https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/109173989/10433034SCHOOLHOUSES ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.
The inadequate provision for teaching the young in the populous districts of Yorke's Peninsula has led the President of the Council of Education to choose these regions for his first tour of inspection....
DISCOVERY OF YORKE'S PENINSULA AND THE ADJACENT GULFS.
"Flinders and his discoveries." we quote the following : — On the 6th March, 1802, Port Lincoln was
quitted, and a gulf discovered trending north.
THE progress of settlement on Yorke's Peninsula is so surprisingly rapid that the country has, in some parts completely changed its aspects....
YORKE'S PENINSULA DIRECTORY
We publish this Directory In the hope that it will prove useful to our readers. At present it is very incomplete; but with the kind assistance of those Interested we hope to make it as nearly perfect as possible....
OUR LETTER HOME
At the date of our last letter political affairs were in a very disturbed state, and the prospect of anything like a fair attention to public business was remote and unsatisfactory....
OUR LETTER HOME
The peace-loving and law-abiding people of the district have no special proclivities for POLITICS....
JOTTINGS ON A PEG HUNTING EXPEDITION TO YORKES PENlNSULA.
Hunting of various kinds is immensely popular in South Australia. First we have place hunting. Some needy political adventurer, by promising anything and everything, manages to gull the free and independent electors, and thus secures a seat in Parliament....
OUR LETTER HOME
" The rain it raineth every day :" that is our experience of the last few days—as strange in this arid region as it is uncomfortable...
SOUTHERN YORKE'S PENINSULA.
The rapid strides which agricultural settlement has made in this colony since the liberalization of the land laws and the adoption of the system of credit and increased area is strikingly exemplified by the progress which is shown on Yorkes Peninsula....
DESTITUTION ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.
The subjoined correspondence has followed upon the complaints recently made to the Destitute Board by residents of Yorke's Peninsula of the treatment by the local Relieving Officer of persons alleged to be destitute...
NOTES OF A TRIP FROM YORKE'S PENINSULA TO YACKA.
The morning fair ; the time fixed for starting eight a.m., readjusted to noon, punctually ; again readjusted by circumstances to one o'clock ; and with the latitude and longitude allowed on these occasions, an actual start at half-past one, with (surprising to relate) nothing forgotten....
Leaving Adelaide at S a.m. we started for a motor trip on the peninsula. Our party consisted of four and the chaffeur. In due course we reached the Gawler Racecourse, and slowed down to watch the movements of the boys in the military camp....
YORKE'S PENINSULA—THEN AND NOW.
Wed 13 Jun 1923, The Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA : 1888 - 1954) Trove
The lapse of half a century of time naturally implies considerable changes, especially in a new country, and it is occasionally instructive and frequently pleasing to look back over the years and contrast conditions of Then and Now....
Sir William Sowden's Impressions on his Recent Visit. Many years ago I lived awhile in the mining district of Northern Yorke Peninsula, and have occasionally since revisited that extensive and far-famed region....
WIRELESS FOR THE MAN ON THE LAND.
Messrs. L. A. Harper and S. G. Germein, representing the Millswood Auto and Radio Company, have visited the various towns on Yorke Peninsula during the week. They have appointed agents for a new company to be known as the South Australian Broadcasting Co. Ltd. The Company will specialise in the manufacture and sale of wireless outfits. The station at Clarence Park will be the first broadcasting station in the State. Wireless is a new industry, and the possibilities are enormous. The new Company will commence broadcasting in January. The man on the land and in the country town without a wireless receiving outfit will be a back number. For seven hours daily the station will send out weather reports, market sales, time signals, prices of wool, sheep, pigs, etc., results of sporting events, cricket, football, lectures by prominent men, addresses by politicians, bed-time stories for the children, music, grand opera, etc. If you have a receiving outfit you will be able to hear all of the above. A special motor car equipment is being fitted to cars, and as the car travels along the farmer or business man can switch on and take messages from the air. The prices of receiving sets will range from £5 upwards. A most serviceable instrument for the man on the land will cost from £32 to £35. The Company has been formed, and 50,000 shares at are being offered to the public. Shares are being rapidly taken up. Look out for an important announce ment next week, In the meantime prospectus and particulars can be obtained from Mr. Geo. Rinder, Maitland; Messrs. A. E. Will and Woodard, Minlaton; Messrs. Murdock Bros., Yorketown: Mr. T. Croser, Coobowie; Messrs. L. G. Germein and A. j. Bridges, Stansbnry; Messrs. Cameron & King, Port Vincent and Curramulka; Mr. C. Hincks, Port Victoria; Messrs. J. O. Tiddy & Co. and A. J. Jarrett, Ardrossan.
PIONEER readers will no doubt remember that Mr. S. G. Germein, who is a Director of the new Company, is well known on Yorke Peninsula. He was a successful farmer at Stansbury, Black Point, and Maitland, and a member of the Yorke Peninsula and Minlaton District Councils. Mr. L. A. Harper was Postmaster at Stansbury for several years, and afterwards took charge of the Motor Department of the S.A. Farmers' Cooperative Union. The Company have erected a two-storey building, and will receive wireless news from all parts of the world.
ON YORKE'S PENINSULA. Si'MK OTi* THE INDUSTRIES.
During a recent visit to Yorke's Peninsula, it was my privilege to meet many persons who were qualified to impart information regarding local or general matters of interest to the community. There is a good deal of activity in various directions; prospectors are searching for phosphates, as a valuable prize is offered by the Government. The original discoverer of the indications, which caused such a flutter in commercial circles a few months ago, is confident that he will eventually be rewarded. In other directions mineral deposits are attracting attention; copper, of course, is the predominating metal, for which so many have searched in vain. At Stansbury, however, a better outlook is presented in the form of limeworks, which now occupy a prominent position on the seawall, within a few yards of the jetty. Five years ago Mr. Pitt, so long and favourably known as a fruitgrower and gardener near Payneham, decided to extend his business operations by embarking into lime and cement manufacturing, and for that purpose secured the present site with a view of erecting necessary works and kilns. The enterprise succeeded from the first, and before Iong Stansbury lime was sought after by builders. At the present time the works cover an acre of ground, on which are erected sheds and machinery of approved patterns, and every facility is afforded to the employes to carry on the various branches incidental to the treatment of the bulk stone till it emerges as lime ready for building purposes. The firm is now making lime and shipping it to Adelaide at the rate of 1,500 bags per week. Mr. Pitt, jun., the manager, designed the plans of all the machinery and buildings in connection with the Stansbury works, and personally superintended the erection. About 15 hands are regularly engaged, but during the busy season many more are taken on. The material used is procured from the surrounding district, and Peninsula stone cannot be beaten for lime. It is the intention of this firm to increase operations and works at an early date.
Vinegrowing, which was begun with enthusiasm a few years ago, has for some unaccountable reason suffered a decline. Along the road from Ardrossan to Maitland there are several vineyards of limited extent, which have at various seasons produced good crops; but, although to all appearances the vines are well cared for and looking healthy enough, there is no doubt the owners have given up viticulture as a source of revenue. It has been stated that a mistake was made in planting the varieties now growing, and that the fruit was not suitable for winemaking, and that vignerons had a promise from a leading Adelaide winemaker which has not been kept.
Poultry rearing with bacon curing, as well as butter making, is steadily becoming an important feature of well-conducted farms. It is astonishing to hear the enormous number of eggs that are yearly exchanged for stores or sold outright to country storekeepers. Thousands of pounds worth of eggs are sent from the Peninsula, and the full benefits of this new branch of bussiness has not by any means yet been realized.
It is always pleasing to see stock about a farm, and yet more so to observe many sections throughout the Peninsula fairly well stocked with sheep. There are a large number of small flocks on Yorke's Peninsula.
—Progressive Show Societies —
At Maitland the annual show was held on the twenty-fifth anniversary of its inauguration, and in order to celebrate the auspicious event the committee decided to erect a new building on the showground. As the Government have granted the society a block of ten acres, which has been fenced with 6-ft. galvanized iron at a cost of £250, a new exhibition building was the next best thing, and so the present edifice came to light. It is substantially built of wood and iron, 100 ft. x 40 ft., lofty in height, and well ventilated. The southern end is flanked by two towers 18 ft square, with a balcony 18 ft. x 20, running between. This is easily divided, providing an inside, and outside space. There is nothing imposing about the structure, but it is a very serviceable addition to the society's, property. Mr. W. J. Phillips, of Moonta, supplied the plans and superintended the erection. With a continuance of assistance from the enthusiastic working committee, Mr. J. O. Tiddy should put up a further record next season.
The Minlaton Society also had considerable improvements to report, the most important of which was the completion of a 5-ft. stone wall completely encompassing the 10-acre section, recently granted the society by the Government. Handsome iron gates, attached to pillars, have also been fixed, and a new pavilion provided for the band. These works have caused an outlay of £700 odd, and there is still much more to be consummated before the energetic secretary (Mr. D. G. Teichelmann) will be content. The amount given in prizes this year was £250, but the returns were sufficiently in excess of last year to warrant the secretary in stating that a record had been secured. Mr. Teichelmann has controlled the destinies of this society for 16 consecutive years, and is still as keen as ever on its success. Born in Kensington. South Australia, in 1846, he is a son of the first Lutheran minister to arrive in this state— the late Rev. C. G. Teichelmann. Mr. Teichelmann has been engaged in farming and grazing pursuits in the Minlaton district for 28 years. He is fortunate in being supported by a strong and enthusiastic committee of ladies and gentlemen. The local band of 18 performers, under the conductorship of Mr. D. McKenzic, occupied the new pavilion on show day, and contributed a number of musical selections in a very creditable manner.
The spiritual welfare of the district is in he hands of the Revs. Beaumont, of Yorketown (Church of England), W. W. Wylie Wesleyan). Father Murphy, of Yorketowe, Roman Catholic), and Mr. Bungay, who is temporarily in charge of the Baptist Chapel.
Mr. J. A. O'Brien, the postmaster, devotes what little leisure he can afford from official duties to stockrearing, and is a good judge of horses its well as a breeder. In cooperation with several other residents, he takes a lively interest in local affairts, social and otherwise.
During my stay in Yorketown, Dr. Davies showed me the new building, which is to be utilized as an hospital by any one requiring medical attendance and treatment. It consists of two large rooms, divided by a commodious hall. Each room— 21 ft. x 14 ft. — will contain three beds, and will be under the direct control and supervision of a certificated nurse. A room is provided at the back of the hall, from which, by means of windows the attendant can keep an eye on the movements of patients. At the end of the allotment a mortuary has been erected, which will prove a great convenience to medical men, should occasion arise for it. When all necessary work is completed, the hospital and outbuildings will form an important addition to the institutions of the Peninsula. The cost, which will be borne by public subscription (with-out Government subsidy), will probably run into£400. Of this amount nearly £300 has been collected, so that there is no anxiety felt in that direction. A Iocal commiitee will be formed to act as trustees, and otherwise direct the business of the new hospital. The local medico, Dr. Davies, is a leading spirit in all matter of social and public importance, and is a thorough, sportsman. He is a stanch supporter of the rifle club, of which he is an active and prominent member. Mr. Riddle (the Mayor) is an old resident, and deeply interested in the towns progress. He is one of the leading business men of the district. Messrs. 0. G. Rechner, Erichsen, McFarlane, Woods, Marston, Wilkinson, Rohrig, and Russell each conduct flourishing establishments in their respective lines, and speak hopefully of a return of prosperity to Yorketown. The two hotels are well managed and prospering, under the proprietorship of Mr. Daymond (Yorketown Hotel), and Mr. G. Stocking (Melville Hotel). This district is well supplied with local news, per mediumship of two weeklies, published by Mr. Wilkinson and Mr. McFarlane respectively.
At Edithburg there is a growing demand far accommodation during the summer season, and in order to provide for future contingencies local hotelkeepers are commencing to add to their present buildings. The run across the gulf and invigorating atmosphere in this district is gradually becoming known to holidaymakers who are averse to long sea voyages. Owing to the lack of accommodation, however, very few visitors, compared to years past, now make tbe trip. Perhaps the effort to remedy this matter may be successful in regaining public patronage and confidence.
—Port Vincent. —
Port Vincent was unusually busy on the day of my visit, as the Ceres was running on an excursion trip with visitors bound for the Minlaton Show. The idea is new, but in view of the fact that nearly 80 passengers availed themselves of the opportunity of cheap fares to visit their friends across the gulf, the experiment should be worth repeating. There is little news to report in reference to this pretty seaside resort, the principal exports from here being wheat and wool. There are only a few houses, but the hotel is in every way superior to most places of accommodation in the country. The district council controlling this port has recently expended several hundred pounds in the erection of a pretentious looking wharf— still incomplete — but, judging from the appearance of the structure at low tide, it strikes one that for purposes of utility it might serve its purpose almost as well in the middle of the township. There has apparently been some miscalculation as to tide waters, with the result that unless dredging alongside the wharf for a few feet can be carried on, the latest addition to Port Vincent's harbour accommodation will remain practically useless.
Sixty-miie Trip. Few motorists have exploited the possibilities of the foot of Yorke Peninsula, which from the scenic point of view has much to commend it.
The first stage of the journey lies over the route between Adelaide and Port VVakefield— a distance of 60 miles. That portion of the trip provides fairly comfortable riding, except for a, few short intervals, particularly at Two Wells, where the road contains a number of pot holes.
After passing through Two Wells the road to the left should be followed, and by keeping to the main road Lower Light, Dublin, Windsor, and Inkennan will be passed at intervals of a few miles each. On reaching Port Wakefield the railway line should be crossed. About six miles out of Port Wakefield a turn should be made round the top of St. Vincent Gulf, following the telegraph line to Port Clinton. From there it is six miles to Port Price and a further 11 to Ardrossaan.
The scenery prorided along the coast after continuing through Muloowurtie and Port Vincent is particularly fine.
At Port Vincent a slight deviation to the westward — about a mile is necessary to get on to the road leading to Stansbury (10 miles). Coobowie is the next township reaehed and Edithburgh is a few, miles further on.
GOOD CAMPING GROUND
From there turn west and keep on the road to Yorketown. Interestang country is passfed through and the roads to VVarooka and Dairy Station are easily negotiable- Coirney Point, about six miles is beyond Waropka, provides an excellent camping ground.
The track southward from Corney Point to Daly Head is perhaps the roughest stage of the trip. Further south in spite of the somewhat desolate limestone country in the vicinity of Carrtibie Station, the grandeur of the scenery along the road is particularly striking.
At Stone Hut, Cape Spencer is seen on the west and the Althorpe Islands, stand out prominently some miles out to sea. There is good fishing at this point and inland emus and kangaroos are to be found. The remains of wrecked vessels strewn on the shore are noticeable.
Yorketown is reached after travelling some 40 miles east from Stone Hut and return journey may be made by way of Minlaton and then through Mount Rat to Maitjand, Artthurton, Melton, and Kulpara are reached at easy stages, and a return to Adelaide may be made through Port Watefield.
INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE.
PIONEERING YORKE'S PENINSULA. DEVELOPMENT. WEST AND SOUTH.
If the more closely settled areas of Yorke's Beninsula impressed the Parliamentary party; the little known and less worked country between Yorketown and Cape Spencer amazed them. During the week-end they saw some of the finest coastal scenery in the State, enjoyed wonderful hospitality in a model self contained industrial settlement, and passed through hundreds of thousands of acres of agricultural country awaiting cultivation.
At Edithburgh members of the party were told to remember that the peninsula did not end until they reached that centre; the next day they found that in many respects the peninsula does not begin until Edithburgh has been passed. To those who have not studied the map it is amazing that there is such a huge tract of country stretching away to the southern-most point, most of it undeveloped. In fact, almost the whole of Southern Yorke's Peninsula is still in the pioneer stage. Huge tracts of scrub country are held on pastoral leases. In patches barley and wheat are being tried with encouraging results. This part of the peninsula also supports the gypsum industry.
The party, accompanied by the Chief Inspector of Mines (Mr. L. J. Winton) and the Mayor of Yorketown (Mr. J. Ferguson) and others, left Yorketown on Sunday morning, and was motored across to Warooka, before Betting out for Cape Spencer. The Warooka district is worse off this season than in 1914. But that is not so bad as it reads. In the drought Warooka was more fortunate than most other districts, and had an average rainfall. This year the falls to date are two or three inches less than in 1914; but, notwithstanding the dryness, the crops will not yield very much less than usual. From Warooka the cars struck south across the peninsula, at its narrowest, and followed down the coast from Sturt Bay amid delightful coastal scenery. The grandeur of the scene increased every mile. Rising from the low land arouud Marion Bay, the party accended the headland of Stenhouse Bay and looked out over a seascape, formed by Cape Spencer and the Althorpes, slightly resembling, but excelling, the view overlooking Victor Harbour. The party vas met at Stenhouse Bay by Mr. W. R. D. Innes. All the members of the party, even those who had previously visited Cape Spencer, were impressed by the progress made there and the extent to which the settlement has grown. Substantial houses dot the scrub on both sides of the valley overlooking the gypsum lake. In the afternoon they were given the opportunity to get an idea of the immensity of the gypsum deposits in the vicinity, the growth of its manufacture, and the neglected beauty spots. The rugged cliffs, huge seas, combers and breakers, sandy beaches, shell beaches, islands, and pleasant climate should make this one of the choicest holiday and tourist resorts in South Australia; but up to the present it is little known. The Tourist Bureau, however, is at present considering running trips to southern Yorke's Peninsula, and a project for a chalet or holiday house is also mooted. The visitors were motored across the corner of the end of the peninsula to near the wreck of the Ethel by West Cape, end to Brown Bay, noted for its fishing, and Pondalowie Bay, one of the prettiest spots on the coast.
Inneston— Communal Life.
The whole settlement, formerly known disparagingly as the cape, or the camp, but in future to be called Inneston, after the founder, is controlled by the Inneses, Mr. W. E. D. in Melbourne, and Messrs. J. A. S. and H. at Cape Spencer. Not only have they shown great enterprise and determination in working the gypsum, but they are at the same time clearing and cultivating the land, and by producing good barley crops proving the possibilities of agricultural development. Beginning in isolation, their company, the Peninsula Plaster Company, has established an industrial settlement which is practically self-contained, and which it would be difficult to excel for prosperity and contentment. The workmen receive good wages, have their houses rent free, and every facility for welfare. The settlement is electrically lit, and every institution— all of them run by the company— is modelled on the most modern and complete lines. In view of the enthusiasm displayed in the Parliamentary visit, it was fitting that Inneston should have been the scene of the most speech-making of the tour, and of a review of impressions. Every member of Parliament spoke and expressed surprise at the extent of the operations, and commended Mr. Innes for the fine spirit of co-operation which existed between master and men. They agreed that the name should be changed to Inneston, and said it was encouraging to fee industry carried on under the existing difficulties without help from the Government, and gave the peninsula credit for not requiring spoon-feeding. Special mention was made of the fact that the agricultural possibilities were also being tested, with encouraging results, judging by the barley crop, which promised to yield between eight and 10 bags to the acre. The local members, Messrs. Tossell and Giles, pointed out that injustice had been done to the company; as it had built its own jetty, but was now being charged jetty dues, to ship over its property. They also stated that the residents wanted a straight road to Warooka, and suggested that application should be made to the Commonwealth Government to construct the road as a developmental work. They thanked those who had helped in arranging the trip, Mr. K. Wilkinson, of Yorketown, and the motor drivers, particularly Messrs. G. Kemp and J. Chinner, of Yorketown. and Messrs. G. Croser and S. Vigar, of Warooka, and suggested that Inneston should be made a ward for the Warooka council. The speakers were Messrs. Shepherd, Anthoney, Pedler, Thompson, Jettner, and Sutton.
Lakes of Gypsum.
Work was begun on the gypsum in the southern extremity of Yorke's Peninsula in 1889, and the industry promises to become one of the most important on the peninsula. Two companies are operating — the Peninsula Plaster Company, at Inneston, and the Victor Plaster Company, a new concern which took over from A. H. Hasell at Marion Bay. Fourteen years ago Mr. W. Innes went to Cape Spencer with horses and a dray and began work in the scrub. Since then the company has spent abont £100,000 in the plant and settlement, and, working on one lease, has extracted nearly 30,000 tons a year for the last 10 years. Originally the gypsum was shipped away for treatment, but since 1916 it has. been made into plaster of paris on the field, turning out 10,000 tons a year. Messrs. Innes showed the visitors over their factory, which works three shifts seven days a week. Handled by machinery from the time it is dumped, the washed gypsum is dried, ground, burned, and bagged. Four miles of track have been laid to the company's private jetty at Stenhouse Bay. The whole plant is so well equipped that all repairs are done on the spot and much of the plant made there. Eighty men are employed. School chalks are also proiluced. At the other works the manager, Mr. L. S. Davis, conducted the inspection. The gypsum is taken from the lake, a mile square, and shipped to Melbourne for manufacture. The company's output in the Melbourne factory is 25,000 tons a year. Fifteen men are employed at Marion Bay. The company have extended the jetty by 1,300 feet, and ship away 800 tons a week. At present two shifts of 12 hours are being worked. Mr. Davis also had a grievance with the Harbours Board for levying jetty, dues over the jetty built by the company and in refusing even to grant ground moorings.
Roads and Shipping.
The southern end of the peninsula, being still most undeveloped, has many needs, and on the run back to Warooka some handicaps to progress were indicated. The party returned along the mail track to Corny Point, along a road upon which the Councillors of Warooka themselves took an axe and cleared scrub. The party were entertained at tea by the Warooka District Council. The Chairman (Mr. E. Barlow) presided, and welcomed the visitors; and Mr. T. Taheny, in support, stated that Warooka would have refused a subsidy for their new hall if they had been offered one. The clerk of the council (Mr. J. D. Penhall) aired their grievances. He pointed out that Warooka, with 642.5 miles of road in the district, had only 11.5 miles of main road; and received a main-road grant of £160. At least half of the Corny Point road should be a main road, because 30,000 tons passed over it annually. The lack of shipping facilities at Corny Point was deplorable. Shippers first took their cargo in a dray into tho sea to a cargo hulk, and from that transferred to a ketch. Last year, from 12,000 to 14,000 bags of barley was shipped thence, and the provision of facilities would increase the trade by 10,000 bags.
Mr. Tossell contented that a main road should start from Warooka to develop the land at the south end of the peninsula, and, possibly, the industrial works at the west end. The ladies who provided the tea were Mesdames E. T. BarIow, J. A. M. McKenie, H. T. Vigar, A. J. Vigar, T. A. Murdock, W. Keonnecke, and F. T. Taheny.
Warooka, thriving as it is, represents solid prosperity derived from hard work. Fifteen years ago it was scrub land, like much of the undeveloped corner of the peninsula. It is blessed with a good assured rainfall. Thorough farmers have laboured unremittingly in working the soil, and to-day they had their reward in splendid returns. A paddock of barley on a Warooka farm reaped 46 bushels to the acre. After spending the night at Yorketown, the party took the railway bus to Paskeville on Tuesday morning, and returned to Adelaide by train.
OUR EARLY SETTLERS. THE TRIP TO YORKE PENINSULA.
Towards the end of the sixties, the farmers on the South Rhine and Eden Valley were having a very bad time through red rust reducing the yield from 20 bushels to or 4, and as most of them were on rented land from 10/-to 12/- per acre, and reaping by sickle, which cost 12/- per acre, you will readily understand why they were looking further afield. Nearly all the wheat from Eden Valley went per waggon to Jno. Dunn & Co.'s mill at Mount Barker.
About that time the lower end of Yorke Peninsula was being surveyed. The first hundreds were Melville, Moorowie, Para Wurlie, and Dalrymple, and were held by Anstey and Giles, of Penton Vale Station; Wm. Fowler, Moorowie; Roger Landers and Stephens, Lake Sunday; Thos. Rogers, Carribie; and Orrie Cowie, by Jas. Gilbert. It was rich grazing country, and it was no wonder they did not look pleased to see the 'cocky" inspecting the land. As soon as the land was thrown open a good lot of it was taken up and "dummied," generally securing the water. At that time no one person could take up more than a square mile. The price started at £2 per acre, and gradually came down to 20/- per acre. After it had been open for selection a certain time it then could be bought right out for cash at 20/-. Limiting selection to 640 acres was a mistake. No one could carry on mixed farming on that acreage, as nearly all the land was very rough and stoney. In 1870 the late F. W. Friebe and I took a run over to see what prospects there were to open a shoe shop and store. We left Port Adelaide per "Edith Alice," and arrived at Salt Creek one Sunday morning in May, tramping it to Middle Hut, which was located near Seven Roads. Mr. H. Newland, saddler, was already established at Seven Roads, where Mr. Dugan was going to lay out a township later on. Mr. Newland kindly drove us as far as Orrie Cowie. At that time there was already a sprinkling of settlers. Mr. Friebe decided to try his luck, and joined Mr. Newland at Seven Roads, but I was not impressed; the land seemed too rough for successful farming and the settlers too scattered to start a store. At first everybody wanted a block with a little clear land and avoided those with lakes as much as possible. The Government would not cut the lakes out. They had all to be paid for as land. By degrees the whole of the hundreds were taken up. As a good number of the settlers were old customers of ours from Eden Valley, we, our firm of Gottschalk and Klem, decided to follow them, and opened a general store at Edithburgh. In 1872 the late C. Kruger had taken up land at Oaklands, so we arranged to go overland together. We left Eden Valley in 1872, C. Kruger with an English waggon and five horses, and I with a van and four horses, leading five behind. We went via Angaston. Tanunda, Gawler, and Two Wells to Port Wakefield. It was very wet season, and the road track from Two Wells was in awful state. We got bogged a good number of times. The track from Two Wells was not grubbed, and there was scrub malice on both sides. The mail coach from Adelaide to Moonta had leather springs. No other kind would stand the rough stumps. We got to Port Wakefield on Saturday and that night there was a tidal wave. In the morning our conveyances were in water up to the axles, and we could not get near them, but the water soon soaked away, and in the afternoon we managed to get round the swamps and camped at the foot of the bald hills at Yarraroo. We then went by easy stages, following the coast track, all scrub, till we got to Oyster Bay, now Stansbury. There we found a Mr. Taylor building ketch called the "Elizabeth Ann." We asked him why he was building ketch there. He told us he could get all the naturally crown timber for ribs. The young sheaoak trees were the very best for the purpose. I think he built three ketches there. An old friend of mine bought the "Elizabeth Ann" when she was ready for sea for £l,200, and we often loaded her at Edithburgh with wheat. A very good stout boat she proved to be. Next morning we went to Haywood Park and camped. Not knowing how we were going to get to Edithburgh, we rode up to Seven Roads to see our old friend, W. Friebe, and get directions. At that time there were only tracks from one shepherd hut to another from the head station. H. Newland and F. W. Friebe returned with us to spend the evening with us at camp, as Mr. Kruger was close to his selection, and we were to part company, so we put the whole of our flour together and made an old man damper. When we rolled it out of the ashes it was nearly as high as our front wheel. It was pronounced by our visitors A1. Next morning we passed Penton Vale, and got badly bogged several times, and saw a stack of salt about 80 tons there in bags The late Mr. L. Giles had it scraped to see if it could be sold, but I believe the bag rotted and the salt melted with the rain. After we got established at Edithburgh we tried to sell it for him, and submitted samples to all the leading merchants at Adelaide. They all declared it valueless, not even good enough to salt hides. So much for prejudice.
Now we know of no other salt. We reached Sultana at Edithburgh night. Next morning we hunted up our allotments and shifted on to them and struck camp, and glad the over land journey was over. Edithburgh at that time consisted of the Troubridge Hotel, half up, being built up Jas. Young, of Port Wakefield, and two-roomed cottage with thatch, occupied by Mrs. Eastern, who cooked and washed for her sons, near by. Not much of a space to build a general store, you will say, but we knew when we decided to go to Yorke Peninsula that we should have to go after trade that is why we took over a van. We soon got busy, got a van load of goods over, and made the first trip. We had to keep the pot boiling while the store and dwelling for my partners family were being built.
Soon after we arrived we had an open air meeting at Seven Roads to erecting a jetty. W. V. Cornish Sail Creek was a very energetic young man, and he and the skinpers of the "Sailor Prince" and "Edith Alice" told us some Murchhouson stories of the dangerous position, with no holding ground, etc., at Edithburgh, but the meeting carried Edithburgh for jetty. We know the Government made lots of mistake in that regard but as far as Point DeMole (Edithburgh) is concerned it made no mistake. It is the only jetty that has a good depth of water. John Wisham got the tender to build the first short structure and cutting, and a good stout job he made. From then on the township of Edithburgh grew rapidly. The first mail by water was carried by A. Martin in a little 5-ton cutter called the "Sultana." He carried all our stores via Glenelg, reaching Edithburgh regularly on Sunday morning. We kept the post office in the store, and conveyed the mail to Weaner's Flat (Yorketown) on the following morning per horseback, and returned same day. Martin was almost as punctual as the steamers on his trips, The Government evidently did not have much faith in the country, as no inland townships were surveyed till (1876) Minlaton and Maitland were surveyed. Mr. Chas. Beaumont saw his opportunity at Weaner's Flat. There was a small block of land that farmers would not take up on acount of two-thirds lake and one-third land. As it had laid open the required time it could now be bought for cash, Mr. Beaumont bought it and surveyed the township called Yorketown. He persuaded H. Newland and W. Friebe to come to Yorketown and would give them an acre each for 5 pound which they accepted. Mr. Beaumont building the hotel, and with Ed. Jacobs already on the corner where Erichsen's store is the township could boast of four business places. The land was generally cleared by pulling down with bullocks in winter and broken up with a single fixed plough. That meant a pair of good horses and man to do one acre per day, or 10 weeks to do 60 acres. Today we do that in a week. On account of the tones and stumps the area was united in most cases till the stumpiump plough came into use. The late Caldwell. M P., of Wattle Point, was the first man to bring a stumpjump plough over. A field trial was held at Wattle Point. The implement was rather cumbersome and made a great noise, but all present were satiseld the principle was right. It would jump the stones and scrape off the little soil there was and best of all no one had to hold the handles. The blacksmith soon got busy. Once they saw the idea, they soon improved it from year to year Clarence Smith, of Ardrossan, is to my mind the king of the stump-jump plough. Mr. Heazegirdle, of Edithburgh did a roaring trade with a 3-furrow for £22. There was a fine spirit of self-reliance the old pioneers, such as clearing roads, scraping and cleaning out wells. The Oakland' farmers wanted, buy wheat at Wool Bay (now Pickering) but there was no jetty nor cutting. They volunteered to make the cutting, fence a block of land all free, and 40 men turned up with picks, shovels, and crowbars, making the cutting in one day. Mr. F. L. Barnes, of Oaklands, carted the 8,000 bags that we took in there on account of John Darling & Son for 1d. per bag. Folk in those days did not run to the Government for every 2.5d. job that wanted doing, but did it themselves. Getting back to Edithburgh, the late Mr Ben Rose was soon on the job to build a little chapel, and never grew weary of the theme, so it was derided that he should see what could be done re material. A block of land was already bought, and subscription lists were got out to see what cash could be raised. Mr. Rose soon had all stones, sand, lime, and water. Even the young men gave labor, but I don't remember how much cash we raised Mr. E. Guilon got the job to build, plaster, and paint at 2/9 per yard. How does that compare with to-day? A good job he made of it. When the building was completed we were £80 debt, which we got from the Home Fund, but had to pay off £10 per annum. Four ladies gave a tray each for a tea meeting, the £10 was forth coming each year, and when it was reduced to £40 eight gentlemen came forward and gave £5 each, so in 1879 the building was free of debt. The Rev. Robt. Kelly, a single man, was our first preacher. He came by the little "Sultana." and we conveyed him on horseback to Weaner's Flat. Mr. Kelly boarded with Mr. Macklin at Sunbury, where I think they had a small building for school and service. All of Mr. Kelly's work was on horseback, and his circuit as far as Maitland at times. He had a fine lot of local men assisting him, including R Caldwell. Jas. Caldwell, J. Bartram. S. Woods, Thos Barnes and F. Havey. The Edithburgh Chapel was opened by Mr. Kelly on Christmas Day 1874, with a tea meeting. It was a great success. The first steamers to call at Edithburgh were the Lubra, Kangaroo, and Royal Shepherd, on their way to Port Augusta, and calling in on their return Fare, 15/- each way, but they took no cargo. It was a good service until the steamer Glenenelg was put on. Her capacitv was 1,200 bags wheat—a very good boat calling at Glenelg for passengers to help the Glenelg Railway. Later a local steamhip company was formed, and Mr A Martin was sent to Scotland to buy a suitable boat He purchased the lame Conmrie?." but on arrival we found we had to spend £400 to make her suitable for the trade. On the way out from Scotland we got her to call at Newcastle and filled her with coal at 7d per ton, which helped to bring her out. Our first schoolmaster was Mr Jas. Gelled, a fine type of man and an ardent Methodist. He was very musical, which was a great help at the church. Our first doctor Dr. A Vonuida, coming from the Bilimman Mine. A team and waggon brought his furniture all the way overland, a great journey. He resided near Lake Fowler, Iater he built in Yorketown ( V ( '.. Rerh-• now ..1 ,TV.i<• — ' The d'.'1-tor was fiirioii- driving AUvavan. l would gallop them ed 'I • 1 li k. I>1 poiti. to where he was called. The first agricultural show was held at Edithburgh. Held alternately at Edithburgh and Yorketown. The first concert was a Catholic one, held in a barn between Yorketown and Seven Road-—a great success. We had to go through a sheet of water near Sheehan Well for finite a quarter of a mile. The late Ebenezer Ward in the 70's selected land at Para Wurlie. He received the gold medal at the Paris Exhibition for wheat grown at Para Wurlie. He was instrumental in getting the crossing over the Peesy Swamp made, and it was named after him. He also gave a recitation when the Edithburgh Institute was opened_ Jno Smith was the first manager of the National Bank, kept at the back of our store till they built in Blanche Street. The dairy at Comey Point got its name because Rogers' people milked a great number of cows there and made butter and cheese and shipped it to Wallaroo Mines, and made £7,000 that way. We sold our store to Mr. Geo. Hart, and went into contract work, carting, lime burning and wheat buying, etc. till 1879, When we dissolved partnership I decided to go on the land. My friends did all they could to persuade me not to go to Corney Point. Said I would starve there, the land was no good, etc. My only experience in farming was wh 10 vears old to carry a bullock whip Inside a team of bullocks in a single furrow plough, near Pewsey Vale, and I don't know whether I or the bullorks were most frightened, but they saw bought experience is best. True, I had a pretty bad spin for a time, what with kangaroos, wallabies, and poor crop, but all was altered when super came, which increased the yields 100 per cent. Now we are coming to the next stage of progress, viz.., top dressing, and I predict that within five years top dressing pasture land will be as universal as for cereals. That top dressing will increase the carrying capacity 100 per cent, is beyond dispute, and if any doubting Thomas' are about let them come to Corney Point, and I will show them rough stoney black grass land which will convince them without a shadow of doubt, thanks to science and chemistry. No wonder there is a boom in land values in good rainfall districts. Maitland land is fetching almost £30 per acre, and yet before super several farmers were ruined through poor crops, which were as low as and 4 bushels. Now, in conclusion, to justify the Maitland-Paskeville railway, or better still right down to Edithburgh, we want oil or coal that folk say are in abundance at the lower end. Nothing but boring will prove it, and boring costs money, and folk are not very keen to invest what they cannot see. I hope the effort that is being made for a trial bore will be successful.
By Mr. O. Klem, of Corney Point.
THE MAN ON THE LAND "BACK TO THE HORSE"
Writing to the "'West Australian" he stated that some four years ago he was persuaded to dispose of a team of horses and buy a tractor, since when his farming has been done by it and a team of horses....