No part of the Province of South Australia at any period of its history ever advanced with such rapid strides as that triangular portion of Yorke's Peninsula comprising the mines of

Wallaroo and Moonta, and the Port of Wallaroo. About the year 1860 a discovery of copper ore was made by Mr. Boor on Captain Hughes'* aheeprun at Wallaroo. The ground was opened,

and the lode of copper proving a rich, and productive one, arrangements were made for the working of (be mine. The progress made wta so satisfactory and bo rapid that a large influx of miners took place, and the extent of the mineral deposits was soon tested. Farther discoveries followed, and an enterprising individual conceived the bold idea of laying down a. railway from the mines to a shipping place at Wtdlaroo Bay. In less than three years, we believe, after the discovery of the mine the railroad was in use, conveying hundreds of tons of ore every month to the Port. As the wonderful extent of the deposit of ore continued to be developed, further arrangements were made for the more profitable management of the property, and extensive smelting works were planned and constructed at Port Wallaroo, where bat a few months before flocks of sheep and shepherds held undisputed sway. These smelting works were constructed at vast expense, the firm of Messrs. Elder, Stirling, & Go. finding the needful capital. Since their commencement considerable cost has beea incurred in improvements, additions, and repairs; but as we propose to give a detailed description of them by-and-bye we shall say no more abont them at present. Subsequently to the discovery of the Wallaroo, New Cornwall, and other mines in the neighborhood of Kadina, the Moonta Mine was discovered about eleven miles south-west from Kadina and ten miles south from Port Wallaroo. In a short time this mine showed indications of surpassing richness, and large quantities of exceedingly fine ore were raised, the mining population as a natural consequence steadily increasing. Three nuclei were thus established, around which soon gathered a motley collection of tents, huts, shanties, cabins, and other dwellings, inhabited by a scarcely less motley collection of miners—including a large proportion of " Cap'ns"—laborers, mechanics, tradespeople, storekeepers, publicans, and adventurers. The embryo townships of Kadina and Wallaroo and the mineral sections at Moonta and Wallaroo Mines, presented very much the appearance of a " rush" on the Victorian Diggings. After a while, when the permanent character of the mines was deemed to be sufficiently ascertained, the Government caused townships to be laid out at Kadina (between the Wallaroo and New Cornwall Mines), and at Wallaroo Bay, between Point Biley and Point Hughes. Subsequently the township of Moonta was laid out, and is now fast rivalling its elder sisters in point of extent and business. About three years after the first discovery at the Wallaroo Mines the population was estimated to number nearly 6,000 ?ouls, and at the time we write, about two years later, the total number of inhabitants at the three townships and the adjacent mines is reckoned at 10,030. j From the foregoing remarks it wi'il be readily j seen that the District of Wallaroo (the generic! name for the triangle formed by the townships I of Wallaroo, Moonta, and Kadina, and the j adjacent mines) is one of the most important in South Australia. In point of fact we believe j there is no district in the colony .of equal extent and population which surpasses Wallaroo in the importance of its interests, regarded in connection with the general prosperity of the province. It has been often shown how extensive are the ramifications of benefits conferred on a country by the presence of a large mining population; and the fact is abundantly proved in the district under review. The total population of the district is estimated, as we before said, at 10,000. Out of this number the total employed at all the mines and at the Smelting Works is only abont 2,000, so that in the immediate neighborhood employment or maintenance is provided for four times the number of those directly employed in connection with the mines. Besides this the expenditure of such a population in articles of food and clothing is far greater than that of an equal number employed in agricultural pursuits. The imports and exports at Wallaroo are very considerable, and the commerce of the colony, as well as the receipts of the Treasury, derive very considerable increase from the results of mining operations at Wallaroo. Having given this preliminary sketch, historical and descriptive, of the district, we propose to follow it up by a more detailed'account of the ; townships and country adjacent to the mines and Smelting Works, besides detailing other matters of interest.


South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), Wednesday 23 August 1865, page 2, Trove

Having, in our last, given a general cursor view of the history and present condition of the great mining district of Wallaroo, we shall pro-ceed to describe more particularly the roads.

the physical features of die country, the town ships, the mines, the social and political con-dition of the population, &c, &c. There an three or four different routes to Wallaroo There is Rounsevell's mail coach road, through Virginia and the Fort Gawler District, across the Light at Quigley's, and on to Port Wakefield thence round the head of the Gulf through the scrub, and across Green's Plains to Kadina. The commencement of this journey has for several months past been made by rail as far as Salisbury, where the coach is in waiting for the passengers. In the summer time this road is tolerably good, but intolerably dry and dusty but in winter many places are very boggy and heavy, and the travelling is consequently toil-some and tedious. "The Nine-mile Scrub" is by no means an inviting appellation for one portion of the road, and it is as disagreeable as the name implies. The air is generally close, and when it is otherwise the wind rushes through the narrow roadway between the walls of mallee, in the winter cold and cutting, and in the summer raising clouds of dust. We have seen the faces of passengers, arriving in Kadina after a northerly wind, so thick with dust that it appeared almost possible for vegetation to thrive thereon. The mail service has been much better con-ducted during the past twelve months, than used formerly to be the case; and great credit is due to Mr. Rounsevell for the manner in which he has carried it out, in spite of the great difficulties with which he has had to contend. Another route occasionally made use of is by rail to Kapunda, and thence on horseback by Forrester's across the country westward to Kadina. A third is by sea from Port Adelaide round the southern part of the Peninsula, and up Spencer's Gulf, to Wallaroo. This is a favorite route with many, and the Royal Shepherd steamer affords the opportunity once a fortnight to those who are fond of a short trip by sea. The time occupied on the passage is from 22 to 24 hours. Another steamer —the Kangaroo—runs every week, but at present she has only accom-modation for steerage passengers. The fourth route is across Gulf St. Vincent from Port Adelaide to Clinton. The former landing-place on the Peninsula was Port Arthur, a few miles north of Clinton. The latter is some improve-ment on the old port, but is a wretched enough place nevertheless. The water is very shallow and the mode of landing is peculiar; the steamer Eleanor lies alongside a hulk, moored about half a mile from the shore. Her passengers are taken into a boat, and her cargo is dis-charged into the hulk. The Government constructed a jetty about three years ago with a celerity that seems to have been quite exhaus-tive, for we believe no Government work for the benefit of the Peninsula has been since carried out without long and vexatious delays. The jetty was, perhaps, decided on, planned, and erected, with too much haste, for it is only occasionally, and during high tide, that the passenger boat can get to the end of the jetty to land her living freight. The boat is therefore generally pulled towards the shore, and met by a cart, which is driven from one to two hundred yards into the shoal water. The passengers then climb from the boat into the cart, and are conveyed to terra firma. It has sometimes happened that a clumsy individual has slipped into the water, but there is always this consolation —that there it not sufficient depth to drown any one, except at a long distance from the shore. This route is, we believe, the most expeditious, passengers having arrived in Kadina, if we are rightly informed, within eight hours and a half after leaving the Port. Each road has its peculiar advantages and disadvantages, and travellers must weigh them together and decide for themselves which route to take. There has been some talk about petitioning the Government U survey another port at Parrara, about 10 miles further south than Clinton. The advantages of this place are said to be deep water close in shore, and a convenient place for landing; also closer proximity to Moonta, so that letters and passengers for that important place could proceed there direct, instead of going round by way of Kadina as at present. They would thus reach their destination about 16 or 17 hours earlier than at present. This is an advantage to the large and important district of Moonta by no means to be overlooked; and if the allegations are correct, we think our Moonta friends are entitled to expect that their interests will be attended to in the matter. The distance from Parrara to Kadina is said to be eight or ten miles greater than from Clinton. This, again, would place Kadina and Wallaroo at some disadvantage if the change were made. The " township "of Clinton, when we last saw it—and we do not think it has materially increased since—con-sisted of a public-house, a stable, and smithy connected therewith, a fowl-house and outbuild-ings, also belonging to the hotel, and a still for distilling fresh from salt water. We do not think any vested interests, save those of the proprietor of die hotel, would suffer materially from the removal of the eastern port of the Peninsula to Parrara. If it should prove that the greatest good to the greatest number would result from such removal, it should be done, and we think it not unlikely that the landlord of the Clinton Hotel might, in some shape or way, obtain compensation for removal.


The first of the mines which attracts the attention of the traveller overland from Adelaide is the Cumberland, situated about a mile and a-half to the south of the Clinton-road, and 11 miles from Kadina. The mine is on slightly elevated ground, and the grassy slopes surrounding it, relieved here and there with patches of scrub, form a pleasing picture, having the mine buildings for its principal feature. A fine boil of ore found on the surface led to the hope that a productive lode had been found, but unfortunately it ran out in about three fathoms, and has never been recovered. The workings have long since been stopped. A deposit of silver-lead ore similar in extent to the copper was afterwards met with. The Cumber land Mine nevertheless appears to be in a mineral country, for there are other claims not far removed where copper has been found. The old Kulpara Mine turned out about 10 tons of good ore, and was last year purchased with a view to being again worked; but the scarcity and difficulty of obtaining water put a stop for a time to further operations. Now that neighboring sections on Green's Plains are being cultivated, it is probable a further trial may be made of what certainly appears a very promising mine.The The New Cornwall Mine is about a mile firom Kadina. The claim was taken out in November, 1860. A good deal of work has been done on this mine, and as a natural consequence a large amount of money has been expended. Several hundred tons of ore have been raised, some of it being very rich. The muriates of copper obtained from this mine are the finest we have ever seen, the crystalline form of many of them being peculiarly beautiful. Almost every variety of ore has been found in this mine, and the ground is for the most part what the miners call "congenial for copper." The deepest workings are at 34 fathoms, but a Large engine with an 80-inch cylinder is in course of erection, which will pump the mine to more than three times that depth, and everything tends to show that the great hope for this mine is in deep sinking. Captain East is the agent here. It is scarcely worth while to enumerate the multitude of claims which, three or four years ago, were introduced to the notice of a discerning public. Of the scores which were then puffed up as if they wonld turn out Burras, not five per cent, are now worked. A new mine near one of the old claims has recently been opened under the name of the North Wandilta. There is a good lode, carrying a strong branch of rich ore abont six inches wide, and the country is of a favorable nature for mining operations. A small trial shaft and a whim shaft are being sunk (the former is down about ten, and the latter seven fathoms), and in each of these the lode has been cut, carrying ore. The original Wandilta still employs a few hands, and a little ore is being raised. But little of any consequence, as far as results show, has been done at the Bingo. The Matta Mine, which once promised so well, has been stopped for several months, in consequence of the impossibility of getting rid of the water, which soaked back into the mine as fast as it was pumped out. A large drain, however, is in coarse of construction to carry off the water to the sea as it is pumped up, and when the drain is finished it is expected the mine will be got to work again. The Wallaroo Mines, the original mines of the Peninsula, are second only to the Moonta in point of productiveness, although the quality of the ore is greatly inferior to that of the Moonta Mines. The Wallaroo Mine Claims were taken up from January to April, 1860. The monthly returns of ore have for many months past averaged over 1,300 tons. The quantity sent down by rail to Port Wallaroo for smelting and shipping was about 1,700 tons in the month of July. We believe the yield is rather increasing of late. The average produce of pure copper from the ore is low, probably not exceeding 12 per cent. The small cost of carriage (not more than 5s. per ton), and the facilities for smelting afforded by the works at Wallaroo Bay, greatly assist this mine, for without such advantages it could not be worked except at a loss. The Wallaroo Mines have suffered some inconenience from the large influx of water in some parts of the workings, but a branch drain is being cut to join that from the Matta, and by this means it is hoped that greater depths may be reached and worked with success. There are, some large engines working heavy machinery employed on this mine, and the total number of lands engaged, all told, is, we believe, nearly 500. These mines are under the management if Captains Dunstan and Roach. Several mines were opened in the neighborhood of the Walaroo—viz., the New Devon, the Kurilla, and the Daryea, in all of which copper lodes were found. The Finniss Claims on the other side were also tried unsuccessfully for some time. The Kurilla only is now worked, and by an English Company. There is a very promising lode, from which several tons of fine yellow ore liave been raised. Captain Wm. Warmington is the Manager of the Kurilla Mine. Three sections between the Wallaroo and Kurilla Mines were taken up last year by a private Company, and called the South Wallaroo Mine. A good lode was traced down from near the surface and gradually improved to the depth of nearly eight fathoms, where it carried a good course of ore about 15 inches wide. The water, however, being rather too strong for keeping under by the windlass, a small engine was purchased and has been erected. It is expected to commence working before the close of the month. In June, 1881, the Yelta claims, adjoining the Moonta, were taken ont. A great deal of work has been done here, and many tons of excellent ore raised. During the past twelve months considerable improvement has manifested itself in this mine, a good lode of black ore having been cut ia a new shaft, now called Hancock's. Wigley's Shaft is also sank on another lode, and is yielding good black and yellow ore. Within the past three months a splendid boil of ore was found close under the surface, and only 25 fathoms from Hancock's Shaft. This appeared to be the back of a champion lode, and the lode was traced for a considerable distance on either side of the boil of ore. Two shafts have been sank on this lode, with the expectation of cut ting black ore within twelve fathoms of the surface, but this hope has not yet been realized. The Karkarilla Mines on the opposite side of the Moonta were commenced at the same time as the Yelta. The shaft here is the deepest on the Peninsula, being sunk to a depth of near 70 fathoms. The ground, however, is so dry that up to the present time the water has been got rid of by whim buckets, without the aid of a steam engine. It is, however, hard work, and an engine has been erected, and will shortly be got to work, when it is hoped that the raising of ore will be greatly facilitated. Captain John Warren is the agent at this mine. The Moonta Claims were taken ont in May, 1861. These extraordinary mines require a much more elaborate description than we have space to give. Whether underground or on the surface, they are the most interesting of any in the colony. Not merely from their immense richness and extent, but because a better idea of mining on a large scale may be derived from them than from others. The quantity and quality of the machinery, and the general completeness of all the establishments, are also worthy of note. There are 18 or 19 shafts, varying in depth from 10 to about 50 fathoms, and the extent of the " drives " underground most amount to miles. During the first two years only about 10,000 tons of ore were raised, but it was so rich, and was obtained at so small a cost, that £64,000 was paid in dividends about twenty months from the commencement. The mine is now producing ore of an average produce of over 20 per cent, of fine copper, at the rate of from 1,500 to 1,700 tons per month. About 1,000 hands, all told, are employed on the Moonta Mines, under the management of Captain Hancock.


South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), Friday 1 September 1865, page 2, Trove

The physical features of the Peninsula are not very interesting. The country is alternately open and grassy, and covered with extensive patches of scrub more or less dense. Setting aside the relief afforded by the presence of hills, trees, and water in a landscape, it is as pretty scrub country as any we have seen. Here and there are clumps of scrub in the midst of well grassed open ground; and occasionally, as at the old Cumberland Mine, gently undulating slopes relieve the prevailing monotony of the scene. There are said to be thousands of acres fit for cultivation, and, judging merely from the appearance of the soil, the land seems good enough for agricultural purposes. Several sections have been purchased on Green's Plains with the view of raising crops of hay, corn, and garden produce; and the farmers who are settling on them are sangnine of success. The want of fresh water is the great drawback, and whether this is to be obtained by sinking remains to be seen. Should these trials of farming prove successful very great benefit will accrue to the district as well as, deservedly, to the enterprising men who have undertaken the risk of commencing in an un-known country. The uncertainty of the rains is against them; but if they can only grow hay they will always find a ready market for that. Vegetables are grown in Kadina, Moonta, and Wallaroo during the winter months, and we have even seen small fruit trees and ornamental shrubs in some well-tended gardens. Thirty or forty miles south from Kadina the country is said to improve in character, and fresh water is to be found. The scrub contains a variety of shrubs, but its chief component is mallee. There is also mulga and myall. The native peach is found in abundance, also pines and a fine scented wood commonly called sandal wood. When freshly cut the scent resembles otto of roses. Many of these scrub woods deserve the attention of cabinetmakers, being fine in the grain, hard, and susceptible of a high polish. They vary in color from a bright yellow to a rich brown. But for the scarcity of fresh water, that part of the Peninsula north of Clinton and Moonta contains a great deal of good sheep country; in the open it is generally well-grassed, and tracts of saltbush are occasionally met with. Kangaroos, wombats, wallabies, turkeys, pheasants, quail, plover, and, in the winter, ducks and geese, are to be found. Snakes of very large size are sometimes met with.—from seven to nine feet in length, and thick in proportion. The gulf is plentifully supplied with a good variety of fish, which are sold at a moderate price. The townships of the Peninsula are just like the generality of newly settled colonial townships, containing a few good houses, some fine hotels, respectable churches and chapels, and a scattered multitude of cottages, tents, shanties, and huts. Some streets are distinguishable as such for a portion of their lengths; others only appear like "terraces" of two or three houses, or like streets having only one side, if such can be. The greater number of the habitations being of the poorer class, look as if a large town had been sown broadcast with houses, and they, being some of the lighter grains, had fallen at the edge of the field, out of the regular furrows. We described the "township " of Clinton in our second article, and we proceed to notice the others of Kadina, Moonta, and Wallaroo in succession. Kadina is the oldest of the three, or at least a few months after its sale by the Government in allotments it presented a forwarder appearance than its twin-sister Wallaroo. Kadina lies on a nearly dead level, so that in the winter time the want of drainage is felt—not always as an inconvenience, for during the past season a temporary lake having been formed opposite the Court-House, a number of water-carts were employed for some time conveying the precious fluid to safer reservoirs.

All the Peninsula townships, except Clinton, where sand prevails, vie with Adelaide in its palmiest days for dust in the summer. Kadina boasts a handsome Court-House, with a Police-Station and Telegraph and Post Office on either side, all in the same building. The Wesleyan Chapel is the largest and finest ecclesiastical edifice, and next in order, as to outward appearance are the Bible Christian and Congre-tional Chapels. The Church of England, though larger, has an unfinished, nay, almost ruined, look, but we believe it is intended shortly to point or stucco the building. The White Lion Hotel is the principal inn at Kadina, and there are four or five others, all, we believe, respectable well-conducted houses. Of private residences, those of Mr. Emerson, soli-citor, and the Rev. W. Wilson, Congregational minister, are the best. There are several neat cottages of stone and wood, and many good sub-stantial stores and shops. A better style of building is fast gaining ground. The South Australian Banking Company's place of business is a plain respectable-looking stone building, the Bank being a large front apartment in the house, the remaining rooms of which are appro-priated to the Manager's use. The National Bank at present consists of a large weatherboard cottage, but a new stone building is about to be erected. The population of the township of Kadina is estimated at from 1,200 to 1,500. A large population, equal to, if not greater, than that of the township, exists on the mines a mile off. The mail from Adelaide arrives at Kadina on the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and a conveyance from Clinton, bringing the passengers from the Eleanor steamer, arrives every Tuesday and Friday. The railway truck starts to Wallaroo with its share of the mails and passengers immediately after their arrival at Kadina. The Moonta letters and passengers, having to spend the night at Kadina, are conveyed to their destination the following morning. The road between Kadina and Moonta is far from pleasant for travellers in wheeled vehicles. Ruts, stumps, and holes, and holes, stumps, and ruts are found in rapid succession for miles. When the new railway is open between Moonta and Wallaroo doubtless much of the passenger traffic to and from Kadina will be carried on by it, although, it will involve a longer journey. The ease and comfort of the rail will compensate for five extra miles. Nevertheless there ought to be a decently passable road for carts between Kadina and Moonta. The traveller from Kadina gets a fine view of Moonta about three miles distant, from the top of the bald hill. The Yelta Mine, within a mile of Moonta, is first passed through, and Moonta township lies away to the right, the mines bearing a little to the left. The latter is a densely populated place, and must contain at least 3,000 souls. The township at first appears very inconveniently situated in respect to the mine, being about a mile from the offices; but as the workings of the mine are ex-tending in the direction of the township it will very likely before long be found quite near enough. Moonta boasts two of the best hotels out of Adelaide —Lester's and Square's. They are very commodious and substantial buildings. Besides these there are the Prince of Wales (Hyde's), and the Miners' Arms, kept by Olifent. The stores and shops in Moonta are many of them equal to second-rate ones in Adelaide, and would by no means disgrace the metropolis. There is a neat little Church of England, tastily fitted up internally; a Bible Christian, Baptist, and Wesleyan Chapel. The Wesleyans have a wooden chapel on the mine and have just commenced the erection there of a large and handsome stone chapel, 75 x 45 feet, and which is to cost about £1,300. There is a building for the use of the Institute in the township, and also a Police Station. On the mine property, and near the township, are two neat stone cottages, occupied by the Accountant and Doctor of the Mine; the Mine offices and Captain's house are near the centre of the workings. Altogether the township and mines of the Moonta form the most populous part of the Peninsula, the number of inhabitants being estimated at fully 4,000.


The township of Wallaroo is the most pleasantly situated of the three Peninsula townships, being built on the shores of the bay, having a total frontage of about three-quarters of a mile to the sea, and extending inland about the same distance. A gnlly, up which the railway runs, divides the town into two parts, the houses being built on the slopes on either side. A considerable space from the railway is reserved, as also is the land between the wharf frontages on the western eide of the township, and Lydiaterrace on the hill overlooking the sea. The streets, like those of the other townships, are of a good width, and there are several squares, as in Adelaide. The public buildings consist of the Police Station and the Custom House, both very much alike in appearance. A. new Telegraph-Station and Post-Office is being erected, and it will, in style of architecture, resemble the other Government buildings. The erection of a gaol is about to be commenced. There are several places of worship, of which j the Congregational Church is decidedly the most tasteful in point of architectural appearance. The new Presbyterian Church is a larger and more imposing structure, and is a fine object in view of vessels entering the Bay, being on the hill behind the Smelting Works. The Wesleyan Chapel on the opposite hill is a good building, somewhat resembling the old Piriestreet Chapel in Adelaide. It is now being enlarged, and when the addition is completed, its appearance will be much improved. The Church of England is a Email and very plain building, bo also is the Bible Christian Chapel. The Roman Catholics have a little wooden chapel, at which service is held once or twice monthly. The Primitive Methodists who have just laid the foundation of a handsome chapel on the Moonta Mines, are also about to erect one in Wallaroo. We believe the Welsh inhabitants at Wallaroo are intending to build a place of worship. The spiritual wants of the population as far as church accommodation goes, are pretty well provided for. There are plenty of hotels and public-houses. The Cornucopia and the Globe are the two best hotels, and the accommodation they afford is not to be surpassed out of Adelaide. There are four or five public-houses, and several lodging-houses, all of which have their share of public patronage. Wallaroo contains the largest number together of good private residences on the Peninsula, but even here they are not numerous. The representatives of the Upper Ten Thousand as they, are facetiously called, are not a large class on the Peninsula. There are several good shops and general stores, and die appearance of the place indicates a gratifying amount of general prosperity. All the Peninsula townships suggest the idea of thriving and progressive centres of population; but Wallaroo, from being the seaport and principal terminus of the railway and site of the Smelting Works, presents a scene of more activity than the others. The Smelting Works are a noble mass of buildings. They contain LI calcining furnaces; 22 roasting and reducing furnaces, and three refining furnaces. Upwards of 500 tons of ore are smelted weekly, and more than 80 tons of fine copper made in the same time. 233 hands are directly employed on the works. This is exclusive of the woodcutters, carters, and brick contractors employed in connection with the works.

The railway, commencing opposite the White Lion Hotel, Kadina, and having a branch from the Wallaroo mines, U altogether nearly ax and a-half miles in length.) In the township of Wallaroo it divides, one branch|going up * rl6e to 'be Smelting! Works, and the other to the end of the jetty. Two and sometimes three trains daily loaded, witb ore from the mines are drawn by hones for about half the distance to Wallaroo. They are then at the commencement of the incline, and die horses being detatched, the trucks run down at the rate of about IS miles an hour, their speed being regulated by the breakaman. The impetus they gain in the descent, is sufficient to carry them about 150 yards up a considerable rise to the Smelting Works, where they are unloaded, and the empty trucks drawn back to the mines to be again filled. A comfortable and commodious pasaengertrnck runs three times a day each way between Kadina and Wallaroo. One good horse will draw in this way a load, including the carriage, weighing more than three tons, at the rate of ten miles an hour. We are informed that the traffic on the line amounts to about 1,200 passengers per month. The jetty, which is about 600 feet long and 33 feet wide, is capable of accommodating at one time five or six vessels discharging or taking in cargo. Ships of 900 tons have laid alongside. The depth of water at the end of die jetty is about 16 feet at low tide, and it shoals very gradually towards the shore. The workshops, offices, Btores, and stables of the railway are on the wharf. It is interesting to watch the horses at work on the jetty. Some of them appear to be as well-trained as circus horses. They twist and turn about at the bidding of their drivers in an incredibly small apace of time, and push die loaded trucks with their chests, which are protected by a leather pad. We have seen one of these horses dragging a load after him, and at the same time propelling a truck in front with his chest. The amount of work done at the jetty, and on the railway is very considerable. We are informed that at a very busy time above 5,000 tons passed over the jetty in one month. More than half of this was coal for the Smelting Works. We believe the imports of general merchandise are about 1,030 tons per month. The Railway Company employ about five and twenty horses, and as the rains seldom afford an adequate supply of water for die year, they have a still which is worked during the summer, and by means of which 1,600 gallons of fresh water is distilled in 24 hours. Some persons think this distilled water unwholesome, but we believe this is not the case. When first rrade it tastes flat, like boiled water, but after some days as it becomes aerated it improves in this respect. Any simple plan for agitating the distilled water would speedily accomplish, the necessary aeration.


South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), Tuesday 12 September 1865, page 2, Trove

The trade of Yorke'a Peninsula is in the aggregate larger than that of any other part of the colony of equal extent. The Port of Wallaroo, when considered in connection with the comparatively small area of country for which it is tho inlet and outlet, must be regarded as second iu importance only to Port Adelaide itself. A considerable amount of tonnage for Moonta and Kadina has hitherto been conveyed by way of Clinton, because of the greater speed and frequency of communication offered by that route over the passage by coasters to Port Wallaroo. But since the communication by steam to the latter port has been established, we presume there has been some falling off in the imports via Clinton. Now that there are two steamers running weekly to Wallaroo, Clinton as a port of import mil be set aside. We omitted in a former article to speak of another port on the western coast of the Peninsula —Port Hughes, near Moonta. There was a township surveyed there so long ago as 1862, but as the facilities for landing goods require to be improved by the building of a jetty or wharf, the place has never been made use of as a port. The inhabitants of Moonta have recently communicated with the Government respecting the availability of Port Hughes as a shipping place for their township, and have represented its closer proximity to Moonta than the Port of Wallaroo. We fear it is doubtful at the present time, whether Port Hughes could compete successfully with the route to Moonta via Wallaroo. Although we believe goods can at present be landed at Port Hughes in fair weather, yet a regular trade to that port would in vole the necessity of considerable outlay for improvements, and before they could be effected, the opening of the railway to Moonta would afford the increased facilities required. The exports of copper and copper ore from Wallar-w, since the opening of the port, has reached to a very large amount. Many tons of flour and produce from the Clare and Auburn district, have been shipped from Wallaroo, besides wool. The imports direct from England of machinery, firebricks, and articles of consumption, and general merchandise, for the mines and Smelting Works, and inhabitants of the townships, have been very extensive. Large quantities of blasting powder, for the use of the mines, are brought to Wallaroo; but up to the present time nothing has been done by the Government towards providing a Powder Magazine. We hear, from time to time, of ship? arriving with three, four, or five tons of powder, which, in consequence of the regulations and the want of a Magazine, they can only land at the rate of a ton a day. We are not aware whether any formal representation has been made to the Government respecting the want of a Magazine, but the matter has been brought iu some way under their notice without effect. Until recently the Wallaroo district was the most neglected part'of the colony. The Government had drawn a large revenue from the mineral leases on the Peninsula, and from the sale of the townships; but the amount expended for the benefit of the place was a small percentage {only of the sums received. During the past session of Parliament the people have bestirred themselves, and through their local member, backed by others, they have obtained some concessions. The most important of these, although by no means commensurate with the requirements of the place, is the vote of £6,000 for providing water reservoirs at Eadina, IVfoonta, and Wallaroo—£2,ooo to each place. Now if a statement made by our contemporary— the Wallaroo Times —be correct, and we see no reason to doubt it, the sum of £8,000 was actually paid last season for water from the stills. It therefore seems very doubtful whether £6,030 will afford sufficient storage for an adequate supply in a dry season. The Government works at present in progress are die Police Station at Moonta, nearly finished, the Telegraph and Post Office, and tanks at Wallaroo. Those at Kadina and Moonta are to be commeneed shortly, also a gaol at Wallaroo, and extension, of the line of telegraph to Moonta. Private enterprise has done far more than the Government for the Peninsula. The railway from Kadina to Wallaroo, the jetty at the latter port, the railway in progress from Wallaroo to Moonta, the Smelting Works, and all the vast machinery and buildings on the mines, are the results of private effort. Upwards of a million sterling must have been spent in developing the Wallaroo and Moonta Mines, and building the Smelting Work?, besides what has been expended on other mines. As the returns, at least from the Moonta and Wallaroo Mines, may reasonably be supposed to have equalled the outlay, some idea may be formed of the importance of the Peninsula as a field for enterprise. Those mines are now so far proved that there is no fear of their being exhausted during the next five years at least, and the produce of the ensuing five years is likely to more than equal that of the preceding. Some of the secondary nines also give promise of improvement, so that tho prospects of the district are decidedly encouraging ; and as far as it possible to judge, even if no new discoveries were made, Wallaroo is likely to maintain fully its present amount of population for many years to come. It may be that in some cases there has been a little overtrading, and too great a disposition on the part of tradespeople to "rush" the place, but nevertheless prosperity is general, although there are isolated cases to the contrary.