A NATIVE MISSION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.
Sir— I shall be glad if you will allow me space in your columns for a few remarks on the subject referred to in a communication published in your paper of January 3rd, headed "An Aboriginal census" ...
It is difficult to understand how any one who has had opportunities of observing the social and moral degradation of the native inhabitants of this country can really believe that he is not failing in a positive duty when, while enriching himself with the produce of the land, or with its mineral wealth, he leaves the original possessor untaught and uncared for. For nearly three years I have known personally many of the natives of Yorke's Peninsula, and have seen and had slight communication with perhaps most of them. From the commencement I have taken a great interest in them, and for the last two years I have felt strongly that there ought to be a Mission-House on the Peninsula. I have frequently mentioned the subject to others, and proposed making an application for a grant of land and for a portion of the Aboriginal Reserve Fund arising from the sale of land towards carrying out this object; but no one took sufficient interest in it to endeavour to overcome any little difficulties that might arise at starting. One, indeed, went so far as to ask me to furnish him with some statistics as to the number of blacks who inhabited the Peninsula, their principal hunting-ground, chief places of resort, and any other information I could give. Having previously gained some items of intelligence from the Crown Lands Ranger at Kadina, and much from the natives themselves, I was able to tell him that tribes from the Hummocks, all parts of the Peninsula, and even from the Light, resort to the Kadina, Wallaroo, and Moonta districts periodically. Always at Christmas they congregate in considerable numbers, and two or three times a year besides. The Tipara Springs, about twelve miles from Moonta, are one inducement; the food given by the white population is another. Other information I gave which I hoped would lead to the subject being taken up by those who have more influence and are better fitted to carry out so important a work. But I have waited in vain, and should probably have waited yet longer, from a natural disinclination to take any but a private part in the platter, had it not been for the remark in the letter referred to, that "the natives are expecting a teacher to go among them, and are very glad." When talking to them of their children and asking them if they would like to have them taught to read and to work like white children, the invariable answer has been "yes," and I told them I would try to get a school built, where they must leave their children to be taught, and where I and they should go to see them. Debased as they are, and always wandering about, there is yet more order and discipline observed among them than those who have not studied their habits are aware of. I am speaking only of the tribes I know— those of Yorke's Peninsula-but it is probable that the same might be said of all the natives. Here all the tribes submit to one Chief, generally known as King Tom. He is a fine old man - full six feet in height; he is intelligent, and speaks English very tolerably. He orders the movements of the tribes, and his word is never disputed. An entire tribe, or a few men, are ordered to go to such a part of the Peninsula, to stay there a fixed time, and then move farther off or return, and the order is obeyed to the letter, even to the exact spot mentioned for the encampment. No black can engage to work for a white man for any length-ended period without permission; and if the Chief orders him to leave, he does so even when he wishes to remain. Knowing this to be the case, it was evident that nothing could be done without first gaining the goodwill of the Chief, and I succeeded in doing so. He willingly and decisively promised that if a school were built, he would let his child go (this child has been at our house many times, on one occasion for part of a week), and he would use his influence among his people. A woman of the tribe who speaks English very well, and has been in service in English families, promised me that she would leave her child at the school, and talk to the other women about their children. Hence, I believe, the idea of the "teacher." They trust us, because we have been kind to them; they believe us, because what we tell them we will do we do; and it is painful to reflect that for more than a year they have been looking for their teacher, while I have been waiting and hoping that others would do that which now it seems I should have tried to commence myself, by making known the willingness of the natives to have their children instructed. A further claim which these poor creatures have on the Government of South Australia, as well as on the sympathy of all right-minded people individually is the fact that very many of these children are half-castes. From personal observation I may add that I fear little comparatively could be done with the older natives. The plan I venture to suggest to the consideration of others is the establishment of a Home where the children may be received and brought up as Christians. There are those who say— it has been said to me- "They will run away as soon as they are old enough and go back to the wurley." Granted that some will do so, or even that all will— for the wild savage nature cannot be changed at once— they will soon take some better thoughts and feelings with them than they could ever have had without teaching. Good seed sown must bring forth some fruit, and it may be gathered in the wurley of the savage the result known only to God. Before closing these remarks I think it better to state that I have when visiting the miners' cottages, mentioned this subject It was warmly received, and monthly or weekly collections of small sums among the miners were spoken of towards the support of the Mission-House, and I have no doubt there would be a considerable amount of local support from this channel only; for when help is really wanted for the poor and friendless, my experience goes to prove that the Cornish miner never withholds it.
I am. Sir, &c., MARY A. MEREDITH. Moonta Mine, January 5.
BOORKOOYANNA NATIVE MISSION.
The buildings are all of stone, situate in the middle of a small plain of which Boorkooyanna is the native name, Boorkoo signifying a small shrub which grows there, and yanna plain. It is within about three miles of the sea, and in the sandhills a plentiful supply of fresh water is obtainable. There were 18 in the school or working at the establishment at the time of my visit, and two had gone away to see their parents. The institution, which is under the management of the Rev. W. J. Kühn, is conducted mainly upon the principle of self-support, and an important part, though by no means the whole, of the work is sheepfarming. A commencement was made with 100 ewes five or six years ago. and now there are about 1,300, some 400 having been sold for £142 after last shearing, which yielded a return for wool of £317. The Mission originally had one square mile, which has been all enclosed with stake and brush fence; but three years ago, the flock having so far increased as to require more grass, the Surveyor-General visited the place, and shortly afterwards the Government granted the use of 'The Point,' which has an area of about six square miles, and is enclosed by simply one fence run from beach to beach. The whole of the work on the place is done by the natives under the guidance and instruction of Mr. Kühn, no white labour being employed. They received this season £18 for shearing, being paid at the rate of £1 a hundred, and their work is acknowledged to be better done than the ordinary shearing in surrounding stations. Six of the young men are now employed at a weekly payment of 5s. beside their rations, and others can get employment at occasional times if willing to undertake it, the handsome return from the sheep last year having enabled this system to be adopted. The wages are for the most part spent in clothes, and the appearance of the young people on Sunday particularly is a source of satisfaction to the wearers, as well as having the effect of emulating the other blacks to improve their condition by the same means. The girls are employed in the ordinary household duties, taking it in turns to cook both for themselves and for the superintendent's house, all of which duties are performed in a highly creditable manner. They make their own clothes, and also earn something by making rush mats and baskets, which are sold at the Wallaroo townships. Of course the benefits of the institutions are not confined to pure aborigines. Indeed, most of the inmates have a good deal of white blood in their veins ; and while on the one hand they are raised above the normal state of their tribe, they, are still placed under disabilities which such institutions as the one I am describing help to lessen or eventually remove. The younger children are taught for a few hours daily, and all those who have been some years at the station can read and write and cipher. Same of the copybooks would be no discredit to white children of the same age. They have a good schoolroom, 40 feet long by 18 broad, and a dormitory each for boys and girls 18 feet square and well ventilated. Saturday is always made a free holiday, when the boys all go either fishing or hunting, kangaroos being plentiful in the scrub and fish on the coast. There is an island about two miles from the point where penguins abound, and another which is thickly inhabited by shags. In olden days the blacks used to swim over to this point for the sake of the eggs which they were able to obtain at certain seasons in abundance, and of which they are particularly fond. The young natives, however, have almost given up the art of natation, and none of them now care to go except 'along boat.' The aborigines of the Peninsula, who number between 100 and 200, are the remains of two tribes, distinguished now as the Peninsula and the Wallaroo mob, and they together with the Crystal Brook mob have friendly intercourse, meeting occasionally by invitation and arrangement of the respective kings. They frequently attempt to get the young people away from the station, and though they sometimes succeed, it is satisfactory to Mr. and Mrs. Kiihn to find that in many cases their allurements have not been sufficient to induce the children to leave their comfortable home and return to savage life. Unfortunately about two years ago a sickness in the shape of chest complaint carried off several of the children, and the old natives in consequence took several children away. A short time ago one of the girls was married to one of the young men rejoicing in the title of Jack Wilson, and they are living in a comfortable cottage on the land, Wilson being one of the regularly employed hands. Another marriage is expected to come off shortly, and a cottage is in course of erection by the blacks themselves to provide the necessary accommodation. Furniture is not expensive, as the mallee and pine in the neighbourhood afford material for most of the requisites. As with the other stations, Government rations are supplied to the sick and aged, and blankets to all who apply once a year. A service is held every Sunday in the: schoolroom, and the young natives join in the singing. In the afternoon they have Sunday school, and most of them have a fair knowledge of Bible truths, while several have been admitted to the church. At present cultivation of the land has not been attempted, but this season a small piece now being ploughed is to be sowed and cut for hay, to supply the horses that, are required for the use of the station, and perhaps a small quantity may be saved for grain. The appearance of the place and the financial results altogether reflect credit on the superintendent, and must be satisfactory to the ladies and gentlemen at Wallaroo town-ships who originated and carry on the mission. The value of the work is not to be judged by the number of the inmates. Although the race may be fast dying out, yet while any of them are left it can be no more than right that they should have a refuge where in time of need, through sickness or other cause, necessary aid may be given to the adults, and where the young ones who are thrown upon the world may have somewhat of the care which is bestowed upon other orphan or neglected children.
YORKES' PENINSULA NATIVE MISSION.
The annual meeting, at the Wesleyan Moonta Mines Chapel, in aid of the Native Mission toot place on Monday evening last. The spacious building was crowded. There were present on the platform the Revs. W. Wilson, T. Jarrett, J. T. Simpson, and Capt. Hancock, who was elected to the chair. The proceedings of the evening having been initiated in the customary manner, by singing and prayer, the Chairman made a few appropriate remarks, and then celled upon the Rev. W. Wilson to read the report, which stated, among other items of information, that " since the last annual meetings suitable dormitories have been erected at a cost of about £60, also a verandah to Mission-House, in both of which the native labor has been largely utilised. Last year the number of scholars under Mr Kulin's charge were males, 15; females, 16; total, 31. At present there are males, 18; females, 15; showing an increase of 2. There has been one death among the scholars. The station at Point Pearce has frequently been visited by large numbers of wandering natives; as many as 60 sometimes attending Divine service on the Sabbath. The word of life thus preached cannot fail to bear fruit in elevating some at least to their rightful dignity as members of the consciously redeemed human family. One of the adult scholars has beeil baptized, expressing an intelligent trust in Christ as his Saviour. Mrs Kuhn has conducted a bible class for the elder girls, and prayer meetings have been held once a week, at which two of the male natives engage in prayer, the same two also conduct evening classes. The Missionary with the natives have been busily engaged in planting mulberry trees for the cultivation of silk, which were kindly given by Dr. Schomburg,: also flax, and kitchen garden products. Some 120 sheep have been purchased ; the lambing season has been prolific; and an average clip of wool. The natives have been employed in raising tone, building tank, shepherding, &c., and two of the young men are building houses for themselves with a view to entering the marriage state. Mr Lane next read the financial statement of the business. The contributions received during the year amounted to £183 9s 3d, in addition to which there were special contributions as follows: Hon. Gr. F. Angas, £50; London Missionary" Society, £25; collected by Rev. J. Lyall, £9, making with balance previously in hand a total of £274 4s 2<L The expenses during the year, including Rev. Mr Kuhn's salary, building, purchase of sheep, &c., amounted to £223 18s 9d. The Rev. W. Wilson moved the first resolution as follows: -That this meeting do hereby express its gratitude to Almighty G-od for the success granted to the Mission during the past year, and adopt the report which has now been presented by the Committee. This was seconded by the Bev. T. Jarrett, and carried unanimously. A number of natives were here introdueed to the meeting by the Rev. Mr Kuhn, and were ranged along forms placed on the platform. They were of both sexes and of various ages, and presented a neat j and interesting appearance. After singing a hymn, I which they did very nicely, they were examined by Mr Kuhn on Scripture History, and the replies which they made to his questions were apt and intelligent. Several copy books containing ; specimens of the handwriting of the natives were subsequently handed round to the meeting, and they were examined with much interest and were highly commended. The second resolution was moved by the Rev. J. Y. Simpson as follows: That this meeting do hereby resolve by prayer I and effort to sustain the Mission during the ensuing year. Seconded by Mr Jolly and carried. A collection was made in aid of the funds of the Mission. The third resolution having reference to the appointment of officers and Committee for the ensuing year, was moved by Mr Davies and seconded by Mr Smith. Several hymns were sung by the natives during the evening and were loudly applauded. The doxology having been sung and the benediction given, the proceedings were brought to a close.
THE ABORIGINAL MISSION STATION AT POINT PEARCE
DEPUTATION TO THE COMMISSIONER OP CROWN LANDS.
A deputation representing the Committee of Management of the Point Pearce Aboriginal Mission on Thursday, August 17, waited upon The Commissioner of Crown Lands (Hon. J. Carr) for the purpose of asking that a more secure title to the land at Point Pearce might be given to the Mission. The Point Madeay Mission was also represented with a view of obtaining a similar privilege. Mr. Duncan, M.P.. introduced the deputation, watch consisted of the following gentlemen:— The Hons. R. A. Tarlton and W. Parkin, Messrs. K D. Boss, M.P., and J. Richards, M.P., the Reva. W. Wilson, S. Knight, and F. W. Cox, and Messrs. C. Smedley, Neville Blyth, C. B. Young, G. N. Birks, James Counsell, and D. Murray. Mr. Duncan having briefly explained the wishes of the deputation, The Rev. W. Wilsor read a memorial from the Point Pearce Mission, as follows :—
To the Hon. the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration. 'The petition of the undersigned residents of Yorke's Peninsula humbly showeth'—
1. That your memorialists take a deep interest In the welfare of the numerous aborigines of Yorke's Peninsula, and have by personal effort and liberal contributions of money from time to time assiduously endeavoured to promote their moral and material wellbeing and to ameliorate their condition generally.
2. That with this object in view a number of your memoralists about ten years ago formod themselves into a Committee, and established a Mission Staticon at Point Pearce on a piece of land granted for the purpose by the Government, which the Committee placed under tha charge of a zealous and indefatigable missionary, the Rev. Julius Kuhn, the requisite funds for the initiation and carrying on the institution having been subscribed by your memorialists and the public.
3. That the benefits accruing to the natives from the establishment of the Mission Station have been confessedly great, and are demonstrated by their increasing aptitude for conforming to the usages of civilized life, by their growing habits of industry, and In the young especially by their general improvement under the careful teaching of the missionary.
4. That but for the establishment of the Mission Station the natives would have been reduced to great distress and destitution, inasmuch as by the spread of agricultural settlement they would have been deprived of their hunting grounds; and moreover would not have been brought under the beneficial influence of the missionary's labours.
5. That for the purpose of affording increased advantages to the work of the Mission the Committee some time since applied for and obtained an additional reserve of land at Point Pearce, and in connection with which there are no fewer than 70 natives, who are frequently employed in hunting, and on convenient occasions receive secular and spiritual instruction from the missionary.
6. That various buildings necessary for carrying on the duties of the Mission have been erected on the land, such as schoolhouses, dormitories, missionary's residence, outbildings, and a native village; moreover, the land has all been well fenced, and many other substantial improvements have been made upon it.
7. That in addition to the improvements of permanent character your memorialists have partially stocked the station with sheep. 8. That the accommodation of the station being inadequate to admit of all the natives settlkg in separate families, your memorialists wish to expend a further sum of money in making such additions to the native village as will give the necessary accommodation.
9. That your memorialists do not solicit any monetary aid from the Government, as they hope in the course of years, by careful and economical management of the station, to relieve themselves of the pecuniary liabilities in connection with the Mission.
10. That a number of your memorialists are immediately connected with the working of the Mission Station, and have not only largely contributed towards its maintenance, but have been called upon to become liable for the payment of a Bank overdraft of £1,500, moneys advanced on behalf of the Mission. A still greater sum is needed to carry out successfully the objects of the Mission, and to provide for the wants of the numerous natives of the district.
11. That your memorialist have no right or title to the land reserved for tho natives at Point Pearce, and are consequently liable for the payment of the overdraft referred to; and as your memorialists in their dealings with the Mission have been actuated by motives of benevolence and a desire to advance the public interests, they think they may fairly ask that some kind of title to the land in question should be given them, in order that they may obtain, sufficient funds to carry on the work of the Mission and free themselves of their responsibility to the Bank. Your memorialists therefore respectfully pray that the Native Reserve at Point Pearce may be vested in the Mission Committee, or such other trustees as may be approved by the Government.
'And your memorialists, as in duty bound, ill ever pray.'
He would add to the prayer of the memorialists by stating that tha Mission was entirely catholic and perfectly unseotarian, it being supported by the public generally, and having in view the elevation of the aborigines from their awful physical and moral degradation, and their training, so that they might live In hopes of a better life hereafter. When the second Instalment of land was granted to the Mission by the the Government a deed of conveyance was executed under the supervision of the trustees; but Government subsequently wrote stating that it had no power to sanction such a conveyance as had been contemplated, and it waa then suggested that fresh legislation should be resorted to in order to meet the case. If this should ba found necessary he felt sure that a majority of both Houses would support such a step. There was some difference of opinion as to the form in which the claim should be made, but no one disputed that the claim was a substantial one.
Mr. Ross said he appeared there as a representative of the district, and in this capacity he might Btate that he sympathized entirely with the object of the deputation. At the same time, he must reserve to himself the right of considering the matter anew should it be brought before him in his capacity of Cabinet Minister.
The Rev. S. Knight said that the object of the deputation must be regarded as an experiment in connection with the civilization of the aborigines. Sheepfarming and agricultural experiments were expensive ; and, In addition to this, the idea of the Mission to establish a native village would, if carried into effect, occupy a considerable number of years. On these grounds the gentlemen of tho Committee felt that they ought to have security for the large amount of capital which would be involved by being put in possession of the title to the land. He need hardly point out that the answer which would be made to the deputation would concern other similar endeavours, and would affect the welfare of the aborigines generally.
The Rev. F. W. Cox read extracts from correspondence with a former Government In reference to the land held by the Point Macleay Mission, resulting in a formal instrument for the conveyance of the land being prepared by four trustees. The deed, however, never came into operation, it being found out that It was not exactly valid; and tha Mission at Point Macleay had continued to hold its land on sufferance as It were. Property had accumulated on the land to the value of £2,670, aad also funds had been handsomely granted by successive Governments. There were Bank overdrafts in connection with the management, which some gentlemen, who had been made responsible, found somewhat trying. He would rejoice to see such legislative action taken as would place the holding in a more tangible position than the simple permissive tenure under which it was now held. He had do fear of the Government resuming the land so long as it was used for aboriginal purposes; and he hoped that the Commissioner would see his way clear to yield to the suggestions of the deputation.
Mr. Neville Blyth concurred in the remarks of the previous speakers as to the desirability of giving the Mission a more tangible claim to the lands they occupied, so as to prevent misapprehension at any future time.
HOME OF THE ABORIGINAL.
Point Pearce Mission Station, the only aboriginal reserve on Yorke's Peninsula, is situated 30- miles along the coast from Moonta, and 12 miles from Maitland. The station contains 20 square miles of agricultural and pastoral land, in addition to Wardang Island, with an area of seven square mile, some three miles to the south-west from the mainland. Although the full-blooded natives for whose welfare the mission was originally established (nearly half a century ago) seem as a race doomed to pass out of existence within a limited period, yet Point Pearce has an excellent record of good work in the advancement of the moral and spiritual conditions of the aborigines of Yorke's Peninsula. There are at present living on the station 280 aboriginals, of which 30 are full blooded. The 'Point Pearce' village consists of ; 30 native cottages (laid out in municipal style) a church (which is generally well filled), a modern day-school (under the control of the Education Department), officers' houses, public baths, bachelors' quarters, the usual farm buildings (and implements), and a splendidly equipped windmill water scheme. Along the main street are avenues of gums, while surrounding the town are spacious parklands. An oval is provided adjacent to the parklands and many interesting games of football and cricket are witnessed here. There are two tennis courts in the town which are continually kept in use. The community is orderly, and social evenings and entertainments given great enjoyment to the natives. The natives are employed principally in agricultural work, end many of them are experts in shearing, wool classing, road making, fencing, building, carpentering, blacksmithing painting, and indeed all work pertaining to farm life in all its departments.
At the present time 2,880 acres of wheat, oats, and barley are under crop, in addition to 1,700 acres of fallowed land. Seeding operations are practically finished and form the present outlook, the prospects of a bountiful harvest are bright. The department has not a farming plant large enough to occupy the whole of the natives, and on this account lets a certain amount of land to white share farmers (most of whom are returned, soldiers).
A certain number of natives are given share-farming blocks on the third system, as follows:— The station provides them with teams, implements, and super, the natives paying for one-third seed used, one-third hay (to put in crop), and one-third of all bags and twine used. In return they receive one-third the value of the crop reaped, which in two instances last season amounted to £140 and £190 respectively. Modern farming methods are employed on the station, which is supervised by a farm overseer. The stock varies in accordance with the seasons, and requirements, the present number carried being 4,500 sheep, 100 head of cattle, and 50 pigs. The noble work which was started by a few pioneers of Yorke's Peninsula, and to ably continued by the various trustees and officers, and taken over by the South Australian Government in September, 1915, will not wholly be lost sight of in the ages to come. These men, who made sacrifices of energy and means, and whose sole purpose was to promote the moral welfare of the aborigines and their progeny, are worthy of the highest commendation. Mr. J. B. Steer, who was formerly superintendent at Point Macleay Mission Station, for 10 years, is carrying on the good work as superintendent. Wardang Island has been used by the station for grazing purposes since the year 1877, but owing to the scarcity of water can only carry stock during certain parts of the year, although tanks were constructed on the island from time to time until their holding capacity has increased to over 300,000 gallons. As, however feed runs short on the mainland, then the island becomes a necessity in order to maintain the sheep. To overcome the difficulties in transferring the stock to and from the mainland, a large, two masted boat was built, and substantial jetties constructed during 1910, at both sides of the channel (at a cost of £600). These give good facilities in the transfer of stock from the mainland to the island, and vice versa. Further interesting pages of the town on Yorke's Peninsula will appear in The Register at subsequent dates.
THE POINT PIERCE MISSION.
Sir - In your issue of the 29th April I read with much surprise the report of the Commissioner's visit to this station, and beg in justice to my character, and for the welfare of the mission, to correct some of the errors....
YORKE'S PENINSULA ABORIGINAL MISSION.
From the report of the Rev. J. Kuhn it appeared that difficulties had been experienced through want of water. He exceedingly regretted that they had not been able to do any ploughing, owing to want of horse-power....
POINT PEARCE MISSION STATION.
On Friday, November 17, I drove to Point Pearce, which is situated on the shores of Spencer's Gulf, about twenty miles below Moonta and within six miles of Port Victoria, which is the nearest post town. The first thing which attracted my attention on approaching the mission station was the solidity and good repair of the sheep proof fences and gates which enclose the property; next, the neat and comfortable appearance of the homesteads, which are ranged in regular order a healthy distance apart, with a wide street between the two rows of houses....
POINT PEARCE ABORIGINES MISSION.
The Protector of Aborigines has, in compliance with the request of the Commissioner of Crown Lands (the Hon. T. Playford), made a report on the work being done at the Point Pearce Aborigines' Mission. In this report Mr. E. L, Hamilton says that he visited the Mission Station on the 25th inst. The number of aborigines on the Station was —Married, 10 ; single men, 9 ; old " King Tommy," 1; single women, 4; children (including 9 orphans), 24; total, 54....
YORKE PENINSULA MISSION.
We have received from a Mr. T. S. Archbold, of Moonta, a pamphlet containing a brief record of the history and operations of the Yorke Peninsula Aboriginal Mission. In addition to the descriptive matter it contains portraits of founders and officials of the mission, with photographs of the station and the aboriginals. The mission was founded nearly half a century ago, but few records are available of events prior to 1878....
A MODEL MISSION. POINT PEARCE STATION.
Our aboriginal tribes are rapidly becoming extinct. During the last, half-century their number has been so reduced that few remain. We have taken their country by force, and, imbued with superior intelligence, have literally forced our presence and settlement upon them....
BETTING SHOPS. ABORIGINAL PROTEST AGAINST EVIDENCE
Sir— I desire through your, paper to express our protest against the unwarranted attack on the aborigines of Point Pearce Mission Station by the Rev. E. H. Woollacott, in his evidence before the Betting Commission...
PROBLEM of the HALF CASTE NATIVE
ABORIGINES and half-caste at Point Pearce Mission Station have formed the Australian Aborigines' Union, to agitate for better treatment of natives, an improved standard of education, an opportunity to become a valuable asset to the land, and redemption from "the degrading conditions under which at present they are forced to live."....
TOWNSHIP OF CONTRASTS
Point Pearce Aboriginal Mission Station, on Yorke Peninsula, where are gathered some of the remnants of Australia's vanishing native race and their descendants — the latter representing 98 per cent, of the community — is a place of remarkable contrasts....
WORK OF MISSIONARIES - Early days of South Australia Rites And Ceremonies Of Blacks
The pioneers and the explorers at times found the services of the blacks useful, even indispensable. At other times they suffered terribly from the treacherous and barbarous traits in their character. Always, however, they marvelled at the acuteness of the native senses. The gradual decay of the South Australian tribes due to white settlement cannot be justly regarded as an eternal stigma on the memory of our forefathers....