necessary that something should be done to set the road in repair. And he did not think it was right or just for the inhabitants to he compelled to do so at their own expense, for the following reasons, viz., the road was not a district road, but a public one, and was used by the public generally 150 per cent, more than by the residents of the district. The main traffic on the road was between Auburn, Angaston, Kapunda, Adelaide, and the Peninsula towns, and he thought it was positively unjust for the inhabitants to be compelled to support a road used chiefly by those living out of the neighbourhood; secondly, the Government assisted other Councils in the same position as themselves. He did not think that other districts had more done for them than was required, but thought they, in common with others, should receive assistance from the Government. (Hear, hear.)
The Chairman said he agreed with what the previous speakers had said. What had the Government done for the immediate neighbourhood ? But little, that he could see. At Green's Plains, where the road was only one mile from the railroad, a grant of £500 had been made. But here they were four miles from it, and their only approach to it was through a scrub, and the track through that a dense bog. He thought the money should he granted to form the road over the range, and also to make a road to the station.
Mr. Willshire said that, although not a ratepayer of the district, yet he felt mnch interested in this matter, he being the District Clerk, and drawing part of his salary from the neighbourhood. He quoted from the District Councils Act to show that the Council had no right to spend any money on the road. The road had not been turned over to the Council, and they dare not spend a single penny on it. The Act stated that the road before being handed to the Council must be put in a state of repair. The Government were compelled to do that. He would let them into a secret. If they spent any money on the road the Government wonld refuse to help them. When he applied for the money for Green's Plains the Commissioner wrote hack to know how much the Council had spent on the road, and had he replied " £5" they would have been "cooked." (Hear, hear, and laughter.)
The Chairman said it seemed from the Act that the Government were compelled to do something for them, but if they spent their own money the Government would refuse to help them.
Mr. P. Daniel stated that the Government had already surveyed a road across the hill with a view to making a cutting, that the road might not be so dangerous; but why it was done he did not know, unless it was on account of the railway being formed. But it would be seen that the railway did not materially affect the traffic on that road, and thought if the Government were appealed to they would grant the sum of money asked for.
Mr. Philbey thought that the outer side of the road should be fenced. It was now in a very dangerous condition. Should the horses become restless in going down over the hill and sway a little on one side there wonld be a capsize and most probably loss of life. The road should be made wider and properly fenced.
The Chairman remarked that the suggestion of Mr. Philbeywas a very wise one. When going down over the hill he had often wondered how it was that no serious accident attended with loss of life had occurred there.
Mr. Mellard said that his horses ran away on one occasion, and had he not managed by the most strenuous exertions to keep the horses in the centre of the road they would have gone over the embankment, and probably both they and himself would have been killed.
Mr. John McDonald was of opinion that £1,000 was not at all too much to ask; but in reality was too little. The road required a great deal done to it to put it in anything like a safe state.
The Chairman—Do you think it would be advisable to ask for a larger sum ?
Mr. George Daniel would not ask too much, lest they should meet with an entire refusal. Only a little would be a beginning, and he thought if it was found that the first sum was not enough the Government would see what was required, and grant an additional amount.
Mr. J. McDonald said Green's Plains had received a grant of £500. He did not at all complain of that or assume that it was unnecessary, but theirs was a much more deserving case, and required more than doable the amount granted to them.
Mr. Landrigan said he was willing to keep in good repair their own district roads, but did not feel inclined to pay one shilling towards a road for the general public.
Mr. Dublin supported the memorial. It would indeed be a great burden on that small community to put the road referred to in a state of repair. It fact it would be the worst of folly for them to think of doing so.
The proposition was then put unananimonsly carried.
Mr. G. Brandt then proposed—"That the District Council form themselves into a committee to obtain signatures to the memorial." Mr. W. Spry seconded the proposition.
Mr. E. Stevens thought no better committee could be appointed than the Council themselves; but he would urge upon the meeting to be unanimous in signing the petition. The matter was a very important one, but if only a few names were attached be was afraid it would not have the same consideration from the authorities as if a numerously signed petition were sent in.
Mr. Schultz was of opinion that not only should the ratepayers be called upon to sign it, but all those who used the road -- the hawkers from Angaston, Auburn, and Adelaide who traded between those places and the Peninsula.
Mr. G. Daniels thought a copy of the petitions should be sent to the neighbouring towns, so that those of the public using the road might have an opportunity of signing it.
The proposition was carried unanimously.
The Chairman said was another matter for the consideration of the meeting. He referred to the inconvenience they suffered forth having no facilities at this Railway Station for loading, unloading, and storing their goods. They had nothing worthy the name of a station —the platform was on the wrong side, of the road, so that they had to go half a mile further round, through a bad bog, in order to reach it. He could not understand the action of the Government. They erected the Kulpara Station in the midst of a swamp, so that but few people were inclined to use it, and at Melton they had no conveniences whatever. He thought the Government should be asked to erect a goods shed and a platform on the north side of the line, and also grant them a stationmaster.
Mr. J. Duedin said the inhabitants at present suffered a great inconvenience from the fact that they had no resident stationmaster. If a person received a small parcel must go for it when it arrived, and as the guard could not take the money till he got the account from the stationmaster the person must make a second jonrney to pay the freight. (Hear. hear.)
Mr. G. Daniel said his had been speaking to one of the officials of the line, and informed that, there was more traffic derived from Melton Station than all the other intermediate station's put together, and yet conveniences were provided for other places On the line where not nearly as much business was transacted. He would propose that the District Council use their influence to get a siding and platform on the north side of the line, also a goods shed erected and a stationmaster sent to reside at Melton.
Mr. R. Stephens said sometimes there were two or three teams there at the same time with different kinds of produce, and they then found it very difficult to get through their work without great loss of time. He thought they ought also to have a Post-Office at Melton. At present they had to take their letters four miles to post them, and then have them brought back to their doors again to be sent away. The people at Cocoanut were in a still worse position. Some of them bad to bring their letters five miles to Melton, and then go four miles beyond to post their letters. If a stationmaster were sent to Melton, he conld also fill the office of Postmaster. He should second the proposition.
The motion was unanimously carried.
The Chairman mentioned that the next business had reference to the excavation of a dam at South Hammocks. Three months ago they interviewed the Commissioner of Public Works, and he promised that a dam should be provided for the residents of South Hammocks; but up to the present nothing had been done. He believed the Commissioner was an honest man, and intended them to have the promised dam; but probably amongst so much business as came before him the matter bad been overlooked. The winter was fast going away, and the matter shonld be attended to at once.
Mr. Schultz said they required a large dam on the south side of the range. The Clerk had written about it, but had received no reply. Last summer they had to carry their water seven or eight miles, and then take it down over the range, which was most dangerous to do. A new road would not remove the difficulty, as on a smooth road there would be the greater danger of the horses not being able to keep the wagon from running. If the dam were proceeded with at once they might store the October and November rains. Farmers on the south side of the hill could hardly provide water for themselves, as the clay in numerous places was of an inferior quality. In some places there was no clay at all. But the dam might be constructed where good clay was obtainable, and prove an incalculable boon to the inhabitants.
After a few additional remarks In support of the statements of the previous speaker, a vote of thanks was passed to the Chairman, and the meeting ended.
Bible Christian Chapel, Kulpara.
There is a great deal of self-sacrificing zeal among the members of the Bible Christian communion, and not a little faith and enterprise. These characteristics are exemplified in every direction in the efforts made to supply outlying districts with places of worship as soon as they are settled. Thus at Kulpara, a new work of this kind has been commenced this week on a piece of land generously donated by Mr. Paul Daniels, the well-known and successful farmer on the Hummocks, near Port Wakefield. For years that body has been indebted to that gentleman for the necessary accommodation for holding religious services in a building placed at the disposal of the congregation without charge, so that this new effort is not ventured upon under such circumstances of difficulty as many an enterprise of the kind I has had to contend with. A congregation it will be seen already exists, and is so increasing as to justify the present undertaking. A very handsome design has been furnished by Mr. John Prisk for a building 38 by 25, with interior height of 17 feet. The stone will be supplied and carted to the ground as a gift from Mr. Paul Daniels, and other friends contribute in the like generous spirit; and whilst the cost complete is to be about £320, the net results of recent efforts at Sunday services and tea-meeting amount to £140, the hope being that this may be increased to £190 ere the building is finished. That devoted pioneer preacher, the Rev. C. Tresise, of Balaklava, conducted three services, on Sunday and on Monday afternoon the foundation-stone was laid by Miss M. Daniels, with the usual ceremonies, and the deposit of this document:
THE BIBLE CHRISTIAN CHURCH KULPARA.
" The foundation stone of this Church was laid by Miss Matilda Daniels of Kulpara, on Monday, Sept. 15th, 1879, being the 42nd year of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, and the forty-third year of the establishment of this Province; Sir. William Francis Drummond Jervois, G.C.M.G, being Governor of the colony ; the Rev. J. Trewin, President of the South Australian Bible Christian Conference; the Rev. J. H. Ashton, Pastor, Kulpara Circuit: Richard Stevens, William Stevens, James Daniels, John Durdin, and John Prisk, jun., Trustees; and Chas. Coltman, and Tom Rudd, builders. " The customary tools of the craft, mallet and silver trowel, the latter suitably inscribed, presented by the Rev. Mr. Ashton, the Pastor, to the young lady, and after an address from that gentleman and Mr. Tresise, an adjournment was made for the tea—prepared by Mcsdames Paul Daniels and Mullard, in the hearty and hospitable way that characterises Kulpara. A good public meeting presided over by Mr. Forrest, completed the successes of the day. We may venture to believe that in the hands of the contractors the work will now proceed rapidly, and that erelong an opening service will be announced.
December 2nd. I regret to record two rather serious accidents that occurred here last week. On Thursday last a young man in the employ of Mr. R. Stephens, named Martin Lange, borrowed a horse from Mr. P. Daniel for the purpose of going a journey. It seems that Lange understood that the horse was perfectly quiet, but he had not gone far before he was brown. The horse subsequently made another attempt to unseat him but finding his rider too stubborn to yield he walked quietly on for some distance, when he suddenly reared and "bucked" and succeeded in throwing his rider on a stump—breaking the shoulder bone and giving him a considerable shaking and bruising. Lange was removed to Kadina by train and attended to by Dr. Robinson, and is now progressing very satisfactorily. On Saturday morning about 9 a.m. as the Rev. J. H. Ashton was mounting a horse he had borrowed from Mr. John Daniel, when it bounded off into a hard gallop before he was seated and threw him with considerable force to the ground. He was carried into Mr. Prisk's residence where he remained in an unconscious state for about three hours, when he was removed to his residence in a buggy, in which was placed a bed. Dr. Wrigley was in attendance as speedily as possible and announced that no bones were broken, but that the rev. gentleman was suffering from concussion of the brain. On Sunday morning he regained consciousness, and is now progressing very satisfactorily indeed. Although Mr. Ashton will not be able to attend to his duties for a short time, not the slightest danger is now anticipated. Very much sympathy is manifested for him, as since his corning into the neighborhood he has gained the friendship of all with wlnm he has come in contact.
On account of the showers that fell yesterday and last night reaping will have to be delayed for a day or two. A little rust has shown itself in the late sown, but the wheat, I believe, is too far advance to be affected by it. The new chapel is almost completed ; but I think it is not be opened till the Sunday preceding Christmas-day,
Mr. Ashton continues to improve and will probably be able to undertake his duties in three or four weeks. Harvest operations have commenced, and the yield seems likely to come up to expectations.
Dec, 26: Sunday and Christmas day were red letter days here, being the occasion of the opening of our new Bible Christian Church, which will supply a want that has long been felt ; for although, through the kindness of P. Daniel Esq., we have had a place to worship in for the last nine years, it has been found far too small for some time past. However, feeling our want we went to work heartily and the result has more than repaid us for the trouble. We have raised as nice a chapel as can be found in any country district in the colony. The design was copied by Mr. Prisk from the East Moonta Bible Christian Church, and the contract for the mason's and carpenter's work has been carried out respectively by Mr. Tom Rudd of Kulpara, and Mr C. Coltman junr. of Moonta, and it is not too much to say of these gentlemen, that the work would be a credit to any firm, and will doubtless recommend them to persons requiring building done In the district. The edifice is computed to have cost about £400, of which considerably more than half has been raised, some by cash and some by gifts of material. Mr. P. Daniel presented the land and also delivered all the stone free of charge. Messrs. R. Stephens and Axford contributed the lime and Mr. W. Stephens the sand, whilst others have contributed hansomely in money. The opening services were conducted on Sunday by the Rev. O. Lake and and continued on Christmas-day when a tea and public meeting was held. The tea was all that could be desired, the creature comforts being dispensed by Mesdames Daniel, Stephens, Durden, and the Misses. Daniel Nicholson, Stephens, Durden, Aldine, and McCarty. The public meeting was presided over by Mr. R. Stephens, and addressed by the Rev. O, Lake and Messrs. Renfrey and Durden. The attendance on each occasion was good, taking into consideration the busy time aud the fact of the tea being on Christmas day when most people like to meet at the home circle. A special choir, led by Mr. Coltman junr. were very successful in rendering selections of sacred music at all the services, and the thanks of the meeting were unanimously presented to that gentleman for his trouble.
MANSLAUGHTER AT KULPARA.
On Friday, July 1, the neighbourhood of Kulpara was thrown into a state of excitement by tbe report that a man named John Holmes bad been killed at the Kulpara Hotel by a blow received from his mate, John Wilson. The deceased was about twenty-five years old, and Wilson is probably about forty. Both men were single, and were in the employ of Mr. Yarbury, of South Hummocks. Their master went to Clare on Friday to attend a sale, and told them they might go shooting for the day. They left home about 9 a.m. and reached Kulpara at about 1 o'clock, when they had dinner and indulged rather freely in drink. During the afternoon a quarrel ensued about a dog belonging to deceased. The men, however, subsequently became friendly, but some time afterwards on leaving the hotel to return home the quarrel was renewed, and shortly terminated in the death of Holmes. Wilson was immediately arrested, and Police-constable Dowling, Dr. Wrigley, and Mr. Styles, J.P., telegraphed for. The police-constable was in Adelaide when the message arrived, and consequently could not reach the spot till about 3 p.m. on Saturday.
At about 5 p.m. an inquest was held before Mr. J. Styles, J.P., G. W. Brown being foreman of tbe Jury.
William Carpenter deposed—I am landlord of the Travellers' Rest Hotel, Kulpsra. Last saw the deceased alive, going by the front of my door, about 4 30 p.m. yesterday. Saw him previously, about 1 o'clock tbe same day. He came to my house in company with the man now in custody. They were not in my bouse from 1 till 430 o'clock. When they first came in the hotel they asked if I wonld give them some refreshments, as they had no money. Told them they could have some dinner. As I did not reply quickly, deceased took some postage stamps out of his pocket, to the valne of 9s. 10d., and offered to pay for what they had. Took payment, and gave him change. They then went into dinner. Served them each with two glasses of beer before they went to dinner. Dinner passed off quietly enough. After they finished, they returned to the bar. When they came to the house they were sober, and had a gun each. After dinner served them with a drink or two each at the bar. Accused and deceased, whilst in the bar, had a dispute about a dog, and a scuffle. Went outside tbe bar, and parted them. Served them with another drink each—one beer, the other gingerbeer and beer. They seemed good friends again. They asked me for their guns, which I had in my possession, and said they were going home. They were not drunk, by a "long way." Could not say they were sober. They then left, and I did not see any more of them for half an honr. They returned past the door at 4.30. but did not come in. They were on their way home. Each had a gun, and they were going along quietly together. Went inside, and then heard some one calling, "Come on, Jack." At the same time saw two or three little boys looking up the road towards the dam. Went out and saw deceased, who was thirty or forty yards from Wilson, walking towards him. Waited till they came close together, and then heard deceased ask the accused. " What have you to say about this dog?" At the same time he made a blow at the accused with his right fist. The accused said," If you do not stop that, Jack, I'll go for you." Deceased hit at him twice more with his fist Then saw him lift the gun in this manner (swinging around before the Jury), and strike the deceased on the head, and he fell forward. Ran up and took the deceased in my arms. Don't remember seeing the accused strike deceased after he had fallen. When I picked him up I said to the accused, " You've killed him." He replied," If I've killed him, I've done it in self-defence." The deceased was lying on his face apparently dead. Noticed no mark or blood on deceased. Then sent for Mr. Spry, the district constable, and assisted to take deceased itside. By the Jury.— Can not swear whether the butt or the barrel of the gun was used to strike deceased with. In the scuffle that took place in the bar did not see any blows struck. Do not know how the accused got the marks on his face. By the accused.—Saw deceased yesterday pushing you back with his gun. It was in his left hand. He was making blows at you. Did not see deceased strike you in the bar. Deceased began the quarrel.
Alfred Brown deposed—I am thirteen years of age. I live below at the store. Was at Kulpara yeaterday in company with Willie Carpenter and Peter Roach, two boys. We were in front of the hotel. Saw two men on the road, Mr. Holmes and the accused. Heard the men swearing at each other. Each man had a gun. Saw the deceased slap the accused in the face. Afterwards saw deceased push the accused down twice. After the accused got up the first time saw him present his gun at deceased's back and cook it. Heard the trigger go down, but the gun did not go off. Deceased walked on, and took no notice of it. Deceased afterwards came back and pushed the accused down, and in falling pulled deceased down with him. The accused "sat up like" and hit the deceased with the butt-end of the gun. By Police-constable Dowling—He struck deceased on the head with the butt-eud of the gun twice, but cannot gay whether on the front or back part of it. Mr. Carpenter then ran up to the deceased and lifted his head up, and sent me to fetch Mr. Spry. The blows on the head rendered deceased unconscious. When the blows were struck deceased was lying down and the accused sitting up. By tbe Jury—After the first push the accused fell down.
Peter Roach, another boy, gave corroborative evidence, stating—Deceased pushed the accused down. The accused partly got up, cocked his gun, and pointed it at the deceased. I heard the trigger go down, but the gun did not go off. The accused stamped the gun on the ground, and then cocked it again, but then it would not go off. Deceased turned back and hit the accused one or two blows. Then the accused said, "So help my Christ i'll go for you, Jack, if you don't stop." Then the accused got up and hit the deceased a blow on the head, but I can't say with what part of tbe gun. The deceased dropped immediately after he received the blow.
William P. Spry deposed—I am a blacksmith and a district constable, living at Kulpara. Was sent for yesterday afternoon. Went up. I saw Mr. Carpenter and two or three others about twenty yards east of the hotel—towards the dam. Mr. Carpenter had the deceased in a sitting position, and when I came up he said, " The man is dead." It was yesterday a little before 5 o'clock p.m., and he pointed to the accused and said, "This is the man that struck him." I took the accused in charge at once, cautioning him in the usual manner. He made no statement. I searched him, but found nothing but a pocket knife. I reported the matter to the police, and kept the accused in charge till Police constable Cowlings arrived. By Police-constable Dowlings—The accused was the worse for drink. He was not sober. Received the guns from Mr. G. W. Brown. Examined the rifle, but it was not loaded. Examined the gun by candlelight, but did not see any hair or blood on it. There was mud on the butt and on the muzzle of the rifle. The one produced is it. Noticed blood and a bruise on the back of deoeased's bead. The door of the room containing deceased was locked during the night. The wound could not hare been inflicted after his removal to the room.
Frederick H. Wrigley deposed—I am a duly qualified medical practitioner. Examined body of deceased, and found a wound on the back part of the head abont an inch long and a quarter of an inch wide. Could find no fracture of the outer table of the skull, but there may be of the inner table, or it may simply be a case of concussion. I conld not say without a post-mortem. By the Jury—The visible external wound is not sufficient to cause death. Believe a blow given by the barrel of the rifle produced, with sufficient force to cause the external wound, would probably cause enogh injury to the brain as would result in death. By F. O. Dowlings—The wound extended to the skull, and leads slightly upwards. Have seen a similar wound produced by a very much softer substance than any part of the rifle produced. Cannot say positively what part of the rifle was nsed to inflict the blow, but from the nature of the wound am of the opinion that the barrel was used. By the accused—Did not notice an old wound on the head, as from a kick from a horse.
James P. Dowlings, police constable, deposed—The matter under the consideration of the Jury was reported to me in Adelaide last night. Arrived here at 2 p.m. to-day. Examined the body of deceased and found on the left part of the back of the head corresponding with the description given by Dr. Wrigley. Detective Dunlevie was with me when we examined the wound. The hair was rather matted and the pillow under the head soaked with blood. The neck, breast, and each side of the body was much discoloured. Discoloured matter was oozing from the nose and mouth. Except the wound on the back of the bead I could find no further mark of violence. Searched the pockets and found a flask containing powder and another one containing shot. Also found a purse containing four threepenny pieces and threepence in coppers. There were no papers on the body by which I could obtain any information respecting him. He was unknown in the neighbourhood.
The Coroner then summed up, stating that from the evidence he did not think there was any malice or forethought, but that it was really a drunken spree, and if so it would be a case of manslaughter.
Police-constable Dowlings stated that there was no direct medical evidence to show the cause of death, and he thought a post-mortem desirable.
The Jury retired for about fifteen minutes, and when they returned the foreman said the Jury were of the opinion that a post mortem examination should be held.
The Coroner requtsted Dr. Wrigley to make the post-mortem, and Dr. Wrigley not having his instruments with him, the inquest was adjourned until 3 o'clock p m on Sunday. The post-mortem having then been made, the jury reassembled at 3 o'clock.
Peter Boach, recalled, said—I could not say that deceased struck the accused after he cautioned him; I do not think he did. Can't say exactly what time elapsed between the threat and the blow, but think from two to three minutes.
Dr. Wrigley deposed—I have made a post mortem examination on the body of deceased. I opened the sknll, and found the brain very much congested, more especially that part corresponding to the scalp wound. There was no fracture of the skull. I believe the cause of death was concussion to or a rupture of some of the blood-vessels on the brain, caused, I believe, by a blow. I also examined the stomach of the deceased and found portions of partly digested food. The left long was very much congested, and there was blood in the right cavity of the heart. The right lung was fairly healthy. On stripping the body, I found an old scar on the left thigh, and there had also been at some distant time a fracture of the left leg. By the Coroner—The blood in the heart was caused by the suddenness of death, the heart not having time to contract sufficiently to expel it. By the Jury—I did not disoover any old scar on the head. Believe the left lung was congested on account of the suddenness of death, the lung not having time to expel the blood.
Alfred Brown, reoalied—By the Jury—I did not hear the accused repeat any words at the time the blows were given. I was about twentytwo yards away.
The Coroner briefly summed-up. The Jury retired, and after an absence of thirty-five minutes returned the following verdict: — " We, the Jury, agree that the deceased, John Holmes, came to his death at Kulpara on July 1,1881, by a blow from a gun, inflicted by John Wilson during a scuffle, both men being under the influence of drink, and consider the accused guilty of manslaughter under provocation."
The accused was then committed for trial at the next Criminal Sittings of the Supreme Court, Adelaide.
The police-constable has given the following description of deceased:— Deceased has stated that he is twenty-five years old, but he looked somewhat older; 5 ft. 8 in. high, fair complexion, sandy hair, whiskers, and moustache, squiline nose, light-blue eyes, about 12 stone weight; vaccine mark on the right arm, an old scar or burn on the inside of the left thigh ; the left leg has at some time been broken, and is a little shorter than the right one.
KULPARA LODGE ANNUAL PICNIC.
On Wednesday last the members of the above Lodge held their annual picnic and sports, within the Daly Agricultural Society's enclosed grounds and although the weather was all that could he desired, yet the attendance was small. This did not however, in any way militate against the succsssful carrying out of the various sports. The competitors each and every one strained every, nerve to win as if there had been thousands to witness the various contests. The most harmonious feeling seemed to exist, nothing having arisen to create even a growl. The Judges were Messrs Wyatt, Price, Palmer, W. Franklyn, Lamming and Short. The wives of several of the Brothers presided at the trays The programme having been completed about dusk, the spectators bent their steps homeward, feeling no doubt the better for even one afternoon's recreation from the toils and troubles of life. Much credit is due to those who had the management of the sports..........
BANQUET AT KULPARA.
A Banquet was given to Mr John McDonald, on Thursday evening last, at the Travellers' Rest Hotel, Kulpara, on the occasion of his leaving the district. Mr McDonald, who has been a resident in this district for the past twenty two years, and during that long period has taken an active part in all matters in which the interest of he district was involved. He was slected to the position of councillor two years after its formation, has been a member continuously since that time and has occupied the position of Chairman for several years. At a public meeting held some twelve months ago Mr McDonald was nominated to the Government for the position of Justice of the Peace for the district. To this position he was appointed at the close of last year. His uniform courtesy of demeanure, and uprightness of character during his residece in Kulpara, has won for him the urniversal respect and esteem of all the residents. Great regret is felt at his having decided to leave the neighbourhood. He carries with him the kind and generous sympathy of all who knew him, and was made the recipient of an address at the Banquet as well as a parse of sovereigns as a parting souvenior of their donors high appreciation of his sterling worth, and of their best wishes for his prosperity. Thirty residents were present to late farewell to the guest. The chair was occupied by Mr Angel, Mr Brooks filling the vice chair. After the usual loyal and patriotic toasts had been honoured tbe Chairman proposed " the guest of the evening." He said that it was with mingled feelings that he rose to ask them to drink to the toast of their honoured guest. He much regretted that this duty had not been placed in the hands of one who would have done it that justice Which its importance required. He need not say that not only those present, but every resident very much regretted Mr McDonald's leaving. He had been a resident of the district for the past twenty two years, and during that time he bad always been to the front in every good work; he had been a Councillor for a long period and for several years had held the position of Chairman ot the Council, and he need not say that the duties of that position had been performed in a manner that was pleasing to the Council, creditable to himself, and satisfactory to the District. They would find it a hard matter to fill his place. He never in all his travels met a more courteous gentlemen, nor one more consistent in all his actions. As a neighbour he would indeed be missed, his kind and genial disposition endeared him to all with whom he came in contart. His hospitality had always been dispensed in such a quiet and unobtrusive manner that those who enjoyed such soon felt just at if they were at their own home. He could therefore truly say as a neighbour, friend, and councillor, his departure from their midst would leave a blank that undoubtedly they would find it hard to fill. He would now ask them to drink to the toast of their guest, " Mr John McDonald. " The toast was drunk with musical honors...............
MOONTA. March 6. After two most disagreeable days for summer a heavy thunderstorm broke to-night, with indications of further fall. A disastrous fire yesterday at Kulpara, which started several miles off, resulted in the destruction of Spry's Hotel, also in the partially burning of Brow's store and stock of drapery. Only for the large supply of water the premises would have been completely destroyed. The insurance on the latter is for £500 in the Imperial Office.
A fire occurred at Kulpara on Thursday week which did a considerable amount of damage. The Wallaroo Times in recording the disaster said it has been supplied with the following information:— The Travellers' Rest Hotel was burnt to the ground, together with the outbuildings and stables, in which were a valuable mare and foal. A portion of the premises of Mr. W. H. Brown, the local storekeeper and postmaster, as well as two reaping machines, a buggy, waggons and stack of hay were also destroyed. The fire passed along the back of the cemetery and extended in a south- westerly direction, clearing everything as it went. Horses, cattle, pigs, &c, were burned like so much wood. The full extent of the loss by the fire has not yet been ascertained, but many miles of fencing have been destroyed, as well as feed reserved for winter, Mr. Brown is a great loser, as a great part of his stock, consisting of grocery and drapery, was destroyed. Had it not been for the plentiful supply of water applied to keep the fire in check everything would have been destroyed. Several narrow escapes were experienced by those assisting to subdue the fire.
INQUEST AT KULPARA.
Thursday, March 12, 1891. An inquiry was beld at the store of Mr Brown, by Mr G. F. Mills, J.P., and a jury of six, to take evidence as to the origin of the fire which destroyed Mr Spry's hotel, and the property of Mr G. W. Brown, postmaster and storekeeper, on Thursday, March 5.
Mr H. Sherman was chosen foreman.
The jury, on being sworn, walked out to the section where the fire was first seen, and from which it crossed the chain road to the grass opposite and travelled towards the township.
Mr Uffindell watched the proceedings for Messrs Spry and Brown, and D. Archibald for the Insurance Company. The following
evidence was taken :—
George W. Brown, storekeeper and postmaster, Kulpara, deposed—Was at home when the fire took place. The first intimation I had of the fire was about midday. Young Sharman, the blackemith told me. He said there's a fire coming across the paddock towards you. Ran to the back and picked up a bag and put it in water and went in the direction of the fire. Should think when I got out the fire was two chains off at the back of the store. It was coming in a north north-westerly direction. Endeavoured to bear it out. I beat it until it caught the stack at the back of my premises. It caught the pigsty before I left. Was overcome by the fire and rushed to the side fence. On recovering I made for the house to try and save it. Should think half an hour had elapsed before I recovered. When I came back my store was in flames. The door and side window both, of my store, were alight. I succeeded, with help, in putting it out. A number of people were about. My wife and four daughters were at home. They with a number of men assisted in trying to save the premises. It was about. 3 o'clock before we got the fire under control. Can hardly say what was destroyed. My cashbox with £25 was destroyed, my books, and Post office books, portion of my stock-intrade that was carried out, bedding, clothing, and a lot of furuiture. The cash lost consisted of silver, gold and a £5 note. There is an insuranoe on the stock and building. Lost a reaping machine, buggy, waggon and harness. The same fire that burnt my building burnt Mr Spry's house adjoining. Don't know how the fire originated.
By the Jury—There was no fire near the day before that I saw.
By the Insurance Agent—Have not taken stock for a long time. My stock at time of fire was about £800. Reckon I have lost between four and five hundred pounds. Have not thought of my Iost on the building.
William Henry Daniel, farmer, of Ninnes. Was burning some grass on a section last Wednesday week. It was on section No. 106, Hd. of Kulpara. Mrs G. P. Daniel is farming the land. I was burning for my mother. Was assisted by John Allan, Robert Laury, Thos. Luggett, and my brother Ernest. Commenced the fire about 10 o'clock that morning. Had ploughed round the section a few days prior to the fire. Should say it was 8 feet wide, ploughed round 3 times with a 3-farrow plough. On the south side we are bounded by a Govert. reserve. On the west by Mr Brown's land, and on the north by Mr James Bundle. Had not given notice of my intention to burn. Should say I was burning from one and a half to two hours. Finished before dinner. Had dinner between 1 and 2 o'clock. There was none of the grass burning when I left. When we left there was a chaff heap ten chains north of the southeasterly corner of the section 106. Did not notice anything else burning. The posts on my easterly line of fence of the section 106 were burnt on Thursday the 5th inst. They were not burnt on the 4th inst. Went round the section after it was burnt. Am prepared to swear that none of the posts were alight. The posts were burnt after the 4th inst. Did not see the posts alight. First saw them burnt on the 6th inst. Last saw the chaff heap burning on Wednesday the 4th instant, about 12 o'clock. When I next saw it, it was quite consumed. This was on the 6th inst. Am not sure whether the posts opposite the heap were burnt. Did not return after Wednesday to see whether the heap was right. Saw the fire on the 5th. Was at Mr Brown's. The first l saw of the fire was when it came across tbe paddock of Mr Spry to Mr Brown's. The fire was travelling towards the southeast. Could not see how far the fire had travelled. Was working about a mile west from the store at the time. Could not tell from where I was how far the fire had travelled. Did not go along the road between sections 106 and 64 on the 5th. Don't know if the chaff heap was burning on the 5th. Came with the men on the 5th inst. to Mr Brown's store. Remained half-an-hnur and then left with the men for home. Gave the men no instructions to inspect the chaff heap, nor did they do so. On the 5th, the fire was burning with the wind, and back against the wind. It was a strong wind. Saw section 64 on the 4th inst., it contained grass and cockspur, also saw Mr Spry's section through which the fire passed. It contained grass. When I next saw the sections in question the grass had been burnt. The grass on the road between sections 106 and 64 was burnt when I saw it on the 4th. Have no idea as to the origin of the fire. It is a fact that I can give no opinion as to when the fire started. The fire appeared to have originated in the paddook where the chaff heap had been. Have not the least idea how the fire started. Am farm manager for my mother, Mrs G.P. Daniel. Did not hear that Mrs. Daniel exclaimed on hearing of the fire "I am ruined.'' Did not say so to anyone, neither to my mother. The fire on the 5th inst, burnt Mr Spry's hotel and out-buildings, and portion of Mr Brown's property.
By the jury -- I considered the chaff heap safe when I left it.
By the Insurance Agent—Considered the chaff heap safe with a strong wind. Did not think it necessary to visit the chaff heap on the 5th.
Daniel Thos. Sluggett—Am in the employ
of Mrs G. P. Daniel of Kulpara, and was so on the 4th inst, Was burning grass with Mr Daniel on section 106. Started in the morning about ten o'olook. The ground was ploughed around about 8 feet. Laury ploughed the land. Can't say what width the furrow was. We were working up to about 12 o'clock. Went round the paddock before Ieaving and noticed the fire was all out. Went round the four sides. There might have been a few stumps burning. There was nothing burning when we left. There were some stumps in the ground. There were some stumps burning between the time of the fire being lit and the time we left. The paddock if about 150 acres in area. Put the stumps out with wet bags. Went round the paddock a few chains in and put out the live stamps. The paddock had not been cultivated for 2 years previous to the burning. Some of the shoots were about 2 or 3 feet high. I knew the chaff heap on the eastern boundary of the paddock. I don't know whether the chaff heap was burning or not. There were no posts burnt on the 4th. Noticed on the 7th that some of the posts had been burnt on the eastern line of fence. The fire had not gone outside the fence on the 4th. Saw that the fire had burnt the grass outside on the road on the 7th. It was burnt on both sides. The grass in Mr Edwards' paddock was not burnt on the 4th. It was burnt when I saw it on the 7th. Cannot say how the fire originated. Never heard Mr or Mrs Daniel express an opinion.
By the Police—Left the chaff heap to come into the township with Mr Daniel. Mr Daniel took the precaution to put the chaff heap back before leaving. I don't think the chaff heap was burning when I left.
Robert Laurv Was working for Mrs Daniel on the 4'th inst. on section 106. Was burning grass up to about 2 o'clock. There were five of us working. When we left there was nothing burning but the stumps and the chaff heap. There were odd stumps all over except forty acres on the northern side. Saw no posts burning that day, We did not put any stumps out. We used some bushes but no wet bags. Next saw the section 106. on the 5th about 12 o'olock some of the stumps were still burning. Saw the fire in the paddock near Mr Brown's. It was coming across Spry's and Edwards' paddock towards the back of Mr Brown's premises. When I first came to the township it was close up to Mr Brown's. I saw at the same time the grass burning on both sides of the road between sections 106 and 64. Assisted to put the fire out on the road side, and afterwards at Mr Brown's on the evening of the day in question. Saw some of the posts burning on section 106.
By the jury—There were fires all round that day. Did not notice any fire on the morning of the 4th. The posts were burning on the night of the 5th.
Alfred Sharman—Am a blacksmith working at a shop adjoining the premises of Mr Brown- Remember the 5th inst., because of a fire which destroyed Mr Spry's property, and a portion of Mr Brown's. First saw the fire at 12 o'clock. It was then in Mr Daniel's paddock. It went down the road (south) about 3 chains, and crossed the road in a south-westerly direction, and spread into Edwards' section, across Mr Spry's land, and burnt Mr Brown's hay stack. Afterwards to the house of Mr Brown, and to Mr Spry's Hotel.
By the Jury—Was at the blacksmith's shop when I first saw the fire. First saw Mr Brown and told him am sure the fire was first in Mr Daniel's paddock.
By Insurance Agent—The fire first caught the hay stack and then the store of Mr Brown.
William James Shearer—Am a blacksmith residing at Kulpara. Saw the fire in question which destroyed Mr Spry's and Mr Brown's properties, It was between 11.30. and 12 o'clock. First saw it in Mr Daniel's paddock. The fire ran along the road a few chains, and then to Mr Edwards' paddock through Mr Spry's land to a hay stack and afterwards to the premises adjoining.
Mr Daniel re-called—When we left section 106 on the 4th there were some stumps burning in the ground. I had no wet bags that day. I had some boughs. I can't say whether any of the men used wet bags.
The jury who were left to themselves to consider their verdict, asked to be allowed to view from the blacksmith's shop, the section where it was affirmed by the last two witnesses that they firat saw the fire. On doing so, they, after 20 minutes further consideration, returned with the following ;—"We are unanimously of the opinion that the fire which destroyed the property of Messrs Spry and Brown, on the 5th of March, started from an old chaff heap, on section 106. Hd. of Kulpara. We are further of the opinion that reasonable care was taken to guard against accidents by Mr W. H. Daniel."
THE FIRE AT KULPARA.
Moonta, March 12. An inquest was held at Kulpara this afternoon by Mr. G. F. Mills, J.P., and a Jury of six to enquire into the origin of the fire which destroyed Spry's Hotel and Brown's store on the 5th inst. After three hours evidence the Jury returned the following verdict;—"We are unanimously of opinion that the fire started in an old chaff heap on Section 106; also that Mr. Daniels, the owner, took reasonable care to guard against accident."
Kulpara. August 12. One of the oldest residents of Kulpara, Mr. T. Edwards, fell into a fire at the Kulpara Hotel, on August 5, and was so severely burned on the lower part of the back and thighs that he died yesterday morning in spite of all that medical aid could do to save him. The deceased was left in a room by himself, and is supposed to have stumbled and fallen into the fire. His injuries were of a dreadful nature. The landlord and another neighbor were outside the hotel when the deceased walked out with his garments on fire, saying that he was 'too hot in there.' Those present at once took in the situation and freed the unfortunate man from his terrible position. The funeral took place today, when a large cortege followed the remains to the Kulpara Cemetery. The deceased, who was much respected, leave a widow and five sons and two daughters, all grown up. That an inquest was not held is the subject of much, comment.
FOUND HANGING. TRAGEDY AT KULPARA.
A sad occurrence took place at Kulpara on Monday last, when an old man, Charles Linquist, was found hanging by the neck in a stable of what is known as the old Kulpara hotel. It appears that Linquist who was a Russian Finn 64 years of age, had been ill for some time, and only left the Wallaroo hospital on the 17th inst. He then made his way to South Hummocks to work for Mr Mayfield, but his health would not allow him to do so. He then went to Kulpara, where Miss Brown allowed him to stay at the old hotel (now a store) stables, where she kindly looked after the old man. At dinnertime she brought Linquist his usual broth, which he refused, and asked instead for some soda water. This he drank and that was the last time he was seen alive. At about three o'clock Mr T, Brooks came in, and Miss Brown, having become uneasy Mr Brooks and another man acceded to her request to "see how Charlie was." The men were horrified to see Linquist hanging in the stables. The Kadina police were at once informed, and M. Constable Buchan went to Kulpara at once and took the body down. Mr Angel, J.P. was informed, but considered an inquest unnecessary. The deceased has no relatives in this State.
KULPARA MEMORIAL HALL: LAYING OF FOUNDATION-STONE.
Our Mellon correspondent writes:--Saturday the 8th was one of the red letter days at Kulpara, the occasion being the laying of the foundation stone of the Soldiers Memorial Hall Kulpara. The attendance was a representative one and much enthusiasm prevailed. The proceedings opened at 4.35 p.m. by singing the National Anthem, and by Mr T. Durdin (chairman of committee) with one of his vigorous addresses, followed by the Rev. C. W. Smith, whom it is always a pleasure to listen to. Both gentlemen spoke of the aims and ambitions of the committee to make this Soldiers' Memorial Hall second to none in the country. Mr Durdin asked Miss A. B, Mayfield to lay the stone, and the lady was presented with a handsome trowel suitably inscribed by Mr A. G. Macdonald, secretary and treasurer of the movement. Previous to lying the Stone, which was done in a thorough manner, Miss Mayfield gave a womanly address and made some capital suggestions for the improvement of the surroundings of the hall, and I have no hesitation in stating that these suggestions will be carried out by the residents, who never do things by halves. Three cheers for Miss Mayfield was called for and heartily responded to. Interalia, I may mention that the contractor Mr W. Saunders, had a most anxious look in case the scrutiny of Miss Mayfield might find fault with his preparations; but happily there was none, and he is pushing on with the work speedily! The opening is expected to take place early next month. F. J. Angel Esq. J.P., as usual, opened (not opened, for it always is open) his purse and laid a donation on the stone, Miss Mayfield having previously done so. The majority were only waiting a lead, so that a handsome amount was received, also from many who had previously made, generous contributions to the fund.
Private Glencoe Macdonald, of the 32nd Batt. A.I.F. returned on the 12th. The usual bunting adorned the railway the returned soldier was welcomed for the residents by Mr T. Durdin, followed by the Rev. G. W. Smith.
DEATH OF A KULPARA PIONEER.
On the 3rd inst Mrs Mary Daniel passed to her rest, aged 78 years. The deceased was the relict of the late Mr George Daniel, J.P., for many years chairman of the Kulpara District Council, an office which by all accounts he most worthily filled. Married at Holsworthy, in the County of Devon, a county which for ages sent out to the world many famous men and women, in the year 1864, they sailed immediately for South Australia, arriving in the same year. For the following two years the young couple joined Mr Daniel's brother, another good old colonist, the late Gaffer James, in farming at Templers, and in 1866 were the first to take up land in the Hd. of Kulpara, where they resided until their death. Both the Daniels' were "pommies" who brought money into the country and made farming a success, as their families have also done. To show the grit of the new arrivals they first put up a one roomed paling house (which is in use today as a harness room) in which they lived contented for a considerable time. A two-roomed pine and pug followed, and then in 1875 a comfortable stone house was erected. A few years ago an imposing structure was built on the opposite side of the road with all modern conveniences and grounds artistically laid out and planted with pines and gums, which is very pleasing to the passer-by. Mr Daniel predeceased his wife almost 31 years ago, and was a noted breeder of horse stock, taking many prizes at all the principal shows in South Australia, a hobby which his sons have well sustained.
The deceased was truly the Grand Old Woman of Kulpara, and was very much respected and loved for her kindly ways. She never spared her self in cases of sickness among neighbors when trained nurses were not the fashion, and many a household blessed her for the invaluable assistance voluntarily and cheerfully granted on these occasions. For some considerable time Mrs Daniel was ailing from an incurable disease, which she bore with fortitude. There was nothing left undone by a loving son with whom she resided to make his mother's path easy, but death would not be denied, and Kulpara is the poorer today through this loss.
Eight of the family survive, Mesdames Sluggett (Seven Hills), George Brooks ("Bocconoc," Clare), George Bullock (Ninnes), F. Kannane (Kulpara), Fred. Bussenschutt (Paskeville) daughters; and Messrs W. H. Daniel (Ninnes), E. G. Daniel (Kulpara), and H. Daniel (Norwood) sons; also 36 grandchildren and six great grandchildren. The burial took place on Sunday in the beautiful cemetery at Kulpara, when the deceased was laid to rest beside her husband. The Rev. C. W. Smith officiated at the graveside and the arrangements were in the capable hands of Mr G. R. Haddy, of Kadina. Needless to say the assembly was large and representative, many having come long distances to pay their last respects. Thus passed away one of the old stock, few of whom are now left, who by their genuine labors made South Australia a country worth living in.
SUCCESSFUL FAREWELLS AT KULPARA.
A very large gathering of friends assembled at the Kulpara hall on Wednesday evening, April 6,for the purpose of saying farewell to Mr and Mrs Ruddle and Mrs Daniel; also the Rev. and Mrs. C. W. Smith and family. Mr Thos. Durdin occupied the chair, and in expressing his delight at the large gathering, referred to the early pioneering days of Mrs Jas Rundle, days of long ago but of which the memory was still green. Mr Rundle had experienced the difficulties and hardships of the early days, when he had to yoke in his bullocks and drive to the "Old Two Mile" for water, a distance of well on 20 miles each way, walk and drive the bullocks. There were instances when the weather had been so hot and the stock so parched and thirsty, that the tank of water would go very little more than one drink round, which would mean an immediate return for more. This had been but one only of the many difficulties, for often it had taken hours to find the bullocks, as the country at that time was all open. Superphosphate was not known in those days, and it often happened that a man after gathering his harvest and selling a little at a low price, would by some means or other have to earn a few shillings to keep the pot boiling. He heartily congratulated Mr Rundle on overcoming these and sundry other obstacles, and of being able to establish a comfortable and pretty home such as, "The Pinery" was. They also did not overlook the fact that Mrs Rundle had nobly played her part as well. At this home four fine young men. had been brought up, men who commanded the respect of the countryside. Two of them were farming at Pata, via the Murray, Leonard had given his life for his country, and Mr E. C. Rundle had taken over the farm. It was a common saying that the motther-in-law was a person desirable to get rid of, but in regard to Mrs Daniel this could not be said. She was of that kind who were always welcome, and had been an essential part of the home circle. (Applause.) They all greatly regretted their leavetaking, and wished Mr and Mrs Rundle and Mrs Daniel all good health and prosperity at Gawler.
Miss M. Mayfield then presented Mrs Daniel with a pretty handbag, and wished her all good luck. Mrs Heddle (on behalf of the Red Cross Circle) handed Mrs Rundle a silver tea pot, and in well chosen terms wished her all happiness. Mr Rundle was the recipient of a very useful kit bag, presented by the Rifle club, with which he has been associated ever since its formation 20 years ago. The presentation was made by Capt T. Durdin, who referred in appropriate terms to the long period of usefulness of Mr. Rundle as a member and the pleasant times they had spent together on the rifle ranges. The recipient responded in a cordial and feeling manner.
There was also a fine representation of the whole of the Methodist Curcuit to say farewell to Rev. and Mrs C. W. Smith, who have won the hearts of the people during their stay of two years in the district. The love and esteem in which they are held was manifest in the lump in the throat and moistness of the eye of more than one speaker. Messrs Taylor and Penna spoke of the high appreciation, of the good work done by Rev. Smith, and what an uplifting influence he had been to the church at South Hummocks. Mr Keith Stephenson, ably voiced the feelings of the people of Kainton, and spoke feelingly of the real ministry of the departing guest. Mrs Smith had also been a splendid help-mate to her husband, and had ever been anxious and willing to do everything possible for the welfare of the district. They both had given of their best, and would be greatly missed. Reference was also made to Master Clem and the Misses Melva and Violet Smith, who had endeared themselves to all. The chairman then presented Rev. Smith on behalf of the congregations with a roll of banknotes amounting to £36, and wished him and his wife and family all possible happiness & usefulness in their new sphere. Mr Smith replied suitably on behalf of his wife and family, and said that he would always have the kindliest thoughts of his many friends in the district. The following contributed musical and other items during the evening. Miss Lottie Daniel, Mrs E. Daniels, Miss Eglinton, the school girls and Mr K. Stephenson. The National Anthem brought a very happy function to a close.
KULPARA CHURCH JUBILEE.
The Kulpara jubilee was a huge success. Visitors arrived from all parts on . August 17. They were welcomed by the Chairman of the District Council, Mr. W. H. Daniel, and Councillors E. J. Daniel and Bruce Penna on behalf of the district, and by Rev. Harold White for the Church. "Home, Sweet Home" was introduced by Mr. T. Durdin, and sung feelingly by all. The jubilee high tea commenced at 5 p.m., and proceeded for about three hours, during which time nearly 400 people were served. A reunion social was held in the evening, and the hall was filled to overflowing. Greetings were read from Rev. J. H. Ashton, who was stationed at Kulpara when the church was built, but through illness was unable to attend; also Messrs. W. R. Bayly and James Stevens, of Laura, sent greetings to the meeting. Rev. F. Bullock, who was appointed to Kulpara in 1889, and spent four years here, greeted the gathering, speaking of early experiences and reading an account of the stone-laying in 1879 sent to the Bibie Christian Magazine by Rev. J. H. Ashton. Messrs. Colliver, John and and Thos. H. Daniel, Trowbridge and Mrs. Miller spoke of the earlier days and their joy in this reunion. Mrs Millard, one of the oldest of the earlypioneers surviving, who presented the jubilee cake was asked to cut it, this she did, assisted by Mrs. Gullickson another old settler, using the silver which had been presented to Mrs. Warren, as Miss M. Daniel, she had laid the foundation stone of the Church 50 years ago. Mrs Warren was present and had brought the trowel and a mallet given her as a memento of the earlier occasion.
An enlarged photo of the Church was presented to Mr T. Durdin who had been a choir member of the Church for fifty years. A programme was also Carried out by Mrs. Meier and Miss. Mayfield, songs, Overture by Miss B. Daniel and elocution by Miss : Vida Daniel. Messrs J. Heddle and Robinson conducted comniunity singing in the earlier part of the evening.
On Sunday we had times of blessing. The services in the Church were conducted by Rev. Frank Bullock and Mr. R. D. Nicholls, M.P., and the overflow services at the Hall which was also filled to overflowing, were taken by Revs. C. W. Smith, of Gawler, and H. White, the present minister in charge. Miss Ada Wordie and the Bute Quartette Party sang, at all of the services and delighted all who heard them. Midday was a day of sunshine and happiness for everybody. The children were entertained at sport. The tea was largely attended, and there were so marfy present for the concert in the evening' that. the Church had to be opened and the programme duplicated to save disappointment. The President (Rev. W. A. Dunn) was with us, and gave an inspirational address on the Church during the earlier part of the evening and later on in the Hall he gave a shorter address to the children. Those assisting in the concert were Misses Ada Wordie and Vera Mayfield (songs), Miss Sims (elocution) Miss Baker and Mrs Meier. The Bute Male Quartette Party assisted by Miss Read. Mr. Yelland, of Unley, expressed the pleasure felt by all the visitors at the warm welcome accorded them and the splendid provision made. Rev. H. White thanked all who had worked to make the jubilee a success. It was one of the biggest things Kulpara had undertaken and would be a happy memory for years to come. The National Anthem then clqsed the celebrations at which about £ 120 was taken, part of which will be; devoted to a much needed Kindergarten Hall. The balance to Church Renovations and Trust Funds.
FAREWELL SOCIAL AT KULPARA. DEPARTURE OF DANIEL FAMILY.
Our Melton correspondent writes:-- Mr J. A. Daniel after a residence of about 60 years in the district, having decided to retire from active farming, was tendered with Mrs and Miss Daniel a farewell on Thursday afternoon last in the Kulpara Soldiers' -Memorial hall. The gathering was fairly representative, and was presided over by the Rev. H. White, the Kulpara Methodist padre, who was responsible.
The majority of Mr, Mrs and Miss Daniel's well-wishers were in the dark as to the social and not until late in the forenoon did some accidentally hear of it There are as many friends of Mr, Mrs and Miss Daniel outside the pale of the Methodist church as in it. These felt somewhat aggrieved that more publicity was not given to the affair.
However, Mr, Mrs and Miss Daniel may rest assured that they have the good wishes of those unwittingly absent, and that they, one and all, hope that our departing friends will above all enjoy good health in future, and all the rest is sure to follow.
I may mention that an independent movement was on foot to give the guests a farewell worthy of them. The district will miss them and our loss win not be made up, as they were, I am sure, the most popular couple in the district, and well worthy of the residents esteem.
J. A, as Mr Daniel was popularly known, like his late father, Gaffer Daniel, did much good in the district in their time, and many a resident and ex-resident have reason to thank the helping hand ungrudgingly, and in most case's unsought, given in times of hardship. Personally, l can say that a better neighbor never a man had. Words fail me to do justice to both Mr and Mrs Daniel. The latter was aye foremost in matters for the welfare of Kulpara, and during the Great War left nothing undone that would add to the comfort of our lads who were doing their duty to King and Country.
Two sons went to the front. One son, Sergt. E. J., received the Military Medal, and served first in the Pioneers until transferred to the 48th Battalion. The other, H J., unfortunately contracted meningitis shortly after arrival in Britain, and was invalided back to Australia. The eldest son met a tragic death over 12 months ago. The remaining five sons are occupying different parts of the paternal property with additions. Two daughters are married, one in the district and the other resides at Myrtle Bank. The new home is situated at Glen Osmond.
A few introductory remarks by the chairman, who spoke, of the good qualities of the guests set the ball a-rolling. Songs and recitations by Mrs White, Misses Gwen Millard and Stevens, interspersed with felicitous remarks by Miss Ada and Mr Frank Mayfield, Messrs W. H. Daniel, J. P. Pontifex, Pierce Stevens and A. G. Macdonald followed. Special reference was made of Miss Daniel's work as organist of the church and her interest in the kindergarten. The departing friends were presented with several useful presents. On behalf of the kindergarten, a little mite, Norma Daniel, daughter of Mr Victor Daniel, presented her teacher with a framed floral picture.
Mr. Ray Daniel responded for his father and mother, and Mr Elliot Daniel for sister. The singing of the National Anthem brought a pleasant meeting to a close. Afterwards, tea and; other good things usual with the ladies of Kulpara, were served.
Gae mo fadadh ceo as do thigh Jain.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass." Dealing with the reminiscences of Kulpara, I have to rely chiefly upon memory, and seeing that this goes back over, a period of 66 years, there may be instances in which small errors have crept in. , But I am sure that some of the matters will be of interest to old subscribers to the Kadina & Wallaroo Times. We are boasting today of the wonderful advancement made in the 100 years of our State's history. This is very true in many respects, but I would put a question mark when it comes to Happiness, Contentment and Confidence. No doubt wonderful advancement has been made in the construction of cultivation and other agricultural machinery, as also increase of speed and perfection mechanically, in which seeding and harvesting can be accomplished in extraordinary time. In fact the acreage that could be covered not less than six days 66 years ago, can now be done in an ordinary day, or even less. Then there is the modern method of marketing; surely there should be more credit accounts than really exist. But all this merely by way of contrast and introduction.
It was in the month of March, 1870, that I, then a boy of six years, came with my parents and the rest of the family to Kulpara. We travelled in a Hill & Co's. coach, drawn by five horses, and arrived at the Travellers' Rest Hotel, then kept by Mr W. V. Brown. The scheduled time of arrival there was about 4.30 p.m. The farm then occupied by my father lay about 2k miles in a south-westerly direction, and this distance had to be covered on "Shank's Pony." However, we got there alright eventually, and saw the old homestead, which then consisted of a pine and pug dwelling of two rooms. There were also one or two small sheds. I well remember how, on arrival, I saw two of my elder brothers busily engaged in charring pines with which to timber up an underground tank. For the sake of sentiment, I still have a piece of this timber in my possession.
The country then consisted of small black grass plains, mostly surrounded by dense mallee scrub. These plains were generally broken up by ploughs drawn by eight bullocks, in single furrow fashion. On account of the roots and herbage being so dense, these big old single furrow ploughs, with strong, sharp coulter, would often turn an eight to 10 inch furrow complete from end to end of the paddock as solid as a plank. It was indeed no easy task for the man at the handles to hold the plough to the furrow.
In those long ago days all the country was open for many miles around, and the task of hunting up the bullocks for the coming day's work was no light one. It was always the custom to place a bell on one of the bullocks, but the animals were often cunning enough to hide in patches of thick scrub and keep perfectly still until the search had passed on. Some good stories could be told of the experiences of the bullock hunters of those old days. It often happened that the sun would be high up before the teams were yoked in. Sometimes there would be other delays, especially if the kangaroo dog was on the spot, and then, on late arrival home with the team, the lad out searching would be able to give details of a glorious and exciting kangaroo hunt.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 2.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
Let me here try and recall a few names of the pioneers, and their location. Along the road that is now known as the Bute-Kulpara road, were the late Paul Daniel, G. P. Daniel, Thomas. Edwards, the O'Neils, Paddy Londrigam, the , McCormacks, also, at the old home of "Hillside," the late John and Mrs Millard, On what is known now as the bitumen road at the old hotel that was there then, were W. V. Brown (hotel) ; at the store, probably W. Boulderstone, and the blacksmith was James Stevens, This old residence, still standing, consists of pine and pug, and is probably the only original building left in the whole district.
On the Kulpara-Melton road were the late Mr George Mayfield, Martin McDonald, John Durdin, Joe and Harry Douglas, and farther on, west, on the old Cocoanut road were Isaac Polkinghorne, Tom Polkinghorne, and the home now occupied, by S. Pontifex, lived a Mr Short.
This list just about completes the early pioneers of this district, and though they have been, and today are not, their memories still live. They certainly did their bit in blazing the track for other generations to follow. The present generation little, dreams of the hardships these pioneers had to face. Water probably was the worst problem. It could be readily understood that owing to the rough state of the country, there were very few water-tables. Dams had to be made with the plough and the old handle scoop, and this was a most difcult and slow job. And though the rainfall far exceeded that of the present time, the dams and tanks would often give out before the summer was over. Quite a lot of water had to be carted from the Two Mile, which was beyond Port Wakefield.
Seeding would commence often early in April, and the sower would have to walk and carry the seed tip over very rough ground and sow by hand. The ground, moreover, would be rough and cloddy. The first set of harrows that I can remember was made on wood, frames, and would cover about 7ft of ground. The only implements used then were the single plough and this small set of harrows. There were no means of breaking the land down to the tilth of the present time, and often after passing the harrows over twice there would be quite a large quantity of uncovered grain to be seen.
Once the crop was in, every day would be fully occupied. Perhaps a small clump of mallee would have to be grubbed out to gain other little open spaces, and the fencing problem, which would mostly consist of mallee stakes, and forks and rails to strengthen them. Busy, always busy, and in those days the farmer and boys did not do all the work; what about mother and the girls ? and the conveniences for washing and cooking? and the baker and greengrocer who "never came." Oh, the good old days!
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 3.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
We are sorry that in our last we overlooked, the name of John Puglesly Spry-Mr Spry lived only about a mile west from the late John and Mrs Millard. He was a very jovial man and always optimistic. Since writing our last article it has come to our notice that the Mr Joe Douglas mentioned is still alive in one of the other States and has reached the great age of 96 years. Following up our last, dealing with things as they then were: Just a few remarks regarding the markets. Port Wakefield and Kadina were the only markets available in those days. Bullock or horse teams would journey those long distances. Bullock drivers would have to walk practically all the up journey. The load would be on drays, about 25 four-bushel bags; on I horse wagons from 30 to 40 bags. The Kadina journey was a two-day's job. Prices were generally between the 4/ and 5/mark. Needless to say, these trips would mean the stocking up, in a small way, of household necessities. The old store that still stands, known then as R. Burden's, did practically all the country trade; and it would in almost every instance mean 12 months credit, with anywhere about 10 per cent, interest. A market was opened up at the old Port Arthur. A Mr Richard Stephens bought wheat there in 1874. We do not know the merchant he operated for. But we well remember him. The wheat was stacked on the loose sand and it was a very big pull to get the teams along-side the stack. Quite a quantity of wheat was then carted to Port Clinton and Shipped over by the ketches. Just close following on this, a move was made for a railway to connect up with Port Wallaroo. Surveyors were sent out about the year 1876. It was then a difficult task to get a line through the Hummocks hills. However, this became a fact, which we shall dwell on later.
Up to now, as I stated, most of the country was practically open and very little fencing had been done. There were in those days quite a quantity of the original wild game which included wild turkey, kangaroos, wallabies, emus and wombats. All these animals would take their toll of the ripening crops. Kangaroos and emus would destroy quite a large quantity nearing harvest time. The only means of hunting the kangaroos would be the dog. It was very difficult to fence against these, as they would have their jumping places. I well remember, one morning, making an inspection with my late father. We came across a jumping place that the wallabys had made, and on the opposite side of the fence here was a clump of small mallee. One of the sticks bad been eaten off about three feet front the ground. A wallaby had jumped the fence and landed on the point of this mallee, and we found it impaled and dead. After this we would drive stakes into the ground, with the outer end sharpened. But though, on many occasions, the animals had struck the points, all we would find would be a little fur and blood on the point of the sticks. The wild turkey in those days were a good asset, and many a fine bird was tabled and very greatly enjoyed. I can, in memory, see them run now as soon as the old stripper was started. The turkey would soon find its way into the stubble. Many a fine bird would be bagged during the harvesting period. A special effort would be made about Christmas time, and well I remember sitting around the table at the family gathering, with a 15lb to 18lb turkey on a dish. And the verdict would be "just splendid."
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 4.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
The year 1874 marked the changing over, of the farm held by the Douglas Bros, to the late Jas. Daniel. Mr Daniel came from Templers. The family consisted of Mr and Mrs Daniel Misses Elizabeth and Patience, and Masters John and George. Mr Daniel soon made a marked improvement on the farm and gradually added to it from the surrounding Crown lands. He successfully carried on this farm until the year 1887, when his son, better known as J. A. Daniel, married and took over the place. Mr J. A. Daniel lived there for 41 years. During that time he and his good wife put up a good fight against odds which the man on the land had to contend with. But, by hard work and consistent living, they won through, and much to their credit, be it said, raised a family of seven stalwart sons, and three bonnie daughters. Mr and Mrs Daniel retired from active farm life during 1928. Their youngest son, Ellis, taking over the holding. Perhaps these folk could not be actually classed as early pioneers-but surely they have left a record, worthy of admiration. There are standing in this district today almost in sight of each other, five fine, well-equipped homes with outbuildings and gardens, which are a credit to the owners, as also there is, at Yararoo, the home of the late G. S. Daniel, now occupied by Mrs G. S. Daniel and her three sons. About seven miles west, on the Maitland road, is situated the home of Mr Fred Daniel; and last, but not least are the three girls and their adopted daughter, who is now. Mrs C. Nankervis. All these are settled on the land, and are doing their part in building up the State and are citizens to be proud of. In giving details of this family, we have had to an extent, to leave the former years and come down to the present. This is a record which we felt was in honor due to our old friends and neighbors Mr and Mrs J. A. Daniel.
Going back to our previous contribution, in which we were all assembled around the table to partake of that delicious wild turkey. Let us now turn back the years and have a peep at the old Yararoo station. There lives, in the memory of the writer, a very clear vision of a stalwart figure in the person of the late W. Fowler-- a man of splendid physique, standing six feet with wonderfully broad shoulders, whose weight was 18 stone. The long flowing almost white beard is very clear in memory today. Here surely we had a pioneer indeed. He was a man equally as large in courage, determination and will power as in body.
We are not sure of the time of his advent into this district, but in imagination we can see him viewing the landscape running by the shore of St. Vincent's Gulf. Rugged and rough, the country must have been in those days. But finally, a beauty spot was decided upon on which to build. Picking a spot that opened so beautifully between the hills and the codling waters of the Gulf, here the foundation was laid, and though not a mansion, a beautiful home was erected. What a transformation this brought about. The writer does not know how many years had elapsed before he had the pleasure of seeing the Yararoo homestead-probably 12 to 15 years. The home was built on an eminence, and falling away from the front view of the home was a beautiful fertile valley. This was transformed into a wonderful fruit and flower garden. And let me say the grand old man was as large in his liberality regarding the garden produce as he was in body. His generosity will be touched upon in our next, not only with reference to the fruits of his garden, but kind deeds that can never die.
(To be continued.)
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 5.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
Referring back to the old Yararoo station and the Grand Old Man, the late Mr W. Fowler, there are with us memories of the battles fought against drought and Scarcity of water. This was combated in a very practical way. Huge sums of money were expended in the sinking of dams and the banking of creeks, also wells. Almost the only successful Well was in a creek, known as the Rocky Creek, near Port Arthur, So far as we know, this water never failed, but its disadvantages were that when it was very low. it required, a very powerful pumping plant to raise it, and worse still, the water was very salty, and stock had to be starved into drinking it.
As we have previously stated, the founder of this run was not only physicilly large, but was indeed gifted with the ability of a general. These were the days when all water conservation depended solely on the man, the individual, not the Government. There is today much evidence of money and labour that must have been expended to conserve the precious elixir of life. Large dams were sunk, big gullies-dammed across, miles of drains constructed to carry the water. One large gully is now in the part where the famous golf links are situated. The rain which fell here on the 6th and 7th January 1936, was evidently the heaviest fall since the banking of the creek, which must date back some 70 years. Though ample provision had been made for the overflow of water, on the above occasion the water rushed down in such volume as to overflow the main bank and practically ruin the dam.
It was on the east side, of the golf links that the first residence in the district was built. The writer has a penny piece that was picked up near the site of this old residence. It was found on the 9th January, 1936, and bears the date of 1886, it thus being 70 years old. There are generally two sides to a picture, and those two certainly had their places during the existence of the old Yararoo run. Oh, yes, there were fat years as well as lean. It has been reported that the returns from this run for one year, were as follows Cattle, £10,000; sheep, £10,000; and wheat £5,000. As this report came to us long years ago, we cannot vouch for the truth of it; bui we personally think it to be correct.
The wool sheds were erected about a mile and a half from the old Port Arthur. Shearing generally commenced in September. Price and paint was about 20/ a hundred, and the wool was shipped in small ketches from Port Arthur.
Referring to the "Grand Old Man's" generosity, the writer well remembers the breaking up for the school Christmas holidays of 1879. The teachers then were Mr and Mrs J. Prisk, originally of Moonta. Mr Prisk arranged for the parents to bring along the "motor-cars" (spring carts). I think about nine vehicles came along. The kiddies all assembled, and headed, off for Port Arthur Via the old Yararoo homestead. On arrival a halt was made, and three cheers were given for Mr. and Mrs Fowler, who did not present themselves; but from that fruit season on for many years cases of grapes were annually sent to the Kulpara school.
The writer remembers an instance of a tennant owing Mr Fowler £50 rental. The money could not be raised. The situation was placed before the Grand Old Han, who sent a note, and to the great delight and surprise of the said tennant the note contained a receipt for the full amount.
But, alas! time and tide awaits no man's will, and it was on the 9th day of November 1901, at the ripe age of 82 years, that Mr Fowler passed away. His remains were laid to rest in the Little Olivet, a pretty little hill just to the east of the home in which he had resided for so many years. Truly his sagacity and: strength had turned this wilderness into a garden of beauty and repose. To many his memory liveth.
"Shall we be missed,
Though by others succeeded,
Reaping the fields
They in springtime have sown ?
Yes ! but the sower must pass from his labour,
Ever rememberred by what he has done.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 6.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass.
Before proceeding with some detail of the survey and building of the railway, I would like to point out that the date on the penny found by the writer bore the date 1866, and not 1886 as seated in my last.
About the year 1876, surveyors were sent out to survey a line, principally from Port Wakefield, as this town had previously been connected with Balaklava by a tram line. The writer remembers when trucks of wheat were sent on to Port Wakefield, mostly under their own momentum, as the grade was sufficient for this. It being now determined to link the Peninsula towns to the city by rail, much controversy came about as to the route for the line. After a lot of wrangling the line, as it is today, was finally decided on ; the straight run from Port Wakefield to South Hummocks, and from thence the turning round to the south-west, and the many elbows that were required to get through the hills. The cuttings and embankments required a tremendous amount of labor to accomplish.
The route taken has been questioned. It was suggested that had the line gone straight on and connected with the hills, somewhere a little north of where the bitumen road now comes through the Hummocks, the multitude of cuttings that were required on the present route would have been avoided. The idea was also mooted to tunnel through the hills, and the line would then have been a short distance north of the Kulpara church. We believe this suggestion was again discussed a few years ago, when the broad gauge was put down. We regret we do not remember either the price or the name of the contractors.
About the year 1877 work was in full swing, and many men were employed on the job. So far as we remember, wages were from 5/ to 6/ a day. We can well remember the reports of the blasting of the stone in the hills. In those days the "Travellers Rest," at Kulpara, was very busy, and many a hard week's wages found a resting place there.
The writer, who then was scarcely in his teens, recollects one Saturday evening seeing several navvies, as they were then called, making their way to Kulpara (over four miles, on foot each way). Our home was only a short distance from the road. Late that night we were awakened by a most terrible noise, which appeared to be either a death moan or a cry for mercy. We simply lay in bed and trembled with fear, fully expecting to find the mutilated body of one of these poor navvies next morning. But on investigation nothing could be seen, and experience has taught us that the horrible noises we heard, were, the result of a tom cat duet.
Of course, to supply a lot of men with the necessities of life was rather a big undertaking. This was done by horse and cart, butcher, baker and grocer coming from both Port Wakefield and, as the line advanced, carts came out from Kadina. Perhaps residents of that town will remember a Mr J. J. Christmas, who paid regular visits to the camps.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 7
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
Reffering to the supplying of bread and meat to the navvies, in my last, I overlooked the fact that a butchering business was carried on then in Kulpara by the late Mr Paul DanieL Mr. John Daniel, late of Kadina, who then was a young man, drove the butcher's cart.
The work of building the line proceeded slowly. What is now known as Melton railway station, was decided on about Christmas of 1877. But when once out of the hills the work was speeded up very considerably, the line reaching Kadina about June of 1878. From thence till September of that year the finishing touches were put on and and all were getting excited about the crowning day that was to come. This eventuated on the 9th day of September, 1878, and the line was opened on Kadina show day by the then officiating Governor Jervois.
Probably there, are many residents of Kadina who will remember that great event. It was a wet day. I well remember the sight as the train ran through what then was a dense mallee scrub from Melton to the fringe of the plain, then known as 'green's Plains.' The damp heavy damp atmosphere caused the white steam from the funnel to hang for chains unbroken, and to my youthful eyes it was a marvellous sight. But oh, the joy of having a ride on this wonderful train. Fancy being whirled along at a speed of from 15 to 20 miles an hour I am sure there still live many happy memories of those long ago days. It was just Christmas for jack and his best girl to have a train ride to Kadina show, and all the wonderful things that were to be seen there.
Those dear old days, when Kadina had a band; and what music used to float over the air. It is true that during the 59 years that have passed since those days there have been marvellous advancements ; but we ask ourselves are we as happy and contented as then ? The dread uncertainties that hang like a nightmare over the world were not known then. In business a man's word was his "bond. Every man was treated as honest till proved to be otherwise? Today things are just the reverse. Ah, well, the optimist tells us today, that we are on the verge of a Golden Age. We wonder! The scientist has done wonderful things, we admit. If all his inventions were constructive, perhaps it would be alright but ; what about air bombing planes and poison gases, and the horrible death-dealing instruments of our day ? What is the objective ?
In my next I will deal with the convenience of the railway, its manner of working.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 8
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
Referring back to my last dealing with the convenience of the railway, of coarse it would only be fair to the department to make allowances in getting the rolling stock in order; and as in those days stationmasters were few and far between, it was often difficult to procure trucks for loading. Farmers of this district did not awaken to the fact that the railway was really here. Occasionally a few trucks of chaff would be sent on to Kadina.
There were two chaff buyers in the town in those days -- Nicholas Rosewarne (commonly known as Nickie), situated in the building now occupied by the Eudunda farmers Stores, and the other was managed by Matthew Harris, in premises now occupied by Murdocks garage. Nickie Rosewarne would occasionally tour the Peninsula in quest of chaff generally just after seeding operations were finished. Farmers, in those days would be only too glad to get hold of a bit of cash, as money was somewhat scarce. Prices were round about 4 pound 10/ a ton.
Before the advent of the railway, the 20 miles of road to travel (and generally during the winter months) would be in places, almost impassable. But now the "iron horse" was removing this difficulty, and providing trucks were obtainable, this very serious trouble vanished.
It was rather remarkable that for several years after the coming of the railway, there was very little wheat trained from the then Kulpara station. It seems rather strange to think that quite a lot of wheat was carted to Port Clinton, a distance of 10 miles. It was quite a number of years before a wheat agency was opened at Kulpara station. Those who carted wheat to the station would have to order trucks and load them, the wheat being weighed at the receiving end. But in the course of time agencies were duly established. Amongst the first to buy wheat was the late Mr. A. G. Macdonald, buying for James Bell & Co. This he continued to do for many years.
Perhaps the greatest boon resulting from the railway in those years was in times of drought. So far as we remember, the first water train ran during the late summer months of 1888. Of course, on the old narrow gauge the small trucks carried only 300 to 400 gallon tanks, farmers would combine, as not less than a truck load would be accepted on orders. The price was 6/ for 400 gallons, and often on arrival there would be from 400 to 600 gallons short, on account of leaky tanks. There would be no redress to the unfortunate who ordered the trucks as the tanks were all filled when starting on the journey.
When we remember these happenings, there comes before our vision the memory of the man David Bews, the man whose good work scores will cherish. It was he who proved to be the deliverer to a great extent from those dreaded years of water shortage. Beetaloo and David Bews will ever stand linked together. For over 40 years the people of Northern Yorke Peninsula and east and west of the Beetaloo dam, have, or should have, a warm place in their hearts for the man who made this wonderful transformation. Dear old Davie! How plainly in memory we can see him giving his recitation the "Stair Head Battle."
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 9
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
Let me relate some of the things that happened 60 years ago. When a lad at school, one of the wonderful things that live in my memory, was that of seeing a horse on a hay stack. This took place on the farm now owned by Mr W. H Daniel. The farm then was occupied by tbe late Paul Daniel. Of course in those days hay was all loose, being cut by the ordinary mowing machine. The hay would be rushed in when carting commenced, and this horse would be kept continually on the move treading down the loose hay. I never saw the horse put on the stack, and presume it would be at the early stages of the stack. But I believe the horse was kept there until the walls of the stack were completed. Just how the animal was taken off, I do not know.
Advent of Rabbits.
Rabbits, hares and sparrows. During the year 1876, Brer Rabbit first made his appearance in this district. There were then miles of dense mallee scrub, and as a lad l used sometimes to go with an elder brother on a shooting excursion. The first signs of bunney's presence were noticeable in the thick undergrowth of bush, however, it was very seldom he could be seen.
Early in the eighties an elder brother shot an animal, but could not quite understand what it really was. But on arriving home, father had no difficulty in arriving at its identification. Sure it was an English hare And it is about 58 years since my father saw the first sparrow. Three birds flew over one morning, and he immediately noticed by their manner of flight as also by their well known chirp, that they were sparrows.
Monotonous Farm Life.
During the years mentioned, things were somewhat hum-drum on the farm The only then known methods of the cultivation of the land were rather monotonous. Very often the stubble left in the field would not he sufficient to carry a fire. Ploughing would have to begin early in the summer, and the old double plough would collect the straw and deposit it in heaps which some of the lads would have to burn up, in preparation for seeding operations. It was quite common to commence sowing in April.
There is no doubt about the fact that the seasons' openings were far more reliable than they have been in later years, and the rainfall much heavier. If seeding was not finished in May, it would mean trouble, as June would be too wet to get on the land.
Hand Picking Weeds.
There were no such things as Takeall and the many different diseases that now affect the wheat plant. In those days there was what was then known as the sow or south thistle, wild black oats, and drake and cockspure. These would have to be hand weeded; The memory of those days is still with us. And then, as haytime approached, the old scythe would have to be put in order and the new rubstone purchased for sharpening purposes, and the hand rake to gather the cut after the scythe. Little wonder the old pioneers were hardy and tough men.
The writer can well remember cutting both wheat and barley with the sickle, and seeing the sheaves placed in a ring and trodden out with the horses. Also the days of the flail for knocking out the sheaves are not forgotten. In our next we shall refer to the great transformation brought about by the mullinising of the mallee scrubs.
EARLY DAYS OF KULPARA. Part 9.
Reminiscences by "Black Grass."
I am afraid, Mr Editor, if there should be any of your readers who have in any way been interested in the above, that interest will have waned to some extent, as months have passed since my last. I apologise to say that since harvest operations I have been very busy, and when night comes one is too tired to write. And even now one's ardour is so dampened by the quite unusal and unseasonable weather conditions, the mind is usually running on damaged wheat and spoilt hay.
Perhaps it is the fact that since the 27th of November with today's issue of 70 points we have had here at Kulpara 520 points of rain, and this coming on one of the best wheat crops this district has ever known, and with the harvest practically only just started does not give a cheerful outlook. Hence it is somewhat difficult to keep smiling under such conditions.
In my last I promised to deal with the very important advent of mullinising, and certainly this was, as it afterwards proved to be, of very great value to South Australia. But before I deal with the working of the scrub land with the stumps still in the ground, I will try to explain what really led up to this as far as this district was concerned. In article No. 2, amongst the names of old pioneers, a Mr. Martin McDonald was mentioned. His youngest son Daniel, or commonly known as Dan lived in a little cabin well in the mallee, in fact quiet dense all round the little dwelling. The young fellow, during the winter months had cut 20 acres of mallee. I really do not just know why or for what purpose he did this, but certain subsequent conditions which i will now try to explain, led up to this being worked with a single handle plough, the plough being lifted over the stumps.
This scrub was cut during the winter of 1876-61 years ago-- I may state that Mr. B. W. Daniel now holds this land. In those days, from the edge of the scrub leading in to Paskeville and back west to Kulpara, it was one dense mallee scrub. The only break in it was the old mail track, and this was, only about 30ft. wide. It was at this time that the railway line was being constructed from Kadina to Snowtown, via Barunga Gap.
During an early day of December of that year, a bush fire broke out somewhere between Mona and Bute. This fire was burning for several days, with, a choppy east and west wind, so that in a few days it had quite a wide front. On December 15th '76 a scorcher of a north wind sprang up and of course this fire, which had been playing about, now got to work in real earnest, hoisted all sail and came right on, in almost a due south direction. I well remember that morning. The old stripper was working on the farm, and it fell to my lot having to walk to the old Kulpara store and post office for mail.
The fire came on at a tremendous pace, and before I reached home it had crossed the old mail track and was gathering both volume and speed. It was a real bush fire, with the thermometer over the 100, with a 30 mile an, hour-burning hot wind behind it. Such a fire has to be seen to allow one to form the faintest idea of its awfulness. The flames, with their awful red tongues, shot high into the air in fact it was all one red flame that shot clean along the tops of the mallee trees. It came with a roar like thunder, and the smoke of that fire l shall never forget, neither the inunensity of volume and air. It was really tremendous and fights that were put up by the few settlers, to try to save their little belongings as also fowls, pigs and burning wheat heaps, I shall relate in my next.
KULPARA CHURCH JUBILEE. HAPPY AND ENTHUSIASTIC GATHERINGS.
It was an old saying that "all roads lead to Rome'' and this might with truth have been said on Saturday, 17th August, concerning Kulpara, for it was a veritable red letter day for the community. The termination was at the beautiful Methodist church on the hill overlooking a wide expanse of most fertile country, with the bold prominence of South Hummocks Hill as a sentinel over all, and St. Vincent's gulf smiling in the near distance.
Gathering of Old Residents.
The day was ideal for such a gathering, and every advantage was taken of it. Never before had such a crowd assembled ait Kulpara, proving that old residents scattered far and wide had not forgotten, and that the love for the place of their birth, or by adoption for a time, still lingered in their hearts without ever being eradicated.
Re-Union and Friendship.
The scene surrounding the Kulpara hall on Saturday afternoon was an inspiration, and good fellowship could be felt. Old residents that had not met for up till over 40 years and under, gladly availed themselves of the opportunity to renew old friendships, and many enquiries were made and answered as to old residents, alas! some of them lying in the God's Acre almost adjoining.
"Home, Sweet Home."
The proceedings began in the hall by all present joining in that old refrain, "Home, Sweeit Home," the memory of which brought tears to the eyes of many who thought of the old home and loved ones before they themselves took wing. Miss Daniel, of Melton, played the accompaniment on the piano.
Time and its Changes.
Vast changes in the district were consipicious to many, especially to those who had left the district years ago, The old spring cart, which used to convey them to church and market, has been superseded by the modern motor car. It is a moot question whether the people are as happy and contented as they then were.
The old residences have crumbled, or are crumbling down, and mansions erected in their place. The old Kerosene lamp or candle has given, place to electric and air gas lights. Truly, the old custom and habits have altered.
The Welcoming Ceremony.
W. H. Daniel chairman of the Kulpara District Council supported by Councillors E. J. Daniel and Penna, extended a hearty welcome to the visitors, wishing them a thorough and enjoyable time while in the district, and thanking them for the honor to the church and district by their presence. Their attendance was much valued and appreciated by the present resident's, who would vie with one another to make their holiday a thing of sweet remembrance in the future.
The Rev. F. Bullock, an old-time accupant of the pastorate, replied in a humorous speech combined with a certain amount of pathos, noticing the sad vacancies made by the Great Reaper.
In the afternoon, a knife and fork Kulpara. It is a recognised and acknowledged fact by Visitors at any dinner was provided by the ladies of former function at Kulpara, that the comforts provided for them could hot be excelled. On this occasion the solids and dainties exceeded anything previously, attained.
A Sumptuous Dinner.
To provide for such a large assembly, one felt for the providers, and was dubious as to sufficiency for be it remembered that beside the visitors more than twice as many of locals were smacking, their lips. The dinner was set out in the Soldiers' Memorial hall. Relay after relay sat down until late, although commencing at 5;p.m. The lady residents rendered every assistance despite which every one of them must have been thankful when the last one had left the table.— Such a spread. It was a revelation as to the capabilities of Kulpara in an emergency. There were turkey and poultry galore, hams, beef, mutton and lamb,with their appetising and well made conceivable. For desert there were every kind conceivable and inconceivable, which astonished mere men at the ingenuity displayed in their production. Last, but not least, the tea provided was excellent and refreshing. There was a substantial quantity of food left over.
While dinner was being served Mr J. I. Heddle, of Kadina, supplied national music on the piano, which was much appreciated, and subsequently community singing was indulged in until a late hour.
A football match, Port Wakefield v. Kulpara, was played in the afternoon. The home team was successful by two goals.
Among the many visitors at the jubileie gathering was Mrs M. Warren (Adelaide), a daughter of the late Mr (Paul Daniel, who as a young girl laid the foundation stone of the church. At that time .Mr Daniel had a very large estate in Kulpara. Incidentally, one old resident informed me that Mr. Daniel did a lot more for Kulpara than he ever got credit for.
Others present were Mr arnd Mrs Amos Miller (married at the home of the late Mr and Mrs G. W. Brown, 43 years ago), now of Parkes, N.S. W.; Rev. F. Bullock, Mr and Mrs G. W. Brooks and Miss Brooks, Mr Herbert Daniel and the Misses Daniel, Mr and Mrs T. Kannane and son (Prospect), Mr Davey (Enfield); Mrs A. Pridham (Prospect), Mrs E. Edyvean (Walkeryille), Mrs H. J. Barton (Adelaide), Mr R. D Nichols, M.P., and Mrs Nichols, Mr Reg. Durdin and sons (Hampden), Mr W. J, and Mrs Angel and family (Semaphore), Mr Andrew and Mrs Angel and family, (Myrtle Bank), Mr P. and Mrs Angel and family (Semaphore), Mr 'Frank and Mrs Angel and family (Semaphore), Mr H. E. and Mrs Angel and family (Pinnaroo), Mr A. E. and1 Mrs Davey and family (Riverton), Mr and Mrs B. Davey and family (Muloowdrtie), Mr and Mrs C. Davey and family (Sandilands), Mr R. L. Spry and party (Kadiria), Mrs J. Millard, senr., with, her nephew (Mr Woodward, a visitor from Somerset, England, and a typical English Yeoman, Mr A. Haines and family (Kadina), Mr and Mrs Harry Philbey and daughter (Bute), Mr Fred and Mrs Mayfield (King's Park), Mrs Davey senr. (Enfield), Mr. and Mrs J. Rundle (Gawler), Mr J. Rundle, (Avon), Mr Wilfred Rundle (Caliph), Mrs R. Rundle (Semaphore), Mr and Mrs A. Koch (Lameroo), Mr and Mrs Dohse (Beaufort), Mr and Mrs Young (Nantawarra), Mr and Mrs E. Daniel and Mrs S. Williams (Bowmans), Mr and Mrs W. J. Durdin and daughter. (Maylands) Mr. and Mrs John Durdin and son (Cummings), Mr and Mrs Joe Durdin (Prospect), Mr Haldane, Miss Harris and Mr A. Harris (Adelaide), Mr W. H. Daniel and family, Mr and Mrs T. Yelland (Unlev), Mr. and Mrs and Miss Halliday (Prospect), Mr and Mrs B. Dolphin(Parilla), Mr Reid (Adelaide), Mrs. Bullock (Kadina), Mr Mark Stevens (Bute), Mr and Mrs J. I. Heddle (Kadina), Mr J. Bidgood and family (Lochiel), Mr J. H. Colliver and party (Arthurton), Mr and Mrs C. E. Lucas and family (Kadina).
Old teachers of Kulpara school were represented by Miss Croft (Adelaide). Mr, H. O.J. Robinson and family (Peterborough), who assisted to make the jubilee a success; Mr. H. F. Stevens, and Mr. Terka and family; with apologies for omissions, if any.
New Kulpara Hall Opened. BY SIR ROBERT NICHOLLS ON WEDNESDAY WEEK LAST.
£72 TAKEN AT DOOR—OVER 400 PRESENT.
History was made at Kulpara when a very large gathering assembled to witness the opening of a new hall—a building that would be an ornament as well as a necessity in any large town or city—on Wednesday, April 22. The structure is 100 x 30 feet and contains a dancing haII 60 x 30 feet, a ladies' cloak room, a spacious supper room with excellent servery fitted up with latest cupboards valued at over £100, sink, primus copper, and water laid inside, a substantial stage for concert programs and other uses. At the entrance is a ticket office and men's cloak room and the hall is well furnished all through with tables and chairs and crockery. The material for the whole structure cost £2,500 and the work in erecting it is estimated to cost the same figure, all done voluntary by residents of the district, in faultless construction. The building was handed over to the Bute District Council free of any debt.
After the assemblage sang God Save the Queen, the Chairman of the Committee (Cr. Gordon Daniel) gave brief summary of the construction of the building. He commended the fine support of the citizens of Kulpara and district, who at the inaugural meeting gave £1,500, which was actually collected. Since then the amount was made up to £2,000 for which the committee thanked the donors, also those who assisted in other ways, and although they were numerous, he could not let the opportunity pass without personally thanking: Mr Ellis Daniel (secretary) and Mr Angus Millard, who were the mainstays of working bees. The committee appreciated the help from the District Council of Bute and the wonderful support from old ex-residents of the district. The whole structure was built by local farmers with the exception of the floor and the committee had much pleasure in being able to hand the building over to the District Council of Bute free of any debt.
Opened By Sir Robert Nicholls
Sir Robert Nicholls (member for the district) commended the committee for their wonderful achievement, which he said was a credit and a necessity for any community to meet and enjoy themselves at social evenings and for any other purpose appertaining to the residents of Kulpara and district. In giving an interesting review of the early history of the district. Sir Robert said that Kulpara was the original name of a pastoral lease (Kulpara is a native name for water in head—cocoanut), taken over on July 1, 1851, by William Sharpies an area of 32 square miles. It was resumed by the Government in 1852 and again taken up by John Bowman, but resumed by the Government in 1858. The Hundred of Kulpara (109 square miles) was proclaimed on June 12, 1862. The District Council of Kulpara was declared on November 28, 1878, the first Chairman was John Pugsley Spry, and the Councillors were Paul Daniel, John Durdin, James Hall and Robert Hamdorf. District Boundaries were revised on July 3, 1890, and divided into wards on September 18, 1890. The District Councils of Kulpara and Ninnes united and became District Council of Ninnes on May 12, 1932, and changed to District Council of Bute on January 5, 1933. The town of Kulpara was surveyed in 1932 by Mr L. C. Cornish; and proclaimed February 15, 1934. Blocks were sold at £5 5/, upwards. This hall is in centre of the area first leased by William Sharpies. The Travellers Rest Hotel, which was built and opened by William Voules Brown jnr. in March 1867, and strangely enough the name of Brown was first in the hotel and was the last name (Alfred Robert Brown) when the licence was withdrawn in August 1910. The intervening licencees were: 1872 R. Ridgway, 1879 G. Brandt, 1882 William Carpenter, 1884. W. P. Spry, 1893 Harriet Spry, 1893 Sarah Kemp, 1894 Marion Brown, 1895 Marion Edmunds, 1896 Alfred Robert Brown, who held the licence till the place was closed by local option in the Wallaroo district with six other premises in August 1910. Sir Robert then declared the hall open.
Cr. H. E. Bettess, who accepted the building on behalf of the Bute Council, apologised for the absence of the Chairman (Cr. M. P. McPherson) who was in Adelaide attending the Councils' Conference. He applauded the magnificent effort of the residents of Kulpara and the district, which would also be a wonderful asset to the community. He was pleased that the Kulpara residents, like Bute and Alford, were public spirited enough to do something for themselves and hoped, they would enjoy their gatherings in the hall. Although the building was vested in the Council, a Kulpara committee would still have full charge of management and he knew there are residents capable of doing same.
Mr Morris Darnel (president of the Kulpara R.S.L.) said the members of his branch are deeply grateful, as the hall will perpetuate the memory of those who made the supreme sacrifice in two wars.
Sir Robert then announced the first dance for the evening—the "King's Waltz" and the evening went merrily on till the early hours of the morning to the excellent music of the Port Wakefield Orchestra.
Pauline Millard presented Sir Robert with a buttonhole and little Verlie James handed a pretty posy to Lady Nicholls.
Messrs Lionel Daniel and Ellis Daniel were the M's.C. for the evening.
Dancing was interspersed with items, a song by Mr A. S, Ebsary and recitation by Mr C. Measday.
Old ex-residents of the district who attended the opening were Sir Robert and Lady Nicholls, and Mr, Frank Cowan, son of an ex-District Clerk of Kulpara, (Adelaide), Mr and Mrs J. P. Millard, Mrs Heddle and Mrs Ern Daniel (Kadina) and the oldest lady in Kulpara Mrs J. A. A. Daniel (86). The opening was represented by residents from Kadina, Bute, Urania, Maitland, Paskeville, Port Wakefield, Yorke Peninsula, Adelaide and from many miles around the district.