... South Kilkerran Home Page ...
Kilkerran Hundred Map Website
South Kilkerran Cemetery Index Website
Books about South Kilkerran
District Council of Yorke Peninsula - History of South Kilkerran
Takes its name from the Hundred of Kilkerran which in turn was named after Governor Sir James Fergusson's family home in Scotland. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 5
The area was first settled by German settlers who had left their home land to avoid religious persecution. Brought out from Germany in 1838 they had first settled at Hahndorf in the Adelaide Hills, then had spread out to the Barossa Valley. When this part of Yorke Peninsula was surveyed for settlement by farmers in the 1870's they came here to commence farming.
The German language is still spoken here in many of the homes; but this is not that they do not wish to assimilate with their English speaking neighbours, but that being essentially religious, they believe that the teachings of Martin Luther cannot be taught in any language but German. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 192
The existence of two Lutheran churches, St John's and St Paul's, in so small a community is of interest.
The German migrants belonged to three religious orders: the Moravian Brethren, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod and the Immanuel Synod. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 194
In 1878 the first two groups build the St John church which they both used in separate services. In 1882 people of the third order moved into the district and they too used St John's. It was also used as a school until a school was built. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 192
The Church of St Paul was erected and dedicated on 2nd March, 1902.
In November 1966, the various factions of the Lutheran church united to become the Lutheran church of Australia. *Governor Fergusson's Legacy. Page 194.
The area known as Kilkerran on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia -- State Library of South Australia - PRG 280/1/7/377
GERMANS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
Tue 26 Oct 1909, The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Trove
A PAGE OF EARLY HISTORY.
An historical account of the founding of St. Michael's Church at Hahndorf was read in German by Pastor Brauer at the and property were confiscated. Pastors were jubilee services on Sunday, October '24. the Lutheran Church in this State reads something like a romance. No other church has so interesting and thrilling a history as regards the causes of its establishment in Australia. The founders of our church in South Australia were not impelled to come here by the alluring prospects of wealth, honour, power, or influence; they left their homes and native hearths on behalf of their faith and con-science. They were driven from their Fatherland by remorseless persecution, and oppression.
—Causes of Their Oppression.—
The Prussian King, Frederick William III.— who was a member of the Reformed, or Calvanistic, Church, while the great majority of his subjects were Lutherans - had issued a new liturgy and desired and demanded its introduction in all the churches of his kingdom. Many Lutheran churches were in deadly opposition to it, because it contained doctrines and statements at variance with their faith and confessions. Moreover, they declined to recognise the King as having any authority to dictate to them in matters of religion. They, therefore, fought bravely, for the freedom and independence of the church and against the "royal" liturgy, as being the work of the King without the authority and consent of the respective church communities. Their opposition naturally aroused the displeasure and ire of the King. The consequence was that pastors were dismissed from their churches, some exiled, others imprisoned, forcible possession was taken of places of worship, fines were levied, police supervision was enforced, land He said:— The history of the founding of forbidden even to attend private meetings of their parishioners; they often had to travel in disguise to elude the zeal and vigilance of their pursuers, and they were frequently smuggled from one village to another in a load of straw. Many thrilling stories are related as to the manner in which, by the assistance of ingenious German housewives, they eluded their would-be captors, who were frequently at their heels and sometimes actually conversed with them. For many years they bore it all meekly, patiently, and bravely. With a consecration to their cause that recoiled from no self-sacrifice, with a co-operation among, themselves that was apostolic in spirit and wise in policy, with a heroism seldom or never eclipsed on the field of battle, with an almost super-human endurance of tyranny and persecution, they clung fast to what they considered more valuable than earthly possessions, more sacred even than life itself— their conscientious religious convictions. The story of their sufferings and hardships has touched the heart of all lovers of religious freedom wherever it has become known, and it has furnished pathetic and tragic material to the historian and the poet, who have vied with each others in describing the heroism and devotion of these sturdy Lutherans and their final journey from their homes in Prussia to the land of the Southern Cross. I cannot forbear citing a few verses written by Miss Rundle (daughter of one of the directors of the South Australian Company) with reference to the first batch of Lutheran emigrants as they lay on board the Prince George in the harbour of Plymouth: —
From depths of far Silesia,
Across the ocean bound,
A little band of exile men
Lay in the Plymouth Sound.
No dreams of gold or conquest
Had lured them thus to roam;
No pressure of hard poverty
Had urged them from their home.
The fields that fed their fathers,
Enough for them had grown,
And they no longings for the world
Beyond their homes had known.
They did but seek for freedom.
To pour their prayers to heaven,
To hearken to the voice of God;
That freedom was not given!
In the same spot where long ago
The Pilgrim Fathers lay,
These stood for God and conscience sake,
As resolute as they.
— A Friend in Need.—
It is well known that the late George Fife Angas was the cause and principal agency of the emigration of these Prussian Lutherans to South Australia. Touched by the recital of the story of their woes he determined to assist them to emigrate. He chartered the Prince George, made ad-vances on loan to the emigrants on the Zebra and other vessels, and did what he could for their future welfare. The question is being asked to-day— What were Mr. Angas's motives in extending to these Lutherans a helping hand? Was it philanthropy pure and simple, or was it purely self-interest? The truth undoubtedly is that Mr. Angas'a heart was really touched by the story of their sufferings, woes, and brave resistance. He appears to have been a man of vast benevolence of soul, and was moved by heartfelt sympathy and true Christian love to extend to them a helping hand. On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that Mr. Angas did not make them a gift of the funds advanced to them —they never asked for it. He simply advanced on the security of their honest hearts and strong bones and muscles the requisite funds as a loan; and, of course, insisted in due time on the repayment ot both capital and interest. It was to some a hard struggle; but they eventually repaid every penny, either in cash or in labour, cattle, or produce. In a certain history of South Australia the writer appears to insinuate or imply that they did not honourably fulfil their engagements. Such a charge is absolutely false and without foundation in fact. When Mr. Angas offered them a helping hand he undoubtedly considered these Lutherans a good asset, and their financing and transportation to South Australia a profitable investment. He confidently expected that their Christian heroism, endurance, and thrifty and peaceable habits would make them a valuable accession to the newly founded province with which his own material interests and fortunes were so largely bound up, and I think he has always cheerfully admitted that his confident expectations have been verified.
—The Voyage Out.—
Little need be said regarding the voyage of the Lutherans to Australia, excepting that they won the admiration and love of the captain of the vessel — Capt. Hahn— who, upon the arrival of the ship in South Australian waters, did his utmost to find a suitable location for them. After several, unsuccessful attempts at securing land for his emigrants in the vicinity of Adelaide, he made a trip into the "hills" at the invitation and in the company of a number of large landholders of this district. The result of the trip was an agreement between the parties for the settlement of the Lutherans in this locality. The aboriginal name of the site where Hahndorf now stands was "Bukartilla." The Lutherans named it Hahndorf (Hahn village) in honour and memory of Capt. Hahn who had interested himself so successfully in their behalf.
— Their Journey Inland. —
While the arrangements were being made for their settlement in some portion of the province, the Lutherans were in occupation at Port Adelaide of a number of huts, which had been erected by their comrades of the Prince George, who had by this time taken their departure for Klemzig. A new home having now been found for them in the bosom of the hills, the emigrants commenced their ''trek" inland. For want of means the majority of them were unable to hire bullock wagons to take their goods and baggage to their destination. Consequently they either had to shoulder their baggage or draw it in small wooden handcarts of their own construction. On arrival in the neigh-bourhood of what is now called Glen Osmond they halted some little time for a rest. But the most difficult stage of their journey was still before them. However, by dint of hard work and perseverance they finally reached their goal; but, with moving forward only short stages at a time, then unloading and returning with their primitive handcarts for a fresh load —the same operation being repeated again and again— the journey to their new home occupied many months.
—Early Struggles and Hardships.—
Great were the hardships and privations they endured. Houses they made of long-poles, sloped like the roof of a house, and thatched with kangaroo grass; many of the necessaries of life were wanting, and the cultivation with their hoes and old-fashioned implements of the sun-hardened soil was no easy matter. They were also greatly handicapped by the high price paid for their land. John W. Bull, in his "Early Recollections and Experiences of Colonial Life," says with regard to the Hahndorf settlers :- "Owing to our land system not then admitting of purchase on credit from the Government, the Germans who arrived in the early days, instead of paying £1 to the State, paid long credit prices and heavy interest to private speculators. For the Hahndorf land they had to pay £7 an acre. I do not know what interest they were charged, but I daresay 10 per cent. Now this land was part of the first special survey taken up by Messrs. Dutton, Finniss, and McFar lane, at a cost to them of £1 an acre, and was not by any means the pick of their land, so no favour was shown in this essential arrangement with the strangers, who, I think I may say, were taken in. They had to pay off the principal by annual instalments. The quantity of land was 240 acres, which cost them £1,680. Then, through the pastor,, they obtained credit for provisions, &c,, to the amount of £1,590, until their crops were realized on. Their seed wheat had cost them £1 a bushel, and they had to procure working cattle at no less than £40 a pair." In spite of it all they succeeded. By their untiring industry and rigid frugality they gradually paid off their debts; their gardens and fields brought forth bountiful harvests, and prosperity and happiness reigned in their village.
—The Roll of the Pioneers.—
All told, it was 52 families that formed the settlement of Hahndorf. Thirty-eight of these families (comprising 187 souls) had arrived by the Zebra, under Capt. Hahn. The other 14 families had arrived some five weeks earlier by the Prince George (one or two excepted, who came in the Bengalee), in the company of Pastor Kavel, whom they regarded as their Moses, who was to deliver them from bondage, and lead them into the Land of Promise. The following is a complete list of the heads of the 52 families who settled in Hahndorf: —Along Main street— Schubert, C. Liebelt, F. Thiele, S. Thiele, Wittwer, E. Jaensch, Rillricht, Zilm, C. Jaensch, Lubasch, Neumann, Schulz, Steike, Boehm, Kuchel, Liebelt, Janetzki, Nitschke, Linke, Jaeschke, C. Thiele, Bartsch, Zilm, Paech, Bartel, C. Schirmer. Along the northern lane— Wundke, G. Bartel, Berndt, W. Nitschke, Pfeiffer, Nitschke, Dohnke, Hoffmann, Schumann, G. Liebelt, Paech, Hartmann, and Suess. Along the southern lane— Schmidt, Kuchel, F. Kuchel, G. Dohnke, Brettig, Pfluegert, C. Pfeiffer, Kluge, "Ren-schner" Paech, Zimmermann, Philip, Kalleske, and Helbing. A few of the families appear to have become extinct. By far the largest proportion left their original location in the course of time and have settled in other parts of the State, where their descendants now reside. Only 11 of the original settlers are now represented by descendants in St. Michael's Church. They are the following:— Jaensch, Liebelt, Thiele, Renschner and Kayscher Paech, Nitschke, Lubasch, Hartmann, Boehm, and Kuchel. Of those who arrived with their parents in the Zebra there still survive in St. Michael's Church:— Jaensch and wife (nee Lubasch), Mrs. Pode (nee Jaensch), Christoph Liebelt, Mrs. Faehrmann, and Mrs. Altmann. There are no survivors in Hahndorf of the earlier ship, the Prince George, the last representative (W. Thiele) having died last April. St. Michael's Church has a present membership of a little off 500, 310 being communicant members.
HUNDRED OF KILKERRAN. Land Selection 1873—1880. most at £1 per Acre.
The eastern, portion of Kilkerran was thrown open for selection about four or five years ago, (1873) and the western division has since been surveyed and taken up, mostly by farmers from the vicinity of your town. Amongst these well-known farmers I notice the Messrs. Moody, Inglis, Kelly, Jackson, Gordon, Phillips, Small, Hyde, Dutchkey, and your old Kapunda and Hansborough mail-contractor, Mr. Pollok.
Sections 12, 13, and 14e, Mary Shannon, of Stockwell, widow, 640 acres £1,280. Remainder of section bought for cash, 43 acres £86. Total acres, 5,506; total amount, £11,012.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 28, 31, 32, C. Miller, Reedy Creek, farmer, 630 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 30, L. C. E. Heinrich, Tanunda, spinster, 220 acres, £S85;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 35, D. H. C. Busch, Greenock, farmer, 261 acres, £456 15s.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 26, 27, John Merkham, Saddleworth, farmer, 387 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 23N, Jno. Markham, Saddleworth farmer; 253 acres;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 34, D. H. C. Busch, Greenock, farmer, 317 acres;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 36, Gottlieb Heinrich, Tanunda, farmer, 317 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 33, J. B. Dodd, Lower Light, farmer, 250 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 37s, D. H. C. Busch, near Greenock, farmer, 62 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 29, J. Millane, of Saddleworth, farmer, 300 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 15, 18, 348 acres, J. L. Wehr, Daveyston, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 41, 295 acres, £752, C. Cook, Yorke Valley, labourer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 39, 293 acres, £938 6s., H. S. Chaston, Bowden, laborer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 11, 229 acres, Jno. Gerbert, Sheaoak Log, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 299, 310, G. Hoffrichter, Rowlands Flat, farmer, 609 acres, £837 7s 6d;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 45 and 57, A. Hoffrichter, Daveyston, farmer,428 acres £726.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 17, 199 acres, J. L. Wehr, near Daveystown, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 16,145 acres, A. Gogler, Daveyston, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Sections 9, 10, 470 acres, C. L. Hoffrichter, Hoyle's Plains, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 50, 296 acres, C. H. Lutz, of Hamilton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 25, John Milane, Saddleworth, farmer, 265 acres.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Ferguason—Section 50, 296 acres, .C. H. Lutz, of Hamilton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 20, 309 acres, J. G. Bittner, of near Eden Valley, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 48, 298 acres, H. C. J. Lutze, of Hoyleton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson —Section 44, 208 acres, H. C. J. Lutze, of Hoyleton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 33, 289 acres, B. Hyde, of Hamilton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 1, 236 acres, J. O'Neil, Saddleworth, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 49, 19 acres, E. H. F. Lehmann, of Kent Town, storekeeper.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 8, 230 acres, J. Lindner, of Hoyle's Plains, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 33, 250 acres, E. C. F. Dutschke, Yorke Valley, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 118, 508 acres, C. H. T. Hoffriehter, Kilkerran, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections. 119w and 129, 640 acres, F. W. Schrofel, Tanunda;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 140, 518 acres, E. W. Moody, Two Wells, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 141, 628 acres, R. J. Moody, Truro, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 142, 635 acres, S. Moody, Two Wells, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections. 46,48, and 113, 605 acres, J. G. Hilbig, Kapunda, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 68, 608 acres, A. Gene, Lyndoch, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 69, 517 acres, J. J. Maloney, Virginia, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections. 71 and 72n, 640 acres, A. D. Hoffriehter, Kilkerran, widow,
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 78e, 224 acres, R. Whitelaw, sen., Myponga, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 81, 454 acres, W. J. Stone, Lochiel, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 91, 606 acres, E. Kelly, Hamilton, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 99, 591 acres, S. B. Moody, Bagot's Well, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 101, 583 acres, G. Ward, Campbelltown, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 110, 458 acres, H. Meyer, Freeling, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 111, 117e. 640 acres, F. W. Heinrich, Tanunda;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 114, 483 acres, F. G. H. Bethel, near Kapunda, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 80, 82s, 640 acres, R, Bell, Lower Light, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 89sw, 122 acres, E. W. Moody, Two Wells, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 88, 89n, 640 acres, H. B. Moody, Truro, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 100, 104n, 640 acres, J. Moody, Bagot's Well, widow;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 103, 464 acres, J. T. Ward, Campbelltown, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 107, 469 acres, H. Elliott, Rapid Bay, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 128n, 325 acres, G. Kossatz, Troubridge, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 120, 127, 640 acres, J. H. Hoffmann, Lyndoch Valley, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 97, 640 acres, J. Kelly.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 77, 586 acres, T. O. Riley, near Willaston, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 1061, 337 acres, E. A. Hasting, near Kapunda, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 130s, 173 acres, J. L. Wehr, near Daveyston, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 130n, 131, 640 acres, J. C. A. Dutchke, Truro ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 139, 582 acres, H. G. Kelly, Hamilton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 30w, 115 acres, J. F. W. Koch, Rowland's Flat, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 76, 608 acres, W. Kanaley, Maclaren Vale, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 82n and 83s, 640 acres, W. Koch, Mecklenburg, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 84, 513 acres, F. H. Koch, Rowland's Flat, farmer,
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 104a, 428 acres, W. Niblock, Truro, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 128, 96 acres, J. G. Nitschke.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 105, 605 acres, B. C. Phillips, Truro, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 96n, 481 acres, B. S. Hyde, Kilkerran, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 102e, 345 acres, J. T. Hyde, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 102w, 97 acres, A. Ward, Campbelltown, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 130m, 196 acres, A Gogler, Maitland.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson—Sections 79e. 89se, 90, 640 acres, S. Small, Port Lincoln, schoolmaster.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson—Section 95s, 159 acres, B. S. Hyde, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson—Section 24, 256 acres, R, Edwards, Maitland, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 70, 422 acres, Jho. Tilly ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 83n, 292 acres, Jabez Tully.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 73, 496 acres, W. Bradshaw, Hamilton, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 75, 332 acres, R, Stothers, Hamilton, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 85 and 86e, 640 acres, J. Jones, Yankalilla, farmer ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 121, 497 acres, Johanna Hoffman, Tanunda.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 79w, 193 acres, J. A. Oakley, Kangarilla, spinster.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 94s, 495 acres, H. Elliott, Rapid Bay, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 146e, 216 acres, J. Tilly, Condowie Plains, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 95n, 168 acres, F. Qualmann Guadenfrei, near Tanunda, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 117 w, 310 acres, W. A Stasinowsky, Maitland, mason.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 74, 488 acres, C. J. E. Beer, Redbanks, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 62, 620 acres, T. Miller, Maitland, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergnsson—Section 145, 632 acres, J. Gregory, sen., Brighton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 116. 538 acres, Jno. Gregory, jun., Hindmarsh Island. farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson— Section 72s, 187 acres, j. Meyerhofi, willunga, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 135, 486 acres, Thomas Pollok, Hansborough, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 144w, 179 acres, William A. Moody, Two Wells, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 65 w, 232 acres, F. Qualmann, Guadenfrei, near Tanunda, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 86w, 304 acres, W. T. Jones, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 107n, 112 acres, A. Hoffrichter, Daveyston, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 8w, 134 acres, H. C. Lutze, Kilkerran, farmer;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 144, 520 acres, B. Gregory, Brighton, butcher.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 127s, 365 acres, J. W. E. Schumacher, Blyth, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 60e, 492 acres, F. Donnelly, Maitland, labourer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 116, 538 acres, C. A. Fichtner, near Maitland, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 8e, 96 acres, J. F. Ruge, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 65e, 362 acres, J. F. Grocke, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 64w, 176 acres, S. Small, Uley, Onetree Hill, near Smithfield, schoolmaster.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 115, 332 acres, Carl August Fichtner, near Maitland, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 146sw, 368 acres, John Gregory, sen., of Brighton, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section, 146nw, 38 acres, R. Gregory, of Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 67e, 271 acres, F. H. Koch, Maitland, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 126w, 373 acres, Charles Edson, Wauraltie, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 56, 184 acres, H. C. Lutz, Kilkerran, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 63w, 1S4 acres, S. Small, near Smithfield, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 61, 621 acres, J. Johnson,Moonta, farmer.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 154, 155, 562 acres, T. J. Moody ;
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 157, 153, 763 acres, W. A. Moody.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Sections 153 and 156, 688 acres, S. B. Moody, Bagot's Well, farmer, £88 16s.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 159, 453 acre., H. Jury, Mallala, farmer, £45 16s.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 164s, 61 acres, W. E. P. Jury, Mallala, farmer, £16 2s.
Hundred Kilkerran, Couuty Fergnsson— Sections 154. 155, 562 acres. T. J. Moody
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson — Section 157, 158, 763 acres, W. A. Moody.
Hundred Kilkerran, County Fergusson—R. Whitelaw, jun., S. Jackson, J. F. W. Koch, W. Kanaley, W. Koch, F. H. Kock, W. Nihlock, J. G. Nitschke, R. 0. E. Philps, R. S. Hyde, and J. J. Hyde.
THE PIONEER LUTHERAN SETTLEMENT.
Sat 19 Apr 1930, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) Trove
A RARE PICTURE OF HISTORICAL INTEREST
Through the courtesy of the editor of "The Advertiser" I gave the readers a few days ago, a picture, never before published, of the founder of the Lutheran Church in South Australia, Pastor Augustus Kavel. Now l am able to give (through the courtesy of the late Mr. Lohmeyer, of Maylands), a picture of the first German settlement in South Australia under the control of Pastor Kavel—Klemzig. It represents the village as it stood some 90 years ago. When the Lutheran refugees, under Pastor Kavel, arrived in Adelaide, on November 16,1838, they settled on some of Mr. George Fife Angas's land, on the banks of the Torrens, along the Felixstow-road, branching off from Payneham. The village consisted of one main street, with the little cottages of the German settlers on each side. In this street stood the small Lutheran Church and the thatched cottage occupied by Pastor KaveL Long narrow strips of land were allotted to the settlers by Mr. Angas's confidential clerk, Mr. Flaxman. The strips ran from what we call the North-Eastern-road to the banks of the Torrens. Here the German settlers (speaking as yet only their own tongue) began gardening. Pastor Kavel was the channel through which their material as well as spiritual interests found expression. The readers (especially Lutherans) will be pleased to have a literary sketch of the little village as seen by a writer in 1839.
An Air of Serenity
A contributer to the "Sydney Gazette." in 1839, says that the village stood about three miles from North Adelaide—that is in a north-easterly direction. It was situated on the northern side of the Torrens. surrounded by noble trees, commanding views of a magnificent range of hills. The river wound its way past it. An air of serenity pervaded the spot, which was of such a character as the imagination would portray as the retreat of persecuted piety. The industry and quiet perseverance of the German character had been fully manifested in Klemzig. Four or five months only had elapsed since the hand of man began to efface the features of the wilderness. About thirty cottages had been erected, all neat, clean, and comfortable. They were built mostly of pise (mud) or of unburned brick, hardened in the sun. Brushwood and thatch were also used in their construction. The sloping banks of the River Torrens were covered with gardens. These consisted of small unfenced plots of ground, separated by narrow paths only. The number of vegetables that the Lutheran refugees had under cultivation gave evidence of their industry. The people were as busy as bees in spring time. A visitor to Klemzig would be struck by the obliging dispositions and courteous manners of the villagers. The male peasant raises his hat as he passes a visitor, and bows with an air from which there is an absence of servility The female, although perhaps bending under a load of wood, has a smile and other expressions of respectful courtesy to offer a passing stranger. Even the few natives—the aborigines—helping the villagers, appeared to have imbibed the spirits of the refugees. Out of doors the men were weeding, watering, budding, fishing in the Torrens, milking, within the little cottages the wife and mother was plying her needle, washing the clothes, keeping the little home tidy. In the church, or in the little manse, Pastor Kavel was giving the children, instruction.
This literary picture of Klemzig in 1839, has historical value. It portrays a phase of our national life that has for ever gone. Old Klemzig has been completely wiped out of existence save the little cemetery, and the purblind British extremist during the world war erased the very name. The produce of the plots of ground spoken of by the visitor in 1839 was carried by the German refugees into the little City of Adelaide in baskets and by goat-carts. A challenging feature in the streets of Adelaide some 90 years ago, was the goat-carts of the Germans. It was under hard and primitive conditions that these worthy people labored. An old lady more than 90 years of age is still living who also lived in primeval times in the Klemzig settlement, and was associated with Pastor Kavel and his flock.
A contemporary sketch of Klemzig in 1840.
THE PIONEER GERMAN SETTLEMENT:
Fri 11 Jan 1929, Australian Christian Commonwealth (SA : 1901 - 1940) Trove
This article is inspired by a visit paid by me some time ago to the old suburb named "Klemzig," now tailed "Gaza." Why change the name around which so many interesting historical associations clustered? The name was changed by pannicky and angry war-time legislation. In passing may I put in a plea for the re-establishment, for historical purposes, of the name "Klemzig''? The old-time settlement, though denuded of nearly all its material historical relics, has for me a peculiar charm. My attention was more especially directed to Klemzig about twelve years ago. I heard that there was an old pioneer cemetery in the district, and set out to find it, which was not a very simple matter. Partly through the kindness of an old settler in Klemzig— a German—I found the cemetery, and also saw one of the quaint cottages, built by the first German immigrants to South Australia and saw a picture of the settlement as it existed nearly a century ago. Needless to say that mentally I was amply repaid. All historical relics of our province have for me a peculiar charm.
The History of Klemzig.
There are two ways in which history may be written. There is the "dry-as-dust" way, consisting of figures, and a bare statement of events. There is the more romantic way—shall I say cinematographic way—the painting of pictures, and making the dead past once more live and move before us. In imagination the writer of this artiple and the reader will go back a little more than a century. We, are in Germany. The union between the Reformed and Lutheran Churches in, Prussia has nearly everywhere been accomplished. The Church ritual was somewhat different in various places, and it was thought wise to substitute a regulation for uniformity. About the year 1822 the King himself issued a new liturgy, recommending its adoption by all Protestant communities in the state. The recommendation was not generally favoured, and steps were a taken to secure its establishment. Compulsion in matters of a spiritual character is always a failure. Some of the German pastors refused to observe the new form of ritual; some were imprisoned, fines were levied, police supervision was established. The consequence was that many of the members of the Lutheran Church decided (as the Pilgrim Fathers to America did) to emigrate.
Pastor Augustus Kavel.
Prominent amongst the remonstrants was Pastor Kavel, of Klemzig, Germany. In 1836 we see him on his way to England to see what provisions can be made for his persecuted flock. Pastor Kavel has heard of a new settlement to be found in South Australia—the other side of the world. There is something about the proposal that strongly appeals to him. For information and advice he calls at the office of a London merchant—George Fife Angas. The merchant becomes deeply interested in the story and the pastor has to tell, and promises, if persecuted Lutherans decide to emigrate to South Australia, that he will render them all the help that it in his power.
For the purpose of emigration from Germany to South Australia money is necessary, and many of Pastor Ravel's flock are poor. The London merchant (George Fife Angas) is willing to give financial assistance. Pastor Kavel's flock, thinking that there would be little objection from the German authorities to their emigration, sold their property, and prepared to leave; but difficulties were thrown in the way of their departure. The London merchant (George Fife Angas) sent his chief clerk to Hamburg, advising him to go to Berlin, if necessary, to arrange for the departure of Pastor Kavel's people. Gradually difficulties were overcome. In January, 1838, Pastor Kavel was in a position to tell Mr. Angas that 165 of his flock were ready to emigrate. Mr. Angas promised to advance money for their outfit and passage. Pastor Kavel was introduced to Governor Gawler, who was about to leave England to enter upon his duties as Administrator of South Australia.
The "Prince George."
The "Prince George" left 'London for Hamburg to take on board the German refugees. We see them sailing down the rivers in Germany, making their way to Hamburg, singing, as the vessels glide along, the songs of Zion. Crowds of their fellow countrymen gather upon the bridges, and by the riverside, to see and to listen to them. The majority of them are bidding farewell to the Fatherland for the last time. At Hamburg they go on board the "Prince George," bound for Plymouth, where Pastor Kavel and the chief clerk of Mr. Angas are to join them.
A Pathetic yet Joyous Scene.
At this time George Fife Angas was living at Dawlish, Devonshire. He was anxious to witness the departure of the exiles in which he had taken such a practical interest, so he travelled to Plymouth to meet the "Prince George." What a stirring scene there is when he reaches the vessel. All the emigrants are alert, and ccoming on the deck. Fathers, mothers, and children are, crowding around him, stretching out their hands to grasp his hand. Down the faces of many of the emigrants the tears are trickling. Old Mr. and Mrs. Kavel are on board, going a out with their son (the pastor) to the new and practically unknown land. The picture that i have painted is more than George Fife Angas can bear ; he has to turn aside to hide his emotion. We see him now (self-restrained and self-contained) addressing the emigrants on the deck of the vessel, Passtor Kavel interpreting the address to his people. The whole company kneel down upon the deck, and the Divine blessing is sought upon the somewhat hazardous enterprise. Miss Rundle (better known by her married name, Mrs Charles, author of the "Schonberg Cotta Family") was the daughter of one of the Directors of the South Australian Company. This lady wrote a long poem descriptive of the visit of Mr. Angas to the "Prince George," from which i would like to give a few versus:—
Referring to George Fife Angas, the authoress goes on to say—
"For the first time beholding him,
Whose toils for thern had won
Freedom to serve their God in peace
Beneath the southern sun,
"They stood with hearts o'erflowing,
That little rescued band,
Strong men and grey-haired sires, and babes,
Thronging to kiss his hand.
"And tears from young and aged
Fell thick as summer rain,
And eyes wept sore with thankfulness
That had not wept for pain."
Arrival in South Australia—Klemzig.
The "Prince George," with the German refugees, arrived in South Australia in November, 1838. There were difficulties in the way of their settlement. They could not speak the English language. It was necessary that they should settle together as a body. George Fife Angas had some land in what may be termed the Torrens Valley, a few miles east of Adelaide. His chief clerk (Mr. Flaxman), who had come out with the exiles, took upon himself the responsibility of settling them upon this land. Here, in the bush, they formed one long street, building their houses or huts on each side, with a chapel for Divine worship, and a house for their spiritual guide (Pastor Kavel), calling the locality "Klemzig" after the town or village in which they had lived in Germany.
A South Australian Arcadia.
It was a simple life—a life of peace and contentment—a wholesome life— that these German refugees lived. Klemzig was a South Australian Arcadia. There were about thirty houses in Klemzig, mostly built of pise — mud and straw—the roofs thatched. The small holdings were not fenced off from each other; they were separated by paths. On the small holdings they grew vegetables, and sold them to the pioneers. An old English pioneer says that Pastor Kavel's people proved to be some of the most sober and industrious that came to the Province. "In fact" he says, "we should have fared badly had it not their coming." From their gardens at Klemzig they brought us vegetables on their backs ; firewood in their German waggons ; and supplied us with other domestic necessaries. Their women undertook washing for families, carring the clothes to and fro on their backs." A visitor to Klemzig, in pioneer times, says that the German settlers were "as busy as bees in springtime, and as cheerful." Out of doors we see them weeding, watering, budding, fishing, milking, washing, cutting wood, carrying water. Within the hut the hut-wife is plying her needle, washing her clothes, keeping her little home tidy with assiduity and joy. Childred too young to work are not idle. Pastor Kavel is giving them daily instruction. A prominent feature in the muddy streets of Adelaide in pioneer times was the goat carts of the Germans.
Pastor Augustus Kavel.
For some years Pastor Kavel lived at Klemzig, and was a real father to his people—a Moses who brought his people out of the house of bondage to a land flowing with milk and honey. He left Klemzig, and went to reside at Longmeile. We are now in Longmeile (Tanunda), some sixty-eight years ago. The whole town is wrapped in gloom. In the air there is a feeling of depression. The shops are closed. Everything is quiet. We see a funeral cortege moving slowly down the street. There are about two thousand persons in the procession, on their way to the cemetery; In the cemetery is the open grave in which will be deposited the mortal remains of Pastor Augustus Kavel. He was a good man; strict to his creed, but tolerant towards those who differed from him on religious questions.
The Old Klemzig Cemetery.
I cannot find any record of the burials in that small sacred God's acre. I do not think that there is any written record. Possibly Pastor Janzow, of Angas Street, or Pastor Homann, could give some information, but from my general research work there are a few things of which I feel sure, namely that Pastor Kavel's father is buried in that historical enclosure, and Pastor Kavel's wife. I do not know whether or not Pastor Kavel was twice married, if so, it is to his first wife that I refer; she was an English lady, and was buried at Klemzig. When I first visited the cemetery, about twelve years ago, it was in a wild and neglected condition, enclosed by an old post-and-wire fence, over-run with vegetation. There were a few dilapidated memorials in it. Two were in fairly good, order, one to the memory of "Friedrich Borgelt," Lutheran Pastor, who lived in the little village of Klemzig from 1848 to 1856; and another to the memory of "Luise Schurmann, born November 4, 1849, at Port Lincoln; died May 11, 1853, at Gilles' Plains." I presume that "Luise" was the daughter of Pastor Schurmann, sent out from Germany by George Fife Angas in 1838, as a missionary to the Aborigines. For some years I know that Pastor Schurmann, in pioneer times, was located at Port Lincoln, where he did good work as a teacher and interpreter, especially when the Aborigines, made raids upon the stations of the early West Coast settlers. I suggested to our Lutheran friends that the little Klemzig cemetery should be put in good order, properly enclosed, and that a monument should be erected, say in the centre of the ground, marking it for all time as the burial ground of the first German settlement in South Australia. That sacred spot should ever have historical value, amongst other things because it marks the exact spot where the settlement was located. Visiting the cemetery a few months ago, I was pleased to see it in good order, with a splendid iron fence around it. I missed the two memorial stones of which I have spoken but believe that a monument is to be erected.
May I appeal to the Government and to the Parliament that the name "Klemzig" shall be, for historical reasons, restored to the district? A few days ago I received a letter telling me that the good work of restoration at the old Klemzig cemetery is still going on. If any of our Methodist people would like to see where the old cemetery was located some of the residents close to our Gaza Church would be able to tell them.
Fri 13 Sep 1929, Pinnaroo and Border Times (SA : 1911 - 1954)
Fri 2 Aug 1929, Pinnaroo and Border Times (SA : 1911 - 1954)
100 YEARS OF LUTHERANISM. HOW THE PIONEERS CAME FROM GERMANY
Mon 12 Dec 1938, Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954)
GOVERNOR TO VISIT KLEMZIG
Thu 27 Aug 1936, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954)
Wed 5 Dec 1945, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954)
Sat 18 Feb 1928, The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929)
Sat 15 Aug 1857, Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904)
SUBSTTTUTES FOR GERMAN NAMES,
Sat 4 Nov 1916, The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954)
RESTORATION OF GERMAN NAMES
Mon 2 Dec 1929, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931)