South Australia has a few attractive health resorts more popular than Edithburg, which is situated on the eastern shore of Southern Yorke's Peninsula. The trip is easily made in a few hours by the S.S. Warooka, whose genial skipper is Capt. Henderson, who for many years successfully piloted the James Comrie across the find to Kangaroo Island.
Edithburg, which Is in the Hundred of Melville- the first hundred surveyed and gazetted under the regulations of the Strangways Act, in the early seventies- was named after Lady Edith Fergusson, the wife of Sir James Fergusson, formerly Governor of South Australia, and streets in the town derived their nomenclature from the Christian names of other members of the viceregal family. In the early days of its history Edithburg was principally known as a pleasant rendezvous for holiday makers and health seekers, but the past decade has witnessed a great change in the tide of affairs, and at present the port of Edithburgh claims to be one of the principal shipping places in this state.
-The Salt Industry- -Valuable Salt Lakes-
The discovery that awaited development within a few miles of the town was speedily followed by a period of industrial activity and commercial enterprise on the part or Messrs. Henry Berry & Co., who were the pioneers in the opening up and development of the salt industry on the peninsula.
It is due in a marked degree to the action of this firm that success has attended the efforts to secure recognition and markets for South Australian salt. Certainly salt manufacture has been responsible for reviving trade and establishing on a sound footing at least two towns on the Peninsula-Yorketown and Edithburg. The lakes whence the greater portion of the crude material is derived are situated within an area of a few miles of the former town, and the bulk of the business is derived from persons engaged in connection with the industry. Yorketown, formerly known as Weaver's flat, has a flourishing agricultural district to support its '"salt" trade; but Edithburg is not so favourably situated, and depends almost entirely, on the industry for its success. At present three refineries are working. The Castle Salt Company has a huge factory and enormous stacking sheds on the seawall, equipped with elaborate machinery for the treatment of salt until it emerges in the form of a splendid sample of household commodity. The works, are fitted with electricity throughout, and annually treat for export something like from 35,000 to 40,000 tone. Employment is necessarily provided, all the year round for a large number of hands, and the growing demand for the South Australian article promises remunerative occupation for a much larger number of employes. Mr. C. Allen is the secretary of the company and Mr. W. Baker manager of the works. Mr. Jordan is the general superintendent of works on the lakes and shipping manager. In close proximity are the Colonial Salt Company, 'which are also on an extehsive scale, and fitted with all necessary machinery. The annual output of this company, which is of comparatively recent establishment, is from 10,000 to 12,000 tons, which is mostly shipped to the Australian States and New Zealand. A splendid sample is produced, and increasing demand is a proof of the popularity of the Colonial Company's brands. Fourteen men are regularly employed at these works, and probably 40 to 50 are supplied with work during the season at the lakes. This number does not include carters. Mr. Wylie is the secretary, with office in Adelaide, and Mr. G. F. Benson is the resident manager.
The Standard Salt Company, which is under the general management of Mr, W. J. Daly, with Mr. Butt as practical superintendent, does not cater for the finer description of salt trade, but finds a ready demand for material used by curers and tanners. Comprehensively speaking, the industry is conducted on a scale of magnitude quite unknown to the greater majority of South Australians, and there is no doubt that the operations of these companies as manufacturers and shippers are an important factor in the commercial life of the state.
-Wanted, Better Accommodation.-
Increased accommodation for vessels is needed at this port, and greater inducement would be given to visitors if another jetty for passenger traffic were erected. It is absolutely dangerous to use the present structure during the busy season of loading, and, considering the splendid income derived by the Government from the jetty now available, it is contended that they could well afford to provide adequate accommodation for the traffic. Recently two dolphins _ were erected, one on each side of the jetty, for convenience of visiting craft, and even this addition has proved of service.
The town is controlled by a corporate body, composed of Mr. F. T. Gluyas (Mayor) and Crs. J. H. Hentsehke, G. F. Benson, W. Baker, and B. Rose, and the clerk (Mr. A. H. Miller). Mr. P. W. Allen occupies the position of poet, telegraph, and harbour master, Mr. B. Denton is school master and hon. secretary of the institute, and Mr. DeC. Ireland is in charge of the police department. A branch of the Bank of Adelaide is open for business bi-weekly, conducted by the Yorketown office.
Mr. G. Hart, an old resident, and largely interested in Edithburg commercial life, is the managing director of the Yorke's Peninsula Fertilizing Company, which is manufacturing a marketable article well adapted for agricultural requirements, iarge quantities of seed and floury gypsum are also exported by Mr. Hart to the other states and New Zealand, and recently trial shipments to Colombo have been successful. About 2,000 tons per annum is the average output of tihe material, of which limitless quantities are available at Lake Fowler. Mr. W. J. Hart is secretary of the Fertilizing Company. The enterprise of Mr. G. Hart has led him to embark, with a few Adelaide business men, in extensive operations at Taranaki, NewZealand, where promising oil fields are now in process of development, the sample of crude material in the possession of Mr. Hart, brought from the works, was tested in my presence, and appeared to be highly charged with the qualities necessary for the successful production of a marketable oil. An expert from America is on the fields experimenting. The Broken Hill Company are in treaty with Mr. Hart for supplies of gypsum for use in connection with the new Carmichael process for dealing with sulphides, and, if successful, a large impetus will be given to this trade.
The business interests of Edithburg are in the hands of Messrs. C, S. Robert, T. J. Gluyas, A. Juers & Co., and Mrs. Born, storekeepers; W. Fleetwood and E..Dayey, bakers; R. Bramley, butcher; D. Stephens, Wallace, Batley, and Aseer, blacksmiths, &c J. Oldland, A. Wallace. J. Hentschke, and F. Hancock, fruiterers: C. H. Wallace and Rechner, saddlers; F. Stoneham (Edithburg Family), and C. Calnan (Troubridge), hotel keepers. This town is vastly improved, and could be made much more attractive to tourists and visitors if the corporation could see their way to plant suitable trees along the seawall, and erect shelters for the convenience of the public. At present there is an appearance of neglect and want of enterprise in this direction. Cheap excursion rates by steamers from Saturday to Monday would assist in popularizing this healthful and interesting seaport
This town is at present much in evidence owing to the projected enforcement by the Government of jetty dues on all merchandise and produce handled at the shipping place. There is no jetty, and hitherto all freight was landed and shipped free of taxation. As, however, the town is within the radius fixed by the Customs Department as being amenable to the Act, and it is proposed to collect fees, strenuous efforts are being made to maintain the old order of things by a few residents, and the Commissioner of Crown Lands has promised to visit the spot and give consideration to the views of those interested. Originally the place was known as Salt Creek, but the name was altered when the town was surveyed early in the seventies. The sale of town allotments realized about £1,200. The principal exports are wool and wheat, and most of the merchandise for Yorketown found its way by ketch to Coobowie. The Edith Alice has been at regular trader for many years. Mr. H. T. Hew ton keeps the store formerly conducted by the late Mr. Cornish; Mr 0. Heath is the local shipping agent and wheatbuyer; and Mrs. C. Heath conducts the hotel, which is freely patronised during the season by visitors. The state school is superintended by Mr. J. Pryor; and Miss B. T. Elliott is the postmistress. Coobowie is one of the few watering places along this coast provided with a sandy beach.
is about 10 miles inland from Edithburg and Coobowie. By virtue of its location it might aptly be termed Salt Lake City, for on all sides large sheets of salt deposits may be seen by any one who undertakes the trip. Thanks to the courtesy of Mr. Jordan (superintendent of works for the Castle Salt Company) I was enabled to get a glimpse of the larger portion of the area under development, although the season was too far advanced to get a full view of the operations. The season has been rather quiet, owing to the weather, but so far results have been very satisfactory, and stocks on hand, will enable the various companies to fulfil their engagements for the year. The Castle Salt Company hold by far the greater portion of the area available for working, either freehold or leasehold. On Lake Fowler alone, which has a superficial area of 1,260 acres, with a circumference of 10 miles, the deposit in sight is enormous, and Weaver's Lagoon, with an area of 639 acres, is rich. From all appearances there is little prospect of the salt "lodes" being worked out for many years to come.
-Sound Commercial Life.
Consequent on the progress made in the industry, substantiality supplemented by the improvement in agricultural prospects, the town of Yorke is materially benefiting in general trade, and can fairly he included among the few towns in South Australia which maintain their commercial position. The volume of business, however, is well catered for in all branches, and does not warrant an influx of tradespeople in present conditions. Several new residences and business premises have been erected within the last year or two. The hospital is under the able superintendent of Nurse Dickens, and proves an inestimable boon to the district. Dr. H. A. Davies, exMayor of Yorketown, and an enthusiastic supporter of all movements for the well being of the residents and improvement of the town, is the resident medical officer, whose valuable services are ever at the disposal of suffering humanity. The doctor is exceedingly popular on the Peninsula. Mr. Erichsen, the present Mayor, has greatly extended his business premises; Mr. Woods has added a new wing to his store, and completed other improvements; and Mr. Rechner is now carrying on his saddlery business in new premisses on the site of his old shop. Many other improvements have been effected, but the most striking additions to the architect of Yorketown are the large and commanding new Roman Catliolio Church, erected last year on the western side of the town. The edifice is a handsome structure.
The present holders of office in the corporation are:-Mayor Mr. M. Erichsen, Crs. W. Riddle, G. Martin, F. W. Friebe, C. Klem. Q. Young, and J. G. Daymond; Clerk,- E. Stonhouse. The poet and telephmaster is Mr. E. H. Matthews. . E. Dudley is schoolmaster. The institute secretary is Mr, W. Woods, the librarian Mr. S. Gregor, and the police officer M.O. J. G. Buttfield. The Yorketown Rifle Club has Mr. H. Hughes for its secretary, The bandmaster is Mr. W. Russell, and Mr. F. Wood is secretary of the racing club. The Bank of Adelaide is represented by Mr. H. Hughes as manager, with Mr, H. Bamberger as teller. These gentlemen are exceedingly popular in their official and social relations with residents on Yorke's Peninsula. Mr. W. B. Golds worthy is the local solicitor.
Most of the business men have resided an the town for a number of years, and the following list is fairly representative:- Chemists, Messrs. J. Marston & Sons; storekeepers. Messrs, M. Erichsen, W. Woods, McFarlane, F. Rourig, J. M. Nagar, and W. Boyce; butcher, F. Graber; bakers, Sampson and Mrs. Fisher: bootmakers, F. W. Friebe and H. W. Hill; saddlers,. O. G. Rechner, Till & McFarlane, blacksmiths, W. Riddle, McFarlane, and Lloyd; plumber, W. Russell; painters, Gordon and McFarlane; fruiterers, H. MacFarlane and Mrs. Fisher. There are two local newspapers published weekly, The Clarion, issued by Mr. MacFarlane. and The Pioneer, by Mr. Wilkinson. The travelling public are well catered for by Mr. J. Scott, an old on the "road"' identity, who provided conveyances, well horsed, for the majority of the "commecials." The hotels are Melville (Mrs. Stockings) and Yorke (Mr. J. G. Desmond).
-Wealth in Eggs.-
Mr. Erichsen incidentally supplied the following figure's in conection with a by-product of the farm:-Average number of eggs purchased by local storekeepers annually, 60,000 dozen £2,500-not a bad result from the poultry in this district. The results from farming are satisfactory, and much improved yields are expected from the district when the Moorowie blockers get fairly under way with their cultivation.
The Penton Vale Estate has now about 40 families, in place of a few station hands formerly, and successful results are being secured from the many holdings. The roads about here are fairly good considering the heavy cartage.
-Official Attention, Please.-
The local post office should be rebuilt or extended. Some little time ago an amount of money was voted for much-needed improvements, but unfortunately the matter so far ended there. The inconvenience and annoyance of standing in the blazing sun or pelting rain outside the present shanty are intolerable, and the interior is quite as badly in need of attention as the exterior. The income from this branch and the volume of business entitle the officials as well as the public to more accommodation, and that without delay. One other source of trouble to the majority of Peninsula residents, before the rain, was the scarcity of water-in many places the supply was nearly exhausted, and in others carting had been carried on for some time.
(II Travelling Correspondent.)
The run from Yorketown to Warooka, about 14 miles, over fair roads, is devoid of incident. For a portion of the distance the route is through agricultural country in working condition, but nearer Warooka the track passes through indifferent and swampy land, forming port of the old Moorowie Run.
This property has recently been purchased by the Government, and thrown open for selection in comparatively small holdings. Several families are already settled on their selections, energetically clearing scrub and preparing the son for future operations. There is a diversity of opinion whether the result will compensate holders for their capital and labour; but, in view of the fact that success has attended experiments in other parts of the Peninsula with similar conditions prevailing, there is every possibility of Moorowie proving an acceptable addition to the wheat-producing area of South Australia.
The town of Warooka sprang into public notice through the medium of a long-to-beremembered earthquake. Probably no other town or district in the state sustained, a tenth part of the damage experienced by this unpretentious inland town, and residents retain a vivid recollection of the anxious hours spent during the earth tremmors. For many weeks after the great quake many people practically lived out of doors, and there were signs of wreckage everywhere, Now the memory of the calamity is softened by time, and all necessary repairs have been effected. In many instances die result has been beneficial to the architectural appearance of the town, which is not by any means overstocked with palatial edifices. What buildings there are, however, answer the requirements of their occupiers. The town is the last settlement on southern Yorke's Peninsula. West and south there are only a few houses at long intervals. The road continues westerly for 30 miles to Corney Point, which is at the extreme end of a strip of land mostly devoted to sheepfarming.
Southwards are the extensive gypsum claims and works conducted by Mr. Hassell, but the route to this locality is rough, and seldom patronised. Telephone communication is maintained with the works from Edithburg and Yorketown, as well as to the hut where the cable connects with Althorpe Lighthouse. To the west of the telephone route is Pondolowie Bay, where the Ethel is now embedded in the sands awaiting removal. The operations at the gypsum claims are conducted on an extensive scale, and every facility is provided for the efficient working of the property. It is stated that large orders for crude gypsum are in hand from Japan, but the war prevents the execution of contracts. So far as this district is concerned otherwise, the only industries are wheatgrowing and sheenfarming, both of which have been attended by fairly good results.
The members of the District Council are Crs. G. Brooks (Chairman), G. Fehany. W. Goldsmith, R. McKenzie, and A. Murdoch. Miss O. Groft is post and telegraph mistress, and Mr. T. Cowling is in charge of the state school. Religious affairs are attended to by representatives of the Methodist and Roman Catholic Churches from Yorketown. Business houses are not numerous. Messrs. J. Thomson, and Baker Brothers, storekeepers; D; Ramsay, farmer and hotel keeper- one of the heaviest losers by the earthquake, and resident for a quarter of a century in this town; Way Brothers, coachpainters; A. Koope, blacksmith; and H; Koemecke, chaff merchant. The only apparent cause for complaint at Warooka is the dryness of the season and low price of produce. Point Turton is the nearest shipping place, where considerable traffic is conducted in the form of wheat and flux. The principal industries are wheat growing and farm produce.
Orrie Cowie, for many years in the possession of the late Mrs, Hannay, but now owned by Mr. G. Brooks, is in close proximity to Warooka. The property is utilised as a sheep run.
Brentwood is the nearest town on the west coast of the peninsula, from Warooka, about 10 miles north. There are two or three roads to this locality, but travellers will find it to their advantage to get through via Yorketown, although the distance is much greater. The nearest route is along the sandhills, but the track is heavy and uninteresting. On the other hand, from Yorketown via Lake Sunday good roads and scrub obtain for the whole distance.
-Business at Minlacowie.
In reality Brentwood is Minlacowie. The jetty is close to the township. The volume of business transacted by wheat buyers at Port Minlacowie is yearly steadily increasing. This season over 23,000 bags of wheat have been shipped, and a quantity is still available for export. The transport of this quantity of produce and the importation of fertilizers provide considerable work for teams, most of which are owned by farmers. Vehicles require repairing, and horse shoeing, hence the village blacksmith, Mr. W. Juers, is enabled to secure constant employment for his energy and engage several employes in the fulfilment of his orders. This means again an increase in the consumption of household commodities. which the resident storekeeper, Mr. A. Anderson, finds it a pleasure and profit to provide at his splendidly stocked store, wherein is also the post office. Mr. Anderson is the postmaster. The school children are taught by Miss Middleton, and the religious requirements of the residents are catered for by ministers from Minlaton. The district is strong in athletic talent. Considerable success has attended the local cricket and football clubs for many years. Although small in comparison to other Yorke's Peninsula towns, Brentwood is solid, and the prospects are very encouraging. The only evidence of unemployed on the peninsula is provided by the swagsman, who is frequently a greater tax upon farmers and tradespeople than a small army of aboriginals. Farming is the chief occupation of residents here.
-Clearing the Land.-
Scrub clearing is steadily progressing in all directions on the peninsula, but a vast area has yet to be done in this way before the full benefit is derived from one of the richest tracts of country in the state. It would probably be difficult to secure a section of land in Yorke's Peninsula direct from the Government, but there is no doubt a considerable area of scrubland is held by persons occupying and working other sections on the same line of country. To ensure the commercial success of these districts it is imperative that holders of leases comply with the conditions of their agreements, and either develop the land themselves or allow others to do so. When Moolywurtie and Ramsey Hundreds are under crop a considerable fillip will be given to commerce in the towns adjacent.
-Stansbury and its Jetty.-
Stansbury is one of the oldest ports on this side of the gulf, and certainly the most inconvenient from a shipping point of view. The jetty is constructed in such a position that it is not unusual to see it high and dry at low water. Even with an average high tide those "leviathans of the steamship service," James Comrie and Juno, will not venture too often alongside-they prefer to conduct their business at a safe distance from the "promenade." It has been a source of great inconvenience and annoyance for many years, as trade has steadily increased at this port. However, there is a probability of an improvement. An agitation is proceeding with a view to induce the Government to construct another jetty about half a mile north of the present one. Surveys have been made, and it is stated that the work can be easily carried out at moderate cost. The depth of water at the end of this jetty would permit any of the ordinary gulf traders to go alongside at low tide.
With the exception of this fly in the Stansbury ointment, matters appear to be pursuing an even course. Several improvements have been effected in connection with business and residential buildings, and steady trade is reported by tradespeople. There are two extensive limekilns in operation. One near the jetty, owned and conducted by Mr. E. Pitt (manager, Mr. A. W. G. Pitt), which is equipped with steam crushing and grading machinery and the other gear necessary in the economic working of this industry. The Brighton Lime Company carry on their work about a mile inland. Both firms employ a number of hands permanently, and produce large quantities of excellent material. Fruitgrowing is an important industry in the vicinity of Stansbury. Mr. H. C. Pitt (who has been farming for over 25 years on the Peninsula) has ; 60 acres planted with vines and fruit trees, from which he annually derives excellent results. Currant and raisin drying is carried on to perfection at the farm, and the goods command a ready sale. Apples appear to thrive to advantage on this soil, and the grower derives fair revenue from them. Mr. P. Anderson and others have planted orchards; Mr. H. Bartlett, formerly M.P, for Yorke's Peninsula, is engaged in these pursuits: but unfortunately the financial results have not adequately compensated the owners for their outlay. Mr. Wurm owns an extensive olive plantation on the road to Port Vincent, where he manufactures an excellent sample of olive oil. There is plenty of scope for this industry in South Australia and the other states.
Commercially the town is represented by Mr. F. Wurm, general shipping agent and harbour master; Messrs. F. Stacey, C. HeIpenstall, and Sprigg, storekeepers; H. Martin, blacksmith: G. G. Pitt agent and blacksmith: and A. M. Wurm. hotel keeper. Miss Whittam is the postmistress, and Miss Hughes is in charge of the state school. Stansbury is a pleasant place in which to spend a holiday. Two boats are running across to this port, and there is an excellent beach for bathing. Hotel accommodation is much improved. Apart from the industries mentioned farming is the chief occupation.
-To Port Vincent.-
From Stansbury the road to Port Vincent follows the seacoast. Only a narrow strip of land separates the track from the water. Along the route are situated the properties of Messrs. Wurm, Bartlett. and Germein, where are conducted gardening and farming respectively with satisfactory results. These gentlemen are old property holders in the Peninsula. Some years ago I travelled over this road, and have still unpleasant memories of the rough ride in the mail coach. The road then was half sand and half boulders. Since that time an effort appears to have been made to round off the roughness of some of these rocks, but there is still room for improvement. Considering that this is a mail route, and the only thoroughfare to Vincent within reasonable distance, it should be kept in decent condition. Driving through in the dry weather of last week was bad enough the passage after a couple of inches of rain must be too bad for ordinary imagination. There is slight indication on the road that the scrub lands will before long be cleared, but holders are not nearly so keen upon undertaking this work as they might be. A fair quantity of game is still running inland, but rabbits are not plentiful. This may be regarded as a bad sign by some people, but selectors will appreciate the absence of the furry pest.
-A Popular Landlord.-
Port Vincent is still as modest as ever in its commercial attitude, and does not hold out any visible sign of blossoming into a township. A fair quantity of produce passes through this port, but no great alteration will take place until the adjacent scrub lands are under crop. Mr. F. W. Luxmoore is the presiding genius of Vincent, where he has resided for a number of years. In addition to his many interests in the district, he owns the hotel, which is a favourite rendezvous for yachting men during the season. Mr. Luxmoore is one of the most enthusiastic sailers of pleasure craft in the state, and visitors can always rely on a real good time at this quiet nook, away from cares and business.
Jogging along westerly this time, a drive of 32 miles lands the visitor at Curramulka, a small town situated in the centre of a good agricultural area. Here, as in almost all parts of the Peninsula, good crops are the rule. North-east, country is being taken up by men who seem inclined to work it. Three storekeepers Twelftree & Sons, Hutton and Mathews, and T. B. Newlyncater for the district. Messrs. Tucker and Twelftree conduct blacksmithing businesses, and Mr. C. E. Goldfinch is the local wheel wright. Miss Denton is postmistress, and Mr.Griffiths schoolmaster. The hotel is in the possession of Mr. C. Davey.
III.—By a Travelling Correspondent.
The pick of the agricultural country on The Peninsula appears to be compassed by an area extending from Minlaton to Agery, and within these boundaries some of the finest crops produced in South Australia have been grown. Only a few years ago the majority of the farmers were comparatively poor men, who had struggled for years to secure the upper hand against the succession of indifferent harvests. The introduction of fertilizers and better agricultural implements gave an impetus to wheatgrowing, and since that period there has been steady improvement in the condition of the land, and a corresponding improvement in the financial status of those farmers who stuck manfully to their properties, and gave their untiring energy to the development of their sections. Having adopted the new style of cultivation the road to fortune became easier.
In the vicinity of Minlaton, which is in the Hundred of Minlacowie and County of Ferguson, are several large landholders, who are continually adding to their area under cultivation, and effecting substantial improvements to their homesteads, as well as maintaining a high standard in stock breeding. The quality of the farm horses is especially marked, and the owners take great pride in possessing the best that money can procure. Horses bred on the Peuinsula invariably command high prices when offered for disposal. The town is situated on a plain about midway between the seaboard of St. Vincent and Spencer's Gulfs, and inland 14 miles westerly from Stansbury. Originally the locality was known as Gum Flat. A few stalwart trees now mark the place where station buildings once stood, and this is also the site of a well, which provide water for stock purposes. _ During recent years increased prosperity in production has brought about corresponding improvement in commercial affairs, which is strikingly seen in numerous dwellings and substantial business premises, notably Mr. T. R. Trehearne's extensive store and Mr. D. McKenzie'e saddlery and fodder establishment. Mr. Matthew, gun., has constructed a new shop and bakery, and Mr C. R. Marlow will shortly begin the erection of large workshops and showrooms next to the institute. The residents of the district contemplate the erection of a hospital, while several other additions to the residential capacity of the town and suburbs are in progress. Withal there is no "boom" in agricultural or commercial circles. The progress is simply due to natural expansion of the farming industry, supplemented by a desire by residents to keep well abreast of the times and local requirements.
The officers of the District Council of Minlaton are Crs. H. Evan (Chairman), T. Brown, J. McKenzie, A McKenzie, H. Martin, T. Conell, and T. Mahar, The clerk is Mr. J. Williams. The area under their jurisdiction is extensive, and road maintenance makes a heavy onslaught on the council's resources. An improved water supply would prove of great convenience to the townspeople. Banking facilities are afforded by a branch of the Bank of Adelaide, with Mr. C. Wreford as resident manager, Dr. Hart ministers of the physical ailments of the district, and is evidently popular in his new sphere of practice. The institute is well equipped with literature and magazines, and possesses an excellently kept billiard table, which is available for residents at a nomminal fee as club members. Mr. J. D. Maher, the state schoolmaster, is hon, secretary to this useful institution. The postal and telegraph department is presided over by Mr. J. A. O'Brien. M.C. W. King is resident police officer. The Minlaton Agricultral Society is flourishing. It has an enthusiastic executive, of whom Mr. J. Nankiveil (President), Mr. R. A. Ford (treasurer), and Mr. W. G. Teichelmann (secretary} are the leading spirits.
A satisfactory amount of business is connucted by Messrs, C. Mathews, T. R. Trehearne, T. Odgers, and W. Short, general storekeepers; J. Williams and H. Martin, blacksmiths and implement makers; J. White, Butcher; Tillbrook and Matthews, bakers; C. Zippel, bootmaker; E. Lock and D. McKenzie, saddlers; O. R. Marlow, ironworker, carpenter, and builder. Messrs. VV. & H. Long have the local mill, which has a working capacity of 30 bags of flour per day. Mr. J. Cudmore; one of the largest landholders in this district, has recently retired from the storekeeping business, and erected a substantial residence on his farm.
—Loss of Horses.—
At the time of my visit Veterinary Surgeon Desmond was at Mr. Russ's farm, about three miles south-west of the township, investigating the cause of the death of five valuable draught horses. The result of post-mortem examinations led Mr. Desmond to conclude that the disease was similar to that which played sad havoc with horses in the districts of Hawker and Port Pirie some time ago. Pressure of engagements did not permit Mr. Desmond to thoroughly investigate the matter while at Port Pirie but there is evidently strong necessity for immediate action being taken by the authorities with a view to minimise the risk of lose by stockowners, the majority of whom would be only too glad to pay for authentic information respecting stock diseases and their remedies. The loss of £250 worth of trained farm horses at this period of the season is a serious blow to Mr. Russ. In order to assertain whether the complaint was prevalent among other horse stock in the district, Mr. T. McKenzie, a neighbouring farmer, and Chairman of the local bureau, sacrificed one of his farm horses. The post mortem conducted by Veterinary Surgeon Desmond and Dr. Hart disclosed the fact that similar parasites were present in the internal organs of this animal, although, no symptoms of illness had been manifest. Actions similar to Mr. McKenzie's are worthy of record, as the loss of his horse was the means of furthering scientific knowledge.
Since the recent rainfall farmers are in good spirits, and ploughing or seeding is in progress throughout the district. An other successful season is expected by all concerned, which will enhance the productive record of Minlaton. From Minlaton a beeline is made for Port Victoria via the short cut to Wauraltee. This route, although rough in places, saves several miles travelling. The main road runs through the settlement known as Mount Rat and adjacent to Koolywurtie, and then branches off to the left, eventually passing through Wauraltee. There is, however, a difference of four miles in favour of the first-mentioned road. Farm-houses, surrounded by good land, are passed every few miles, and the waters of Spencer's Gulf are in view throughout. The township of Wauraltee is modest in size a few houses and the state school denote its locality, but shortly business activity may be infused into the settlement by the establishment of a branch store by Mr. Trehearne, a Minlaton tradesman. The post office is at the private residence of Mrs. Mitchell, who acts as postmistress, and Mrs. Dvorak presides at the state school. Farming is the principal industry.
Eight miles of scrub and sand divide Wauraltee from Port Victoria, which is one of the oldest wheat-shipping ports on the coastline. There is a fairly good jetty here, built on the L-head principle, and at this end a depth of 14 ft. of water is available at low tide. The gulf steamers can easily go alongside, but sailing vessels of high tonnage rarely load at the jetty, preferring to anchor a few fathoms south or west. Wardang Island, which is only a few miles off the mainland, acts as a break to the west and south-westerly breezes.
This season already four large sailing vessels have loaded wheat at the anchorage, and at least one other craft will take a full load of cereals this month. All these vessels are under orders for Falmouth. The estimated expert of wheat for 1901 from Port Victoria will be 120,000 bags, while fully 2,000 tons of fertilizers will be landed, most of which is manufactured in South Australia by the Adelaide Chemical Company and at Wallaroo. A considerable quantity of flux has been quarried and shipped to Port Pirie from Wardang Island for the Broken Hill Mining Company, but at present operations are being curtailed. Mr. Kerrison is in charge of the works.
—Point Pearce Mission.—
Another object of interest in this dirtrict is the Point Pearce Mission Station, which is under the superintendence of Messrs. Finlayson and Latham. The mission occupies a large tract of country along the sea coast, beginning outside Port Victoria boundary, and comprising about 18,003 acres. The settlement is six miles north of the port, where a large number of aborigines are comfortably housed and kept in employment, principally in the cultivation of their land and sheepbreeding. They are also allowed to accept outside engagements or prosecute any calling tending to prove remunerative and beneficial to themselves and the organization. The mission is stated to be self-supporting, and everything in connection with it is working smoothly and satisfactorily to the gentlemen who are so enthusiastically engaged in the splendid work of educating and housing the natives. The principal local industry is the flourmilling business conducted by Mr. H. S. Hincks, who is now in possession, in succession to the late Mr. Hincks, who established the mill about 20 years ago. Fourteen hands are employed, and the mill has a working capacity of seven bags per day.
—Flour and Salt.—
It is satisfactory to know that increased demand for flour has necessitated machinery working day and night since last November. Supplementary to flourmilling Mr. Hincks has engaged in the salt trade, having secured a lease of a lagoon known as Tomney's Lake, a few miles inland from Port Victoria, from which about 1,400 tons of salt has been scraped this season, and now lies stacked at the lake awaiting treatment. Machinery will be erected at the mill, where Mr. Hincks proposes to manufacture a marketable sample of salt. This movement will give extra employment to a few hands. There is evey indication that this district is reaping its share of the increasing prosperity of the Peninsula.
The harbourmaster and collector of tolls is Mr. Dimont. The postmistress is Miss Harper. Schoolmaster, Mr. Berry. Wheat buying is keenly engaged in by Messrs. W. Hardy (John Daring & Son), L. McArdagh (J. Bell & Co.), M. Whitham (Farmers Union), P. Bray (W. R. Cave and Co.), and Mr. Hincks. The domestic requirements of the district are catered for by Mr. R. Sandlands and Miss Hincks, storekeepers; A. Bray, butcher; Miss Sandlands, dressmaker; and Mr. H. Grimes is the proprietor of the Wauraltee Hotel, situated near the jetty.
—Exports of Produce.—
The total exports of produce for this season passing over the jetty will be 140,000 bags of wheat, oats, and barley, and 800 bales of wool, which is carted from Mount Rat, Koolywuitte, Kilkerran, Maitland, and Urania. There is certainly room for improvement in street maintenance and pathmaking in this thriving little port, although the resources of the district council are pretty well taxed in maintaining roads. The revenue from the jetties in some districts should be a welcome addition to their funds. If the district council cannot spend money on making paths at Port Victoria may I suggest to the Superintendent of Public Buildings the advisableness of forming the path outside the post office and causing much-needed repairs to this and other edifices wherein the responsible duties of receiving H. M. mails and conducting the business of the Postal Department are in progress.
To reach Urania it is necessary to double back over some of the same line of country traversed from Wuraltee, albeit the course is changed slightly to the north east. About eight miles of good country intervenes between the port and Urania, which is just opening into notice, on the main road from Moonta to Yorketown, at the junction of several roads. This locality is held in high estimation by Yorke's Peninsula residents as being productive in every sense of the agricultural term. Most of the settlers for miles round are well endowed with good land and comfortable banking accounts, which are a welcome condition of affairs compared to the old days of five and six bushel crops and poor prices. Verily the introduction of superphosphates has wrought a great transformation on this narrow stretch of unequalled fertility, and the, status of farmers of to-day is a Striking illustration of what science is continually doing towards improving the condition of producers and manufacturers. Land values are yearly increasing; from 10/ per acre many large sections have risen to £3 and £4 per acre. Commerce at Urania is represented by Mr. Pimlott, storekeeper, and Mr. W. Crocker, blacksmith Mrs. Pimlott is postmistress. An assembly hall is available for Meetings and concerts, and the new Methodist Church is a fine addition to the architectural features of this exceedingly pretty little settlement. Farming results have invariably been first class from all the country for many miles around. Seeding operations are now being conducted, and water tanks are well replenished.
YORKE S PENINSULA.
[IV.—By a Travelling Correspondent.]
The distance from Urania to Maitland, 10 miles, is soon covered on the main road, through undulating country of good quality apparently where clearing has been systematically carried out. Strips of stunted mallee can be seen to the right, but every acre is occupied, and before many years elapse wheatgrowing should be in operation from Spencer's to St. Vincent's Gulfs. Much of the land is heavily encumbered with limestone, which seriously increases the labour and expense of preparing the soil for cultivation. That good results can be secured there is little doubt, so long as judicious manuring and fallowing are adopted. There is ample proof alone in the enhanced values of property throughout the Peninsula, while sections are eagerly snapped up by vigiflant watchers for the golden opportunities of life. Every mile of this road increases in elevation until Yorke Valley is reached, where the altitude is stated to be true highest on the Peninsula.
The town which is known as Maitland is built on undulating country, thus assuring good drainage, and, if required, excellent facilities for conserving water. So far as rainfall is concerned, the townsfolk have nothing to complain of. This is probably the wettest spot on Vorke's Peninsula, consequently agriculturists are well served with splendid crops. Maitland does not claim any greater distinction than that of being a thriving wheatgrowing district, but, in common with one or two other Peninsula towns, it dearly loves a Mayor. A dual control of district affairs is now the ruling state of Maitland and surrounding country, which is situated in the County of Fergusson, about 27 and a half miles south of Moonta, and 14 miles from Ardrossan. The executive officials of the corporation are:— Mr. Shannon, M.P. (Mayor), Crs. H. Bowden, F. J. Greenbank, J. Tiddy, jun., and W. Noble. The clerk is Mr. T. Hiely. The district council is comprised of the following gentlemen:—Messrs. C. Cane (Chairman), W. Endersby, E. Fox, C. B. Hastings, J. Hill, jun., W. Kanally, H. Lamshed, R. M. Montgomery, J. N. Smith, and J. H. Ware; Mr, F. J. Greenbank is clerk, a position which embraces many minor duties. Mr. H. J. Tossell is the overseer of works for an area of 29 x 27 miles. The lost assessment amounted to £12,595, which is met by the imposition of a 9d. tax. The gross receipts from this source are £472.6/5. So much for the municipal bodies, whose business is conducted in a spirit of amity and enthusiasm by the gentlemen referred to.
The various religious denominations are well represented. The institute is a commodious building, conducted by the Rev. T. S. Williams (hon. secretary) and Mr. L. J. Broadbent (hon. librarian). Sir. W. Taylor manages the local office of the Union Bank of Australia; Mr. W. H. Gratwick is post and telegraph master; Mr. P. M. Ryan presides at the state school; and Trooper Watson is now in charge of the police department, in succession to M.C. Hillier, transferred. Drs. J. Nicholls and Corr are the resident medical men; while commerce is adequately represented by Messrs. J. O. Tiddy, A. Whitelaw, W. Mullner, and Millhinch Brothers, general storekeepers; W. Oatey and J. Thomas, butchers; J. T. King and W. Schwartz, saddlers; D. P. Breynard and Klopp, carpenters; A. Forbes, ironworker, &c.; E. Major and W. Noble, blacksmiths—(this business has been established only about 12 months. The proprietor was formerly connected with Major & Sons, of Moonta. The present complement of employes is 16, with prospects of an early increase)—and, J. S. McLeod (Maitland) and C. A. Campbell (Yorke valley), hotel keepers. Past results and future prospects are of a satisfactory nature.
—The Road to Ardrossan.—
About a mile from Maitland, on the Ardrossan road, are several well-planted fruit gardens and vineyards, where wine making on a small scale has been conducted by Messrs. Wunnersett & Phillips. The vintage, however, has never been very successful on this side of the gulf. After passing these properties the route is, mostly through scrub, with alternating patches of cleared land. Judging from what can be seen from the road, the country seems to be heavily charged with, limestone,
The town of Ardrossan is situated close to the sea, in the Hundred of Cunningham, County of Fergusson, distant from Adelaide 45 miles by sea and 96 by road via the Hummocks. Substantial additions have been made by the district council controlling the town to the wharfage and shed accommodation at the jetty, which has proved of great convenience to those who have occasion to make use of it. Some thing like £700 has been expended on this work, but the council derive a splendid revenue from the wharfage dues, which enables efficient maintenance to be observed. There is a daily mail to this seaport alternately by sea and train. The nearest railway station is South Hummocks, on the Moonta line. The estimated exports for the present season, 1903-4, will be 45,000 bags of wheat and 3,000 tons of mallee roots. The imports of general merchandise are extensive, including 1,500 tons of fertilizers,
—A Fine Industry.—
Industrially credit must be given to the local firm of C. H. Smith, agricultural implement makers, now under the management of Mr. C. G. Smith which is the largest establishment of this kind on the Pensnsula. A staff of 50 men are constantly employed at high pressure in executing local and interstate orders for the specialities of the firm. The late Mr. C. H. Smith, who is credited with the invention of the slumpjump plough, began operations here about 26 years ago on a small scale. The works are the mainstay of the town of Ardrossan, Limeburning has been started by Messrs. Cornish & Hogarth, and shortly this firm intend to extend their output in this commodity. These gentlemen are shipping and general commission agents, and are collectors of jetty dues for the district council. The postmistress is Miss L. Wood. The schoolmaster is Mr. N, Opie, and the institute librarian Miss Winter.
Trade is represented as follows:—Messrs. A. T, West, A. Freeman, and E, J. Barton, storekeepers; Polkinghorne and Baker, fruiterers; C. Cane, butcher; C. H. Smith and J. West, blacksmiths; and Mrs. C. Huckvale (Ardrossan) hotel and Mrs. Turner (Royal) hotel. Phosphate is reported to be plentiful about two miles south of the town. The claims are in the hands of an Adelaide syndicate. Copper mining operations were formerly conducted near Ardrossan. The properties were known as the Parrara and Tiddywiddy respectively. The only prospecting carried on at present is with a view to strike a patch of country which can be developed as a wheat growing claim. Recognising the growing importance of this town, the Commercial Bank of Australia has opened a branch, under the supervision of Mr. Stobie, late of the Balaklava office.
The next place of call is Dowlingville, about eight miles north-west of Ardrossan, This is essentially a farming district, so that it is not surprising to find only a few houses, one store, a post office (conducted by Mr. Whiittaker), a state school an charge of Mrs. Lewis), and a church. Only a few years ago this country was covered with scrub. Industry and manures have transformed the district considerably.
While credit must be given to the district councils responsible for the maintenance of main roads, one's experience of district trades after an inch or two of rain is not the happiest. Man's best friend—his horse—must be studied; hence progress is slow and tedious. Only eight miles separate Dowlingville from Price, but in the circumstances the distance appeared at least half as long again. The latter town is commonly known as Port Price, although the creek which constitutes the port is about a mile away. The shipping locality is known nautically as Wells Creek, and at present dredging operations are in progress.
—Evidence of Prosperity.—
With a view of providing greater facilities for ketches trading to the creek the boats load and unload alongside a wharf. Some idea of the shipping trade of this out-of-the-way port may be gathered from the fact that this season's export will probably total 45,000 bags of wheat, 500 bales of wool, and 600 tons of roots. The latter material is getting scarce in some districts, and prices are likely to advance. However, diminution in quantity of roots means increased tonnage of wheat, which is a great improvement financially to the country. Another evidence of the prosperity of this district is the establishment of an agency of the Commercial Bank of Australia, under the management of Mr. Stobie, of the Ardrossan branch. The following firms are represented at Price, all of which are eager to secure the produce of the farmers:— Messrs. W. Thomas & Co., Mr. F. Mann; Messrs. W. R: Cave & Co., Mr. R. Gardiner; the Farmers' Union, Mr. Jos. Rooney; Messrs. McArtbur & Co., Mr. John Rooney; Adelaide Milling Company and collector of jetty dues, Mr. T. O'Brien; Messrs. J. Bell and Co., Mr. J. McLeay, jun.; and Messrs. J, Darling & Son, Mr. A. T. Sanders. Other business people are:—Mrs. Williams, Messrs. J. Thomas and K. Warmington, storekeepers; D. Born, blacksmith; J. McGrath. friuterer; and A. T. Sanders, saddler. The postmistress is Miss Wyndham, and the schoolmistress Miss Francis. Services are held occasionally by representatives of the Roman Catholic and Methodist Churches.
is the last town on the eastern shore of St. Vincent's Gulf, situated in the Hundred of Clinton. By sea the distance to Port Adelaide is 50 miles. The only communication by this means is by ketch. Overland via Port Wakefield the mileage is about 84. There is a jetty a quarter of a mile long at this spot, but no use has been made of it for shiping purposes. Like many other similar constructions in the two gulfs, there seems to have been a careful avoidance on the part of the surveyors of the deepest and most convenient sites from a shipping point of view, and this is palpably shown by Stansbury, Clinton, and Moonta. Half a mile, or at least a mile, would have made considerable difference in depth of water, and no more expense. To show how little value is placed on the Clinton structure by traders, only recently an offer of £5 by a resident of the district for the whole concern was only blocked in acceptance by the protest of Clinton property holders! Notwitstanding the inconvenience of loading ketches from the seashore by means of wagons, which have to wade several yards through slushy sand, the exports from Port Clinton compare favourably with those of many ports much better circumstanced. During the wheat season an average of 10,000 bags is handled here, and also about 3,000 tons of roots and 300 bales of wool. Not a bad record, considering the smallness of the area tapped by the port of Clinton! The town is unpretentious in appearance, and so far competition in trade has not resulted in an influx of business people. Mr. A. C, Norris is the sole purveyor of the necessities of life and industrial requisites at Clinton, and acting as wheatbuyer and mallee root shipper. Mrs. Rubenicht is postmistress, and Miss Austen attends to the educational requirements of a limited number of scholars. The mail from Ardrossan to South Hummocks passes through Clinton; no one need envy the driver his billet, as the roads in winter are execrable. Even with an inch of rain the bush track is a bog—one can easily, imagine the conditions in midwinter, especially through the swamps which prevail between Clinton and South Hummocks. The Postal Department are evidently keen on having the mails conveyed throughout the country districts at the lowest possible expense, and woe betide the unfortunate contractor who fails to keep contract time! Surely with these stringent conditions prevailing it is only fair and reasonable that the Government should provide decent tracks for the mail route, or insist on local bodies maintaining a good roadway for the convenience of passengers and assistance to mail contractors in keeping their time table,
Having reached the furthest point north of my travelling programme, a course due west is taken with a view of striking Arthurton, which is situated 18 miles north of Moonta, in the Hundred of Clinton, County of Daly. The most convenient seaport is Ardrossan, 15 miles southeast. The members of the present District Council of Clinton, which has its headquarters at Arthurton, are:—Crs. S. Lamshed (Chairman), J. Kenny, O. Foley, Joseph Rooney, J. McLeay. jun., and W. B. Wicks. The clerk is Mr. R. Gardiner. The past few years has witnessed a great improvement in the form of scrub clearing around Arthurton and every year enhances the value of land and adds to the commercial prosperity of the town. Several new residences have been built within recent years. The Roman Catholic Church—a handsome building—and Methodist Church are a credit to the town. The Roman Catholics have erected a large hall for the convenience of parties desirous of holding meetings or conducting social functions of any approved description irrespective of creed. The building is 55 ft. by 25, nicely decorated, and well ventilated. Farming is the mainstay of Arthurton, which has a limited population efficiently catered for by Mr. L. Crosbie, storekeeper and postmaster, and Mr. Robinson. The local smithy is a branch of C. H. Smith's establishment at Ardrossan, and Mr. D. J. Hanahan, an old resident of the district, combines hotelkeeper with agricultural pursuits. Mr. S. A. Keen is the state school master.
YOBKE'S PENINSULA. MINING DISTRICTS.
[By a Travelling Correspondent.]
Northward from Arthurton the road runs through good, fertile land for nearly the whole of the 18 miles to Moonta, a large area of wheatgrowing country extending from gulf to gulf. The most successful results are obtained to the east and north-east of the main track. About 11 miles south of Moonta is a small settlement known as Agery, but so far no business premises have been established there. Tickera is a thriving agricultural district, whence some of the best yields of the Peninsula have been obtained.
Following the main road several large sections were observed well stocked with sheep. The majority of the animals were healthy-looking, with lambs at foot, revelling in abundant feed, although the long spell of dry, hot weather had deprived the grass of much nutriment. Recent rains, however, have remedied the deficiency in this direction, and young grass is now springing up, which will materially assist the flocks in recovering their condition. Water is plentiful, and generally , the prospects for wheatgrowers and skeepbreeders so far are very cheering. Seeding was in full swing, and farmers had recovered from the attack of depression occasioned by the dry weather of a few weeks previous.
—The Copper Mines.—
North-westerly for a mile or two further and soon huge volumes of smoke denote the district possessing the famous mines, which are the principal source of prosperity at the northern end of the Peninsula. For many miles in all directions the country is held under mineral leases, and, with the exception of the corporate town of Moonta and its immediate environs, the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Company hold the principal lights conceded under the Mining Act. The magnitude of this company's operations and the enormous area in process of development astonish fhe visitor. Notwithstanding the fluctuation of the copper market and the depression which has from time to time so seriously affected the copper industry, the progressive policy of the company has contineud without intermission year after year, and while organizations in America and elsewhere have found it, necessary to suspend operations the Peninsula mines have well maintained their position, and thereby assured the existence of a large number of business houses in Moonta, Wallaroo, and Kadina, the three chief towns. The two firstnamed are essentially mining centres. Kadina has the dual advantage of being in close proximity to the Wallaroo Mines, and of being the most convenient centre of business for a large number of farmers, who make it their commercial depot. It is easy to forecast the disaster which would overtake Moonta and Wallaroo should the mines cease operations, as probably 20,000 people practically depend upon these works for their means of livelihood and business income. Judging from appearances and information received from reliable sources there is little danger of such a calamity occurring. Instead of curtailing expenditure the principal mining company is energetically extending its development programme both on the surface and underground on the several properties, and large sums of money are to be expended in the erection of new machinery and plant at the Wallaroo property, where only recently great loss was sustained through, the disastrous fire. The reports from this property are of a satisfactory character; the danger from any further outbreak is considered to have been reduced to a minimum. All operations in the affected quarter have been suspended for the time, and preparations are in progress for sinking another shaft vertically, in order to connect with the old shaft at the 145-fm. level. Machinery is being erected at this site, which will relieve the pressure on present working plant. The work of sinking Young's shaft is steadily progressing. The present depth attained is 205 fm., but an additional 40 fm. will soon be available for working. Notwithstanding the temporary stoppage of operations owing to the fire at Taylor's shaft and consequent inconvenience, there is no appearance of inactivity. Every effort apparently is being directed with a view to add to the productive capacity of the property. There is no doubt of the loyalty of tbe employes to the company, and as matters now stand, satisfactory relations exist between employer and employe.
—What the Industry Means.—
The Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Company pays £15,000 monthly in wages, employs 2,206 persons, and conducts operations over an area of 4,120 acres held under mineral lease. The present approximate value of plant and machinery at Moonta and Wallaroo is estimated at £255,317, and dividends have been paid by the amalgamated company to date amounting to £216,000. Truly, a wonderful record for any company, and specially gratifying to South Australians. The extent of country where these huge works are situated and grand results are being secured, forms but a small portion of the state's mineral possessions; this area is, however, phenomenally rich in copper. It was on the Wallaroo and Moonta Company's property that Ryan, the shepherd, while feeding his flock, discovered the indication of mineral wealth. The country was then held by the late Sir W. W. Hughes as a sheeprun. In addition to the big mine, there are several properties on this line of country which have from time to time been energetically worked.
One of the oldest, but now deserted mines, was. the Karkarilla, south of the abovementioned properties, and within the boundary of the lease held by the Hamley Mining Company. The Karkarilla was worked for several years. At present active development is proceeding at the Hamley Mine, under the management of Capt, W, Hollands, who was formerly connected with the Moonta and Wallaroo Company, but joined the Hamley 23 years ago. He has held his present position as general manager for 3 and a half years, during which period many important improvements have been effected and new country has been opened up. As a result of recent prospecting a lode of excellent material has been discovered, of good percentage. Every effort is being made to ensure success on this property at a minimum of expense. At one period, of the mine's existence over 300 men were employed, but the present staff numbers 74, who are regularly engaged. It is nearly 20 years since this company paid dividends. All the proceeds of sales have been devoted during that long spell to the development of the mine. Capt. Hollands is pleased with the prospects, and hopes in the near future to be able to recommend the payment of a long-deferred but welcome dividend. Other properties working are the Paramatta and Yelta Mines, now under the management of Capt. Leigh Hancock, brother of Mr. H, R. Hancock, of the Wallaroo and Moonta Company. These properties are held by a French syndicate, which supplies the capital for maintenance and development. Energetic measures are being adopted at each mine with a view to thoroughly test the value of the various lodes, and also secure satisfactory results from the mineral to hand. Additional machinery is in course of constuction at the Yelta property, which will enable the manager to extend his operations. The syndicate is represented at Moonta and Adelaide. The Mid-Moonta is shut down, and one or two smaller properties are evidently deserted.
When mining operations were started in these districts the land was covered with scrub, and miners pitched their camps where most convenient. The course then adopted has been followed ever since, and consequently there is an utter lack of conformity or regularity either about the architecture of the residences or the alignment of streets. All the residential structures have been erected by the owners at their own expense and risk. Under the regulations of the Mining Act no rent can be charged by the holders of mineral leases; They are rent free; the only liability is a nominal sum for water conveniences. Many of the residences are substantially built and surrounded by trimly kept gardens, but uncertainty of employment and tenure has prevented many from embellishing their dwellings. The Local Board of Health exercises jurisdiction over the mining area, otherwise the dwellers thereon are untramelled in any way. Religious and educational institutions are provided, also an excellent library and reading room, the funds for which are secured by a weekly payment of 3d. deducted from the weekly wages of every man and boy employed on the mines. The approaches to the mines, situated about 14 miles from the town, have been planted with trees, which are making good progress, The main thoroughfares are in excellent condition, and communication is obtained by means of horse traincars, which run to East Moonta through the mines and to Hamley at reasonable fares. At the mines is a capital band rotunda, erected by the Model Band committee from funds secured by the musical efforts of the members. The bandmaster is Mr. Bargwanna. The state school at East Moonta is conducted by Mr. R. Llewellyn, and Mrs. C. R. Thornber is in charge of the mines post office. The regulations which apply to dwelling houses also prohibit the establishment of business premises on mineral leases, consequently all the trading is done either at Moonta, Wallaroo, or Kadina. There is no hotel or place of refreshment on these properties. The population at the mines is given as 5,000.
—The Town of Moonta.—
To supply the wants of such a large number of busy workers and their numerous families there arrived in rapid succession wise men from the east, west, north, and south, who pitched their tents or shanties on bocks of land which had been reserved for such purposes on the western side of the scene of mining operations. The locality, which is known the wide world over as Moonta, has grown in importance proportionately to the progress and celebrity of the famous mines which bear the same name. From shanty to mansion is but a brief transitory stage for some men, and so it proved with this bustling town. For many years after success bad been assured on the mining fields extensive business was done at this place, but over supply of accommodation soon brought matters to a level, and at the present time commercial affairs at Moonta could be greatly improved upon. However, those who elected to stick to the town through all its varied stages of prosperity and depression are no better nor worse off than those who have acted similarly in other business centres, and possibly there is less grumbling in the centre of Copperopolis to-day than in Adelaide over the condition of trade. Of the town itself it can truthfully be said it is one of the largest, cleanest, and liveliest in South Australia. The area covered by the residential and business portion is 120 acres, with an additional 120 acres of park lands devoted to various recreative and practical purposes. Moonta is situated at the terminus of the railway line from Adelaide, which passes through Kadina and Wallaroo, in the Hundred of Wallaroo and County of Daly. The distance by rail from this metropolis is 135 miles, and by road 100 miles. It is a corporate town, with a population approaching 2,000, and under the present control of the following corporate body:—Mayor, Mr. W. H. Goldswortliy; Councillors, A. J. Jarrett, J. J. Richard. J. H. Bennett, W. Jones, J. J. Trezema, F. J. K. Trenerry, and W. Chappell, jun.; clerk. Mr. W. J. Phillips; overseer of works, Mr. J. Fiveash. The latest assessment is stated at £9.000. An efficient water supply is provided at a reasonable rate from Beetaloo.
There is an excellent reserve on the southern boundary of the town, forming part of the Moonta Company's mineral lease, and on this ground, about 10 acres, treeplanting has been energetically and systematically carried on by a committee of residents. Gum, pine, and sheaoak are flourishing in place of the unpicturesque mallee scrub, paths have been made, fences erected, and a substantial band rotunda has been planed in a suitable position. Seats and an ornamental fountain testify to the enthusiasm of the ladies and gentlemen who originally controlled the affairs of Victoria Park, and collected subscriptions for the carrying out of the improvements. The committee recently handed over control of the park to the corporation, which intends to continue the good work of maintenance and treeplanting. Another pleasing feature is Queen's square, opposite the institute, which separates the western business end of George street from the residential portion. Only a few years ago this reserve was treeless, and an eyesore to the town. It is now a pleasant, well-timbered resort for old and young—especially the latter. In the centre an ornamental flower and grass plot suronnds a large fountain (presented by the late Mr. C. Drew), and seats are distributed along the various paths. Arboriculture has a firm grip on Moonta residents, and evidences abound of the vast improvements effected in this direction during the past few years. The control of this important movement is in the hands of the following gentlemen, who have already distributed hundreds of trees along the various roads leading from the town:—Mr. H. Lipson Hancock (President). Drs. E. L. Archer and T. James. Messrs. T. H. Cock, S. B. Page, H. W. Uffindell. J. H. Thomas, D. Archibald, T. Fantson, F. Hancock, J. Sanders, S. Sampson, J. Pearce, and G. H. Richardson, and Capt Cowling.
—Some Institutions —
The institute building is large and commodious, affording ample accommodation for concerts and theatrical performances in a large hall, having an excellent stage and dressing rooms, scenery, and effects, and illuminated with acetylene gas. The library is furnished with 4,090 volumes of most interesting literature, magazines, and periodicals of almost every description. Reading, chess, and public meeting rooms, and museum are available for members or the public on payment of a small fee. The institution is supported by voluntary donations and membership subscriptions. The committee are most painstaking in their efforts to make the institute a source of pleasure to the residents and a means of education to the young folk. Mr. J. W. Hughes is the hon. secretary, and Mr. J. Bray is caretaker and librarian. During the year 1903 6,800 volumes and 4,200 periodicals were in circulation. A series of lectures and entertainments are being conducted for the winter season. Adjacent to the institute the local fire brigade premises are situated, which contain a one-horse reel and 60 ft. of hose, besides necessary appliances. The accommodation is altogether inadequate, and a suitable station should be at once erected. Foreman J. C. Kellett is in charge. The brigade is composed of three auxiliaries, viz., Messrs. L. and H. Bastian and A J. Jewell, residents of the town. The military is represented by A Company, S.A. Infantry, under the command of Capt. F. Bourne, with the assistance of Lieuts. Phillips and Andrews. The company's band is strong in numbers and excellent in musical production, under the conductorship of Mr. J. H. Thomas, who is also musical director for the orchestra and the Moonta Commonwealth Band. Both these organisations have made their mark in musical circles, and afford considerable pleasure to residents of Moonta and surrounding districts.
—School of Mines.—
The Moonta School of Mines is an excellent institution, conducted on practical lines under the direction of an enthusiastic council of townsmen, and favoured with the instructorship of leading mining experts on the Peninsula. There are no resident or permanently appointed professors— all the instruction is given by gentlemen, holding responsible positions, and eminently qualified to conduct the various classes assigned to them. The membership roll is steadily increasing, and yearly the results are most gratifying to the council and satisfactory to the students. The building is commodious and well ventilated, and well equipped with the latest adjuncts to scientific experiment and study. A large lecture hall is supplemented by several smaller classrooms. _ The laboratory is well stocked with chemicals and materials, and appliances for practical metallurgv are supplied. Students pay a nominal fee for the privilege of membership. The Government contributed £289 towards the building, and give an annual donation of £720 towards the general fund. Salaries are paid to the instructors, but a vast amount of valuable education is imparted for which no renumeration can be given. The executive of the school is composed of:—Dr. T. James (President). Messrs. H. L. Hancock, A.M.I.C.E. (Lon.), J. Symons, H. W. Uflindell, H. R. Hancock, and R. Haining, Capt. E. Cowling, and Mr. J. W. Hughes (secretary). The instructors are:—Messrs. G. J. Rogers, A.H.C.S., L. G. Hancock, M.A.I.M.E., H. Pomroy, E. F. Blatchford, A.I.E.E., E. Martin, G. H. Richardson, A. L. Brown, and F. Potter The good work which is being accomplished by these gentlemen cannot be over-estimated, and there is every prospect of the results proving of value to the mining community.
A considerable share of the industrial element of the town is provided by the Adelaide Milling Company, which annually mills 4,000 tons of flour, principally consumed in South Australia. Mr. J. S. Lord is the local manager. The Moonta Gas Company, Which is a limited company, supplies illumination to those desirous of utilizing this boon. The directors are Messrs. H. Martin (Chairman), G. Emerson, aud E. Beythien, and ; the secretary Mr. D. Archibald. Mr. E. Major conducts an extensive coachbuilding and general smithy business, providing employment for 15 hands.
—Official and Professional.—
Mr. T. J. S. O'Halloran, S.M., presides at the local Courthouse at regular sessions; Mr. W. 0. Bennett is Clerk of the Court, Mr. F. J. Gillen is post and telegraph master—an old and valued servant of the state —assisted by a competent and courteous staff. MR. J. G. Y. Risby is stationmaster. Mr. J. J. Stephens is state schoolmaster, Sgt. Dean (late of Gawler) is police officer, with a constable as assistant. Judging, however, by past and present records, the policeman's lot in Moonta is a happy one. Considering the large population in and around this town it is remarkable how few cases of inebriety or disorderly conduct are reported. Peace and goodwill are apparently the watchwords of these industrial, thrifty people. The list of gentlemen engaged in professional occupation is not extensive, and probably comprise—Drs. T. James and E. L. Archer- Messrs. J. W.
Hughes, manager of the National Bank of Australia; R. Haining, manager of the Union Bank of Australia; H. W. Uffindell and S. R. Page, solicitors; J. Symons (late Moody, Prance, and Symons) and D. Archibald (established 1881), auctioneers and land agents; J. H. Thomas, general commission and shipping agent and local representative of the Adelaide Steamship Company. These gentlemen are old residents in Moonta.
Religious denominations are strongly represented as follow:—Church of England, All Saints, Rev. J. Bulteel; Methodist, Rev. Brian Wibberley; Roman Catholic, from Kadina; Salvation Army, with large substantial barracks. Adj. Wyatt; Church, of Christ, Pastor Moffatt. Good support is accorded to each place of worship.
The roll of tradespeople is too formidable to publish in extenso, but in justice to the pioneers of commerce at Moonta and others who have shuck to their guns through good and bad times mention will be made of the following who occupy premises in the main streets:—Early Arrivals—Messrs. H. Martin, G. Emerson, J. Williams, Roach & Son, J. Snell. W. Cowling, W. Chappell, J. H. Bennett, A. Grummet, E. Beythien, E. Whitford, S. Hill, J. Beaglehole, sen., E. Major, W. H. Goldswortby. A. Giesecke, T. Marshall, R. Ralph, W. C. Rowe, R. White. R. Learmond, and G. Stocker. The later arrivals include Donaldson & Andrews, T. Cock. J. J. Rickard, J. J. Trezona, J. Brown, J. Wilson, Williams & Co., Barlow and Co., John Hunter & Co., F.B.C., Wertheim, Singer Company, J. Beaglehole. jun, R. Watson, R. Penrose, J. London, F. A. Gurner, A. Tresize, R. E. Rowe, E. Trenenry. A. J. Jarrett, Verco, Lang, Bauer, J. Luscombe, A. J. Jewell, F. Davev, and Mesaames Herbert Fisher, Bastian, Bleeze, and Miss Lutz. This list is probably incomplete, but is as nearly correct as the writer could ascertain, Mr. J. Jeffrey conducts an extensive carrying business, and hotel accommodation is provided by Mrs. Schroeder (Royal), J. Huddy (Moonta), Addicoat (Globe), E. O. Beckmans (Prince of Wales), and Miners' Arms,
—Friendly and Other Societies.—
The numerous societies and lodges, with large membership, are in a flourishing position. Several of the organizations possess properties where they hold meetings, notably the Freemasons and Druids. The former body has a well-decorated and appointed hall on Blanche terrace, and the Druids recently purchased the old Church of England premises in Ryan street, which have been renovated and extended to meet lodge requirements. Mr. J. Trathen is the secretary.
Local journalism is represented by The Y.P. Advertiser, owned and printed by Mr. W. J. Phillips, and The People's Weekly, owned and printed by Messrs. J. T. Hicks and R. J. Hughes. The former is published on Fridays and the latter on Saturdays. Each publication devotes considerable space to district matters, and receives fair support from residents,
—General Trading Operations.—
The condition of business is fair to medium—there is plenty of room for improvement. Large and up-to-date stocks are carried by most of the firms trading, and prices compare favourably all round with those of city houses. There is always a prospect of better times aindad, and Moonta tradespeople are richly endowed with patience and hope.
Some matters require attention by heads of departments in Adelaide, both in justice to the important town and as a convenience to the general public, viz., the erection without delay of a 5 or 6 ton crane at the goods platform at Moonta, and the removal of the packing ease now used as a station, and a first-class edifice created in its place. The present structure is a disgrace to the Railway Department and an insult to the town. There is neither room for the discharge of official duties, nor proper accommodation for travellers. Passengers have to climb up or down from the carriages as well as they can, and it is marvellous how accidents are averted. The town is entitled to more consideration both in this respect and with regard to the vehicle-destroying tramway lines, which are laid through the principal thoroughfare of Moonta. Several serious accidents have occurred lately. Another matter which attracts the attention of visitors is the absence of illumination in the principal streets. Only one or two lamps are in use throughout the large area encompassed in the corporation boundary, and on dark nights the difficulty of perambulating the town its great. Residents probably get used to this condition of affairs, but it is not eredifcabZe to such an important trading centre, and does not impress visitors favourably. Let there be more light, Mr. Mayor, and as soon as possible.
Although Moonta is sometimes described as Land's End, there is still another settlement to be prospected before the waters of Spencer's Gulf raise a barrier to further progression. About two and a half miles westerly, approached by a one-horse tram car —or by a good road, is the port of Moonta. At this seaport—one of the places where the port ought, not to be—there is a jetty, an hotel (conducted by Miss North way), and a store owned by Mr. Retallick. The principal source of revenue for the few residents of the watering place is fishing, which has been conducted by Messrs. Simms & Sons, Johnson Brothers, Wiseman, and J. J. Kemp & Son for many yeans with more or less success. The hauls are packed and trained direct from the boats to Melbourne, where good prices are always obtainable. Small quantities only are availlable for local or Adelaide consumption, and judging by the comfortable quarters owned by those engaged in the industry and their general prosperity the occupation is well worth following. The Simms family own a fleet of boats, and live at a settlement of their own, known as Simms's Cove. Mr. Doorne acts as harbourmaster and traffic manager at Moonta Bay. The s.s. Ferret calls once a week, when general merchandise, averaging 80 tons per trip, is landed for Moonta requirements. Port Hughes was the most suitable place for a port, but fate or other influences decided otherwise. About eight miles west of the jetty the Tipara Lighthouse is a prominent feature. This useful guide to mariners is built on one of the reefs which are more plentiful than appreciable in Spencer's Gulf. The structure is enuipped with a splendid revolving light of great power and brilliancy. Beyond Port Hughes the bold outline of Cape Elizabeth is plainly discernible. The coastline is continually broken by the occurrence of numerous bays. There is an excellent beach for many miiles southerly. Port Hughes would be an ideal locality for summer residence, but so far the only dwellings are those occupied by the fishermen. At some future period this may be tlhie site of palatial residences built and occupied by the magnates of Moonta.
[VI.—By a Travelling Correspondent.]
WALLAROO AND KADINA.
A certain amount of friendly rivalry exists between the three towns which may be included in these notes as forming part of Yorke's Peninsula. Each town hes good grounds for claiming supremacy as a commercial centre, but, taking all things into consideration, the honours seem fairiy well divided. Wallaroo has certainly the distinction of possessing one of the finest harbours and jetties in South Australia, from which an immense quantity of produce is shipped annually. By virtue of convenience and natural position the port of Wallaroo has been selected as the seaport whence nearly all the grain grown in adjacent districts is loaded for foreign markets, and during the busy wheatbuying and shipping season there is no finer sight than the stacks of wheat which completely fill the large reserve in the centre of the town of Wallaroo. The railways from Adelaide and Brinkworth to Moonta pass through the town, and within a few hundred yards of the jetty, and therefore, in the absence of more picturesque scenery, one's eye can, at the season mentioned, feast on heaps of wealth awaiting transport to lands beyond the seas. I was informed by good authority that the quantity of wheat received at and dispatched from Port Wallaroo this season—which practically means dating the past six months—will total nearly 400,000 bags. Already 13 vessels have sailed with full cargoes, and several others were at the port loading. Shipping facilities have been much improved since the jetty extension.
—Port Wallaroo and Wheat Export-.—
It is only during the past decade that there has been such an increase in production, but even with this fact staring them in the face the Government were reluctant to grant the necessary extension of the jetty and improve the harbourage. Perseverance on the part of a few enthusiastic Wallaroo townsmen eventually secured the required concession, with the result that Port Wallaroo now possesses a safe harbour and a jetty, 2,105 ft. long, capable of accommodating seven ocean vessels. The additional 500 ft. was constructed in 1902— not a day too soon for the increased traffic. The income from this source must be a handsome tribute to the Treasury. Capt. White is the resident harbourmaster.
Apart from this pleasing feature of the commercial prosperity of Wallaroo, there are several other important factors—the Wallaroo and Moonta. Company's vast smelting works, which are probably unexcelled for general construction and equipment ; the same company's sulphuric acid works, equally prominent and ably conducted; and in close proximity to these famous establishments, the large premises constructed by the Wallaroo Phosphate Company for the manufacture of fertilizers occupies a considerable area.
The operations of the smelting and sulphuric acid works were decently described in the columns of The Register; but in view of the importance just now of fertilizing, a few facts regarding the phosphate industry may be interesting. The present company began manufacturing high-grade superphosphate at Wallaroo in September, 1901, selecting this locality in consequence of its nearness to a convenient seaport, and also in consideration of the facilities afforded by the railway as a medium for distributing the superphosphate over a large area of agricultural country at a low rate of carliage. The company hare a branch line to the works, where the manure is loaded direct into the docks, and shunting is unnecessary. There is also a line of communication from the works to the jetty. Increased demand for their product encouraged the phosphate company to extend their buildings and machinery. The necessary additions were completed in September, 1902. The quality of the material is highly commended, and farmers are yearly finding the advantage of purchasing South Australian fertilizers, which are manufactured with a view of adaptability to the requirements and conditions of the climate. The average annual output is about 8,000 tons, which is sold at £4 2/6 per ton. Owing to the excellence of the product, the company are compelled to limit their manufacture: thus purchasers are advised to pass in their orders early in the season. The industry gives employment to about 50 men. The secretary of the company is Mr. W. Steele, whose office is in Adelaide; and the local manager is Mr. F. W. Brasher.
The railway department finds considerable work for the staff engaged; and, generally speaking, the arduous and risky occupation of loading and shunting is efficiently carried out to the satisfaction of the many persons engaged in the shipping business. Mr. J. Henderson, the Superintendent of the North-West Division of the South Australian Railways, is in charge of the traffic, with the valued assistance of Mr. G. Middleton, local stationinaster. There is only a third class station here, without a platform. Surely this part of the country is not visited often by members of parliment! Additional employment is provided by Mr. W. H. May's Wallaroo Ironworks, where large contracts are from time to time executed in the shape of mining and other machinery, including agricultural implements.
—The Town of Wallaroo.—
The towii of Wallnroo is situated almost on the shores of Wallaroo Bay, washed by the waters of Spencer's Gulf, in the Hundred of Wallaroo, County Daly. The population is given as 2,900; but several reductions at the smelting works and mines have caused a temporary fall in the value of household property. Improvements to residential and business premises continue, however, so there cannot be much amiss with the commercial condition of the town. Moreover, the visitor cannot gaze on the noble structure, recently erected by the ratepayers. which is now the municipal headquarters without feeling certain that the town of Wallaroo is making rapid progress. The new town hall is a commanding building, erected near the railway line, and facing the sea. The site chosen is not the most suitable or convenient, but there it is, a striking testimony to the ambitious aspirations of the residents who, having decided to build a new town hall, determined it should eclipse all similar edifices in this or any other country district. There is ample accommodation in this building for municipal offices and several private firms, besides the usual rooms for meetings, and a large hall suitable for theatrical or other entertainments. Elaborate scenery is being painted by Mr. C. Marques, which will add considerably to the attractiveness of the hall. Electric lighting is installed, and in every sense the new building is a credit to the town. Mr. W. Richardson laid the foundation stone on March 26, 1902, in his capacity as Mayor of Wallaroo. Formerly meetings were held and entertainments given in the institute — a conveniently situated building— which was also provided with reading, club, end classrooms. Supported by voluntary subscriptions and membership fees for many years, the ball was eventually handed over to the corporation trustees, but having built a new abode, the executive declined to expend further money on the building, and the present members are in a quandary as to their position with regard to the property. Much expense has been incurred by the institute committee in installing electricity in this building, but the cost must considerably discount the advantage thus gained. The library and reading room are well supplied with books and literature, and are great conveniences to the limited number of members. Mr. J. Malcolm is the President, Mr. J, M. Symons hon. secretary, and Sir. F. G. Robinson librarian.
—Care of the Sick and Suffering.—
Tbe district is fortunate in possessing a hospital, which is excellently situated, overlooking the boy, and comparatively free from the obnoxious fumes which at times sweep down on the town in overwhelming clouds from the chimmey stacks in the vicinity. Medical comforts and attendance can here be secured, with skilful nursing. Dr. W. H .Harbison is the medical man in charge, and Mr. Orwin is the secretary.
-The Town Council.—
The town council is composed of the following:—Mayor, Mr. E, A. Beare; and Crs. G. Chatfield, R. Tonkin, J. D. Phillips, T. Daves, W. Seeley, J. F. Herbert, A. Watts, and W. Price, .jun.; and clerk, Mr. A. Young. The town is partly lit with electricity, which is furnished by the smelting works, and supplied to householders by the corporation at a moderate tariff. The principal streets are in good condition, and the sanitary arrangements as well as can be expected. Attempts have been made to plant trees and shrubs on the reserve, which abuts on the railway line, but it is either due to indifferent cultivation or the strong winds from the sea that the centre of the town is an eyesore to visitors. Only a small plantation of tamarisk trees, which enclose a monument to the late Hon. David Bews, relieves the monotony of the scene. In the absence of cultivation the corporation make a practical use of the reserve as a stone-cracking and general material depot, which, together with the wheatstacks before mentioned, does not add to the beauty of the town.
Professional and financial positions are filled by the following gentlemen, with credit to the town and, it is to be hoped, benefit to themselves:—Doctor, W. H. Harbison; solicitors, Messrs. E. A. Beare and R. W. Uffindell; auctioneer and land a agent. Mr. J. Malcolm. An agency of the National Bank is conducted from the Kadina branch.
The large wheat buying business of Wallaroo is conducted by J. Malcolm & Co. (Daigety & Co.), W. Price,, jun. (J. Darling and son), G. F. Mills, jun. (S.A. Farmers' Union), T. Davies (W. & A McArthur), E. Champion (W. B. Cave & Co.), and (G. Malcolm (J. Bell & Co.). The bulk of the 400,000 bags previously mentioned is handled by these buyers.
Government positions are held by Messrs. H. G. Watson (post and telegraph master), A. E. Mueller (state schoolmaster), and Sgt. Jamison and two constables uphold the majesty of the law. A residence is provided for offenders at the Wallaroo Gaol, which is presided over by Mr. C. W. Hardy.
The pioneer business men of Wallaroo include Messrs. Mitchell & Tonkin. B. Letheby, W. H. Harris & Son, Turner and Gullidge. T. C. Hockridge, T. Hocking, John Hunter Co., F.B.C., T. D. Nock, G. Chatfield. W. McKee, E. Day, Bowering. A. Chandler, E. & W. Magor, Bates and Earie, Richards, R. Burden, D. McKenzie, W. B. Shaw, and W. Richardson. The complete list of present traders would fill column. There are six hotels—a fairly reliable guide to the condition of affairs in any town—the Globe (Mrs. Burton), Commercial (E. W. Bormeyer). Ship Inn (J Bryden, jun.). Wallaroo (E. Cavanagh), Cornucopia. (F. C. Speed), and Prince of Wales (Mrs. I. Trye).
—Religious and Musical.—
There is a variety of choice in religious denominations—Church of England, Methodist, Presbyterian. Congregational, Church of Christ, and Salvation Army—all cater to to spiritual wants of the district, and the attendances at each place of worship are satisfactory.
The Wallaroo Town Band, under the loadership of Mr. H. May, is making steady progress in musical proficiency.
This wonderfully improved town is a couple of miles from the Wallaroo Mines, and about six from Port Wallaroo. It thus secures the bulk of the trade negotiated with the mining population, in addition to its farming connections. During the past four years the business and residential portions have developed most remarkably. Large, well-built premises now occupy the vacant spaces which occurred at frequent intervals in the main streets, while older buildings have been renovated and enlarged to provide accommodation for the increase in trade. Residential building allotments are at a high premium; and, in order to allow of further construction, it is proposed to petition for right to build on some portion of the park lands. The town of Kadina, which is situated on the railway line to Moonta, about 118 miles from Adelaide, in the County of Daly, is a compact settlement, with a population of 2,000. The total number resident within the boundary of the Hundred of Kadina is estimated at 9,750, including, of course, the Wallaroo Mines. The rateable value of property in this district is £10,240. There are, besides, suburban extensions of the town.
The officers of the corporation are:— Mayor, Mr. J. Mitchell; Crs. T. A. Southwood. V. P. Kendell, W. Growden, W. H. Rogers, .J. H. Pengelley, W. F. Taylor. W. Symons, and F. Potter; and clerk and overseer of works, Sir. J. M. Inglis. Business is conducted at the town hall, which has recently been extensively repaired and added to. About £250 has been expended on renovation, the money being raised by public subscription. Thanks to the munificence of Mr. D. R. Squibb, a former old resident of Kadina, the town possesses a tower and clock, which will cost over £1,000, and recently the council placed a tablet in position to commemorate the generous gift.
The members of the District Council of Kadina are:—Crs. Paul Roach (chair), Peter Roach, D. Taylor, J. Malcolm, A. Rodda, H. Fuss, T. J. Harris, and J. Tait. clerk, Mr. T. W. Taylor; overseer of works, Mr. D. Smith. Good roads and tree planting are leading features of this council's operations. An excellent band rotunda has been available for entertainment for some years in the reserve facing the post office and town hall. The Government officials are;—Post and telegraph master, Mr. W. A. Allen; state schoolmaster, Mr. F. Fairweather: police officer and clerk of Local Court, Cpl. J. P. Dowling; and station master, Mr. W. Southwood. The institute librarian is Mr. J. M. Inglis; and the Rev. A. K. Chignell (Church of England), Fathers Hourigan and Adamson (Roman Catholic), Rev. A. A. Smith (Taylor Street Methodist), Rev. B. Dorman. (Congregational). and Mr. B. J. Moysey (Church of Christ), conduct religious services.
—Athletic and Racing Clubs.
The Kadina and Wallaroo Jockey Club (secretary, Mr. J. Willshire), the football club (secretary, Mr. J. Birtles), cricket club (secretary, Mr. A. Dodd), and several other athletic bodies provide excellent recreation for the population. Mr. H. Woolcock is conductor of the Federal Band.
There are two banking establishments— National, Mr. J. S, Brook, manager; and Union, Mr. G. Hamilton. Drs. H. A. Powell and H. R. Letcher are the resident medical practitioners; Messrs. H. W. Uffindell (of Moonta), E. A. Beare. and R. J. D. Mallan, are soliestans; Mr. J. Cornelius is local manager for Messrs. T. Reed and Co., auctioneers.
The prominent tradesmen of Kadina are; —Messrs. D. Taylor, T. M. Rendell, Hall and Co., C. Moore & Co., E. A. Ham. John Hunter Co., F.B.C., J. H. • Rosewarne, F. Rosewame, Tonkin & Beckwith, Wilson, Briee. & Co., Singer Company, Wertheim, W. Milliean. Russack & Tyler, J. Jones, Herbert & Son, W. Symon, L. W. E. Hardy, C. Kappe, Kennett Bros., A. R. Brooks, E. J. Paul, J. Mitchell, M. Harris, R. Truscott, Parnell & Bowman, D. Moloney, W. Hancock, G. R. Haddy. T. Burclhell, jun., T. & B. Opie, A. C. Frick, Gullidge and Furner; Page & Co., Marchant & Son, E. B. Cardell, A. Tonkin A. E. Jay, R. H. Paull, W. B. Noell. W. Jackson. F. Potter. F. Hocking. J. Fargher, J. H. Hopgood, and W. C. Rodda, and Mrs. G. Phillips.
Two newspapers—The Kadina and Wallaroo Times, issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays by Mrs. C. F. Taylor; and The Plain Pealer, published on Saturday morning.- by Messrs. J. A. Southwood and G. Spring — provide mediums for local representation and distribution of information relating to district affairs. Mr. J. Darling is in charge of J. Darling & Son's flour mill.
After leaving Kadina, following the railway line to Adelaide, the first settlement is Paskeville. which is the business town for Green's Plains district. Owing to heavy traffic and wet weather, the roads were not in the best of condition, and travelling by vehicle was anything but pleasant. Repairs are now being effected at the worst pinches, but countryfolk are not too exacting, so long as the rainfall comes along at the proper time for crops and feed. Paskeville is situated in the hundred of Kulpara. County of Daly, distant from Adelaide 105 miles by rail and 84 by road. The principal occupations are wheatgrowing and sheepbreeding. Something like 40,000 bags of wheat have been received at the railway station this season, besides other produce from the district. Messrs. J. C. Price, T. C. Hockridge, and F. O. Couzner; storekeepers, Palmer and Edwards, blacksmiths; G. R. Drew, saddlers; and S. Price, hotelkeeper, comprise the business men of the town. The station and post master is Mr. P. J. Bryan, and the state schoolmaster is Mr. J. W. Taylor. The country is very fertile, as flat as a pancake, and yearly increasing in productiveness.
Eight miles divide Paskeville from Kulpara, which is at the top of a hill forming poition of the South Hummock Range. At the time of my visit the roads were recovering from a downpour of over 2 in. of rain; which had done considerable damage to the tracks and sown land. As a set-off for the ill-effects, however, the flood waters had filled the Kulpara Reservoir to overflowing—an event not known to have occurred for more than 20 years! The township of Kulpara is adjacent to the swamps which intervene between the Peninsula and Port Wakefield. Judging from appearances, the area of country close, to Kulpara, known as the Cocoanut, is fairly productive, and after the recent heavy soakings early sown crops should make good progress. Mr. G. H. Brown officiates as postmaster at his store; the only other place of business (or rather pleasure) is the Travellers' Rest Hotel, conducted by Mr. A. R. Brown. The chief industry is agriculture.
YORKE PENINSULA TOWNSHIPS.
(By a Travelling Correspondent.)
Yorke Peninsula forms one of the State's most valuable assets. With its deposit of copper ore at its northern end, the extent of which is not yet accurately ascertained, its inexhaustible supplies of salt in the south, with gypsum, magnesia, pipeclay, petroleum, and numberless other mineral deposits yet to be worked, the peninsula is no mean portion of the State. But of late years the farming industry has progressed so rapidly that after all agriculturists hold pride of the place as the 'backbone of the country.' With the splendid winter rains just experienced, the crops all over are look-ing magnificent, and everyone agrees that the peninsula has never had such fair prospects before it as at present. Leaving Moonta the road runs south down the peninsula through some excellent farming country. For years the land from end to end was covered with scrub, and was only considered fit for pastoral occupation, but the recent advance in farming methods revolutionised the settlers' ideas, and now mixed farming is the rule. The land was extensively cleared and brought into cultivation, till now almost all the scrub to be seen is what has been left growing along the roadsides, making pleasant avenues of traffic. A good metal road runs for 22 miles from Moonta to
a thriving little township with several stores, the largest of which are those of Messrs. J. O. Tiddy & Co., A. Whitelaw, and E. Edwards & Co. The Major carriage factory is an up-to-date establishment, with all the latest appliances for turning out first-class vehicles of every description. In addition it does furniture, upholstering, and cabinet work, employing in, all 18 hands. Maitland business people are energetic and go-ahead, with their eyes open to the possible development of local industries. Just now they are actively, developing a good copper show in the vicinity. The York Valley Copper Mining Company is the name of the syndicate prosecuting the work. The lode was discovered 18 years ago, and a shaft put down for 100 ft.; but was then for some reason abandoned. The new company sunk an additional 25 ft., and then drove inwards for about 104 ft., finding good ore all the way. Then a new shaft was put down, and good ore found. Fossicking in the old shaft revealed a vein of ore about 80 ft. from the surface, and a drive in from this towards the new shaft follows a vein of high-grade yellow ore about 4 ft. 6 in. wide.. This seems to prove the property a valuable one, and doubtless it will soon be on the market for capitalisation, and should eventually give good results. From Maitland a beautiful road leads past more thriving farms, through the German settlement of South Kilkerran to
on the west coast of Yorke Peninsula, as pretty and attractive a watering place as is to be found anywhere. A good jetty gives access to deep water, while at a short distance from the shore excellent fishing is to be had. There is also good shooting in the neighborhood, and for those on the lookout for some new place for a summer vacation Port Victoria is well worth a trial. Twenty-four miles pleasant travelling back towards the centre of the peniasula brings one past the first salt lake encountered, through the embryo township of Wauraltee and Mount Rat to
The country around here is park-like. The larger scrubs have mostly been left standing, when the undergrowth was cleared, and now the rich grass and growing crops, with their carpet of vivid green stretching in endless vistas under the spreading trees, make up a most pleasing scene. Minlaton itself is another go-ahead township, having in recent years added several fine stores and dwellings to its rateable value. A fine large hall has just been completed as an annexe to the institute, and its appearance both inside and out reflects credit on builder, architect, and township. Messrs. Treherne, Matthews, Odgers, and Marlow are the principal storekeepers, and the fact that all do good business is sufficient guarantee of the district's prosperity. Following the main road down we come to
"where the salt comes from;" at least Yorketown, besides being the capital of southern Yorke Peninsula, is about the centre of the now famous salt lakes district. These freaks of nature are scattered all round for miles, nearly every farm counting one or more within its boundaries, varying from a hundred square yards in extent to as many acres. When the district was first settled these water-filled hollows were the despair of the settler, and considerably affected land values. Sections containing a salt lake could hardly be given away, and were taken up grumblingly. Now he is counted a lucky man who has a really good salt lake on his property, for the rent received from salt companies for the right to scrape salt, in many cases exceeds the original rent asked for the whole farm. A curious thing about these lakes is that not all of them produce salt. Adjacent lakes, though similar in appearance, surroundings, and depth, do not give the same results, for no hitherto discovered reason. Yorketown has a most attractive thriving appearance, and during the salt season, when hundreds of men find casual employment, a brisk trade is done by the various store-keepers, while the two hotels find it difficult to cope with the demand for accommodation. Mrs. Stockings, of the Melville Hotel, is having an extra story added to a portion of her house, to contain six bed-rooms. A fine hall is being built on to the local institute. Mr. M. Erichsen is one of the pioneer business men on Yorke Peninsula, and is still well to the fore, his fine, commodious store being one of the most up-to-date in the State. Messrs. Woods and McFarlane run him very close, and between them visitors and residents can rely on securing goods equal to city supplies. The Catholic Church of Yorketown is a handsome stone edifice, and stands out prominently in the landscape. It would do credit to a larger city, and speaks well for the community responsible for its erection. From Yorketown to
is a distance of about nine miles-taking a straight line over the surface of the road, but following the endless accession of ruts and holes, it must be quite double that distance. This section is the only break in the otherwise excellent roads. Of course it is inevitable, for this portion of the road carries most of the heavy carting from the various salt lakes to the Edithburgh refineries. A harder quality of stone is necessary to stand the severe strain, and render the road at all pleasurable for lighter traffic. Edithburgh owes its prosperity to the salt industry, and present land values make one wish mightily that one's progenitor had invested an odd £50 here when the State was young. The salt refineries employ a large number of hands all the year round, and during the summer months, when the harvest has to be gathered from the various lakes, hundreds of men are required. This is an industry that wants protecting, and deserves it. A duty on imported salt would keep out the stuff now dumped on our markets by vessels that bring it out as ballast, without raising the price of the local article to the consumer, as there is enough salt available on the peninsula and else-where to supply all Australia, and the quality is good enough for anyone. Edithburgh is a popular seaside resort as well as a manufacturing town. It has a bracing, breezy atmosphere-the wind coming up fresh from the billows of the gulf, and putting vigor into vitiated lungs. Mount Lofty can be dimly seen across the tossing miles of sea the hovering cloud of smoke over Port Adelaide, and in the foreground Troubridge lighthouse and island.
lying a few miles north, up the shores of St. Vincent Gulf, is another pleasant little watering place which attracts its quota of summer visitors. For those who like a retired spot, easy of access, yet out of the usual beaten track of holiday makers, Coobowie is an ideal spot.
is also an attractive seaside resort, and offers allurements of its own to visitors, it possesses a beautiful stretch of curving, sandy beach, while the new jetty recently built should develop trade and make it more popular as a resort. It only requires a little energy and co-operation among its business men to make Stansbury one of the most popular seaside resorts in the State. Its situation is in its favor, as from it radiate good roads to the principal towns of the Peninsula, and enjoyable excursions by cycle, motor, or carriage can be made from here.
lies still farther up the coast, and though consisting only of a short jetty, hotel, small store, and come farmhouses, is a popular place during summer. Yachting parties from Port Adelaide are fond of a run over to Port Vincent, as deep water allows of a near approach to the shore, and the hotel accommodation is frequently heavily taxed. Recently the channel approach to the jetty has been deepened, and a deck added to the wharf.
is the centre of a highly successful farming district, and though not attractive in outward appearance, is a good busin town. In this vicinity there is a remarkable cave or hole in the ground, from which an underground channel runs, it said, "for miles." No one is known to have penetrated to its end, and it is supposed to be one of the many presumed underground watercourses that drain Yorke Peninsula. A peculiar feature of the Peninsula is the entire absence of creeks or water courses. Not once does the road cross creek of any sort, and one never sees ditch. Where the surplus water runs is a mystery. Even during this exceedingly wet winter no creeks are to be seen, a very few pools of water even along the roads. The sub-strata is a porous limestone, and probably the water soaks through this and finds its way by underground channels to the sea.
is another small seaport, and serves as the outlet of a large and prosperous, farming district. Its progress during the past twelve months has been most marked. A bank and several houses have been erected and substantial additions made to business premises. Those of the Clarence Smith foundry and implement works have had to be extended to cope with the increase business. Ardrossan is destined to be one of the most successful townships on the Peninsula. Its business men work well an amicably together, and have the general welfare of the town at heart. As mention in a previous description of Ardrossan, this is really an ideal place for a summer holiday. The cliffs along the beach afford most grateful shade from boiling summer suns, and invalids could sit enjoying the sea breeze here, who could not stand the fierce heat that beats on sand and shingle in some seaside towns.
is unfortunately not one of the beauty spots being merely called into existence by reason of the shipping facilities afforded by creek which runs through the mangrove growing on the flats at the head of St. Vincent Gulf. It is a good district for shooting, and its atmosphere is warranted to raise a good appetite in the most hardened dyspeptic. A substantial hotel provides good accommodation.
is another place which cannot boast a beautiful situation, but its inhabitants are doing their best to remedy this oversight of Nature, and have planted young trees down each side of the principal thoroughfare. The hotel is comfortable, and Mr. Crosbie, the principal storekeeper, is an energetic, up-to-date business man.
This practically comprises all the Penisula townships, excluding Moonta, Wallaroo, Kadina, and Paskeville. The whole district reminds one of some parts of the Scotch lowlands. For instance, the limestone boulders that once covered the land have been industriously collected and built into houses, sheds, and fences. These divisions are very reminiscent of the "dykes,'' as similar structures are called in Scotland St. Vincent Gulf, with its pretty shores and many embryo watering-places, is not unlike the Firth of Clyde, where are such famous watering-places as Rothesay, Dunoon, Bute, Greenock, Dumbarton, and others, between which and Glasgow ply fleets of beautiful fast steamers, crowded with holiday-maker every day of the week in summer, and always on holidays. The gulf is bound to be Adelaide's chief health resort, and it is not too wild a fancy to believe that at some future date it will be dotted over with fleet of pleasure steamers.
Another, thing reminiscent of Scotland is the brand of weather in general use on the Peninsula this winter, lt is the Scotchiest ever encountered out of the land of the "Scotch mist." It is generally believed however, that the supply is exhausted, and a better kind will be available during summer.
The roads right through the Peninsula are better than excellent. There are no creeks, and practically no hills, so cycling or motoring is a delight. Motor cars are growing very popular in the district, and a good investment for an enterprising hotelkeeper at some seaside town would be a motor for hiring out to visitors. Care would require to be exercised in selecting a car from some approved strain, in order to avoid the experience of a certain Peninsula doctor, who is said to start off on a sudden call in his motor, followed by his man with a trap and a pair of horses in case the motor fails to "get" the whole distance. It seldom does, so rumor says, and the buggy invariably comes up opportunely. (This is not guaranteed.)
Somewhere between Arthurton and Paskeville lies the region familiar to all 'Advertiser' readers as Green's Plains. I tried to locate the Green's Plains correspondent, but would not recommend anyone else to try the same experiment. There are too many of him. The first one I met was mending a fence. After passing the time of day I asked 'if this was Green's Plains? 'Well, yes it is.' 'Do you know the Greens Plains correspondent?' I asked eagerly. 'Guess I do,' he replied. 'I'm him.' 'Delighted to meet you,' I cried. 'Do you care for a whisky?' 'Don't mind,' was the prompt answer, and we had one. 'Good whisky, that' says he. 'It is; have another?' He did. After a little conversation, in which I vainly tried to see a joke, I asked him bluntly 'What was his latest joke?' 'You'll see it in the paper to-morrow— that's good whisky: what brand is it?' he said rapidly, I told him, and he sampled it again. It was time to go if I wished to save a drop, so we parted. Later on in the day I struck another likely-looking chap, and asked him if he knew the Green's Plains correspondent. He whispered, 'Keep it dark! I'm the man.' 'You don't say so,' I said, astonished. 'Fact!' says he. 'Here's my latest,' and he produced a cutting of the last Green's Plain yarn. That was proof positive, so I shook his horny hand and offered him the last of the whisky. He took the lot. Farther on I met an old man who looked the soul of honor, so I asked him if the man I last met was the famous correspondent. 'Not him!' he replied contemptuously. 'Well, is it Mr. ? ? , near Arthurton?' 'No!' he said with some heat. 'Did that old rascal say he was? I'll have to put a stop to this. He's claimed that several times now, but I am the Green's Plains correspondent, and I ? ? ' but I was tired, and my whisky all done, so I left. Now I am credibly Informed that the G.P.C. is a Rechabite !
A DRIVE ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.
MINLATON, June 24.—A drive through Central Yorke's Peninsula at this season is most exhilarating. On every side stretches a gently undulating plain, while in the distant horizon glimpses may be caught of the deep azure or the dazzling silver gleam of the placid waters of the gulf. Patches of living green, varying in shade from emerald to a rich olive, mingle with the sober greys of wood and pasture, the browns and chocolates of the fallow—the whole heightened by occasional clumps of sombre ti-tree or the dark tints of mallee and peppermint scrub. Over these sweep the fleeting shadows, imparting life and change, while the fleecy flocks Drouse contentedly on the sweet herbage. The woods are alive with the varied melody of Nature's grand orchestra, and begin to be already decked with the hues of numberless delicate blooms. Brightness, hope, and promise gladden the heart of the beholder. With two friends the writer was driven for about 10 miles though this charming scene. Starting from Minlaton we traversed the productive district of Koolywurtie. Wheat and herbage on all sides were making vigorous growth, and wore a most healthy appearance. The flocks and herds were in prime condition for this time of the year. A conspicuous feature of the landscape is the abundance of stones of all shapes and sizes in the fields, and one cannot help marvelling at the surprising growth on soil so scanty and of such shallow depth. No doubt the sulphuric acid in the fertilizers acts as a solvent on the limestone, as it was not until the general use of superphosphates that herbage of all kinds grew with such luxuriance. One great advantage of this unlimited supply of excellent building material is that most of the stables, sheds, and other outbuildings are solidly construct of stone, and the yards and gardens enclosed with stone walls. The dwellings, too are of a type much above the style of the average farmhouse, and with their out offices often present quite a stately appearance, especially when crowning some wooded height. The Hundred of Wauraltee adjoins Koolywurtie on the north, and the substantial character of the houses and comfortable look of the farmstead cannot fail to impress the traveller. Wauraltee, a little hamlet, comprising a handsome redroofed Wesleyan Church, a strongly built institute, a weatherboard public school, general store, and some private house wears an air of general neatness and prosperity. The store is a branch establishment of Mr. W. R. Trehearne, of Minlaton and it is very capably managed by Miss B. Keightley. A stranger naturally enquired why with so abundant supply of good stone, the public school should be constructed of such flimsy material, but it appeals to have been removed here from Mount Rat. Turning eastward, after a mile or so a large building is sighted, belonging to Mr. H. Lock. This edifice contains about 20 rooms, and was formerly a public house, about halfway between Minlaton and Mainland. The business, which was once brisk, fell off in the bad times, and the present proprietor procured the house and about 500 acres at an almost nominal figure. Although now used only as a private dwelling the homestead could hardly be purchased for seven times the amount. The quality of the soil here seems to improve, and the stones are not so much in evidence. Ornamental trees, pines, and sugar gums add an air of elegance find refinement to the homestead, and indications of permanent prosperity multiply. Three miles from Minlaton we pass through a natural avenue of peppermint and teatree—the prettiest stretch of road on the excursion. Here is the farm of Messrs. Cook. A hedge of African box—its brilliant green contrasting in a striking way with the dark foliage of the trees—encloses a vineyard and orchard, a somewhat rare sight on the Peninsula. We reached our journey's end after a most enjoyable and inspiring journey.