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Kadina SA. A Brilliant Blend
Only 148 kilometres from Adelaide, Kadina is the largest town on the Yorke Peninsula, with a population of around 4,000.
It houses The Farm Shed Museum & Tourism Centre, and a Banking and Currency Museum. Kadina is also one of the homes of the Kernewek Lowender festival, the world's largest Cornish Festival held every two years on the uneven years since 1973.
The name Kadina is believed to have come from the Aboriginal word Kadiyinya meaning 'lizard plain'. Today Kadina is the main commercial centre for a very prosperous agricultural region. However, copper mining was once the main industry for this town; hence Kadina is part of the Copper Coast, which includes Wallaroo and Moonta (also known as 'Little Cornwall').
Copper was first found in 1859 at Wallaroo Mines near Kadina. The population in this area quickly grew and the town of Kadina was surveyed in 1861. The main ethnic group to arrive in this area was the Cornish, bringing with them their mining techniques, labour practices, architecture and the Methodist religion. In 1862 the Wombat Hotel (named after the animals that had discovered the copper) was open for business and a horse-drawn railway was operating at the Wallaroo Mine. By 1891 there were 12,000 people living in the Copper Triangle. The mines closed in 1923, however in this time they removed 170,000 tons of copper.
The original European settlers from this area were mainly Cornish, and examples of Cornish architecture can be found in Kadina including the Royal Exchange and Wombat Hotels (originally a boarding house for new miners), the Kadina Hotel (originally a single storey hotel called the Miner's Arms) and a number of the churches. Kadina has great walks around the town looking at these old building as well as being a base to explore the surrounding mines.
Kadina offers all the facilities of a large town and a wide range of accommodation as well as been close to a number of stunning scenic and family friendly beaches, in Moonta Bay, Port Hughes and Wallaroo. In addition to this it great base for exploring the northern end of the Yorke Peninsula and its rich history.
KADINA. YORKE'S PENINSULA.
This wonderfully improved town is a couple of miles from the Wallaroo Mines, and about six from Port Wallaroo. It thus secures the bulk of the trade negotiated with the mining population, in addition to its farming connections. During the past four years the business and residential portions have developed most remarkably. Large, well-built premises now occupy the vacant spaces which occurred at frequent intervals in the main streets, while older buildings have been renovated and enlarged to provide accommodation for the increase in trade. Residential building allotments are at a high premium; and, in order to allow of further construction, it is proposed to petition for right to build on some portion of the park lands. The town of Kadina, which is situated on the railway line to Moonta, about 118 miles from Adelaide, in the County of Daly, is a compact settlement, with a population of 2,000. The total number resident within the boundary of the Hundred of Kadina is estimated at 9,750, including, of course, the Wallaroo Mines. The rateable value of property in this district is £10,240. There are, besides, suburban extensions of the town.
The officers of the corporation are:— Mayor, Mr. J. Mitchell; Crs. T. A. Southwood. V. P. Kendell, W. Growden, W. H. Rogers, .J. H. Pengelley, W. F. Taylor. W. Symons, and F. Potter; and clerk and overseer of works, Sir. J. M. Inglis. Business is conducted at the town hall, which has recently been extensively repaired and added to. About £250 has been expended on renovation, the money being raised by public subscription. Thanks to the munificence of Mr. D. R. Squibb, a former old resident of Kadina, the town possesses a tower and clock, which will cost over £1,000, and recently the council placed a tablet in position to commemorate the generous gift.
The members of the District Council of Kadina are:—Crs. Paul Roach (chair), Peter Roach, D. Taylor, J. Malcolm, A. Rodda, H. Fuss, T. J. Harris, and J. Tait. clerk, Mr. T. W. Taylor; overseer of works, Mr. D. Smith. Good roads and tree planting are leading features of this council's operations. An excellent band rotunda has been available for entertainment for some years in the reserve facing the post office and town hall. The Government officials are;—Post and telegraph master, Mr. W. A. Allen; state schoolmaster, Mr. F. Fairweather: police officer and clerk of Local Court, Cpl. J. P. Dowling; and station master, Mr. W. Southwood. The institute librarian is Mr. J. M. Inglis; and the Rev. A. K. Chignell (Church of England), Fathers Hourigan and Adamson (Roman Catholic), Rev. A. A. Smith (Taylor Street Methodist), Rev. B. Dorman. (Congregational). and Mr. B. J. Moysey (Church of Christ), conduct religious services.
—Athletic and Racing Clubs.
The Kadina and Wallaroo Jockey Club (secretary, Mr. J. Willshire), the football club (secretary, Mr. J. Birtles), cricket club (secretary, Mr. A. Dodd), and several other athletic bodies provide excellent recreation for the population. Mr. H. Woolcock is conductor of the Federal Band.
There are two banking establishments— National, Mr. J. S, Brook, manager; and Union, Mr. G. Hamilton. Drs. H. A. Powell and H. R. Letcher are the resident medical practitioners; Messrs. H. W. Uffindell (of Moonta), E. A. Beare. and R. J. D. Mallan, are soliestans; Mr. J. Cornelius is local manager for Messrs. T. Reed and Co., auctioneers.
The prominent tradesmen of Kadina are; —Messrs. D. Taylor, T. M. Rendell, Hall and Co., C. Moore & Co., E. A. Ham. John Hunter Co., F.B.C., J. H. Rosewarne, F. Rosewame, Tonkin & Beckwith, Wilson, Briee. & Co., Singer Company, Wertheim, W. Milliean. Russack & Tyler, J. Jones, Herbert & Son, W. Symon, L. W. E. Hardy, C. Kappe, Kennett Bros., A. R. Brooks, E. J. Paul, J. Mitchell, M. Harris, R. Truscott, Parnell & Bowman, D. Moloney, W. Hancock, G. R. Haddy. T. Burclhell, jun., T. & B. Opie, A. C. Frick, Gullidge and Furner; Page & Co., Marchant & Son, E. B. Cardell, A. Tonkin A. E. Jay, R. H. Paull, W. B. Noell. W. Jackson. F. Potter. F. Hocking. J. Fargher, J. H. Hopgood, and W. C. Rodda, and Mrs. G. Phillips.
Two newspapers—The Kadina and Wallaroo Times, issued on Wednesdays and Saturdays by Mrs. C. F. Taylor; and The Plain Pealer, published on Saturday morning.- by Messrs. J. A. Southwood and G. Spring — provide mediums for local representation and distribution of information relating to district affairs. Mr. J. Darling is in charge of J. Darling & Son's flour mill.
KADINA: Five Buick cars stand outside D.W. Simpson's garage. They were owned by: Number 11245 F.W. Harris of Kadina; number 02020 S.J. Northey, of Kadina; number 41879 registered in 1925 to L.C. Beare of Kadina; number 7184 Eyes & Crowle (Agents); number 01239 W.J. Butler of Moonta Mines
State Library of South Australia - B 54236
Lithographic print of a panorama of the main street of Kadina. At extreme left is Robert Hall's store. The large building (centre) is Henry Nankervis's Kadina Hotel (the chimney indicates the location of his distillery). Further to the right is the Wombat Hotel (dark roof), and at extreme right is the two-storey White Lion Hotel. The railway line to Wallaroo is situated where the cart (foreground) is running.
State Library of South Australia - B 8125
Hodges and Cook, Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights, Taylor Street - staff assembled out the front 1912
State Library of South Australia - B 27670
Directors and employees of the Copper Hill Mining Company
State Library of South Australia - B 28856
Kadina Hospital State Library of South Australia - B 12148
The Town Hall, Kadina - State Library of South Australia - B 28605
Kadina Fire Brigade Officers with a hose reel: Fred Haines, Reg Herbert, Harry Woods (foreman)
State Library of South Australia - B 25061
Store of E. J. Woodroffe in Taylor Street - State Library of South Australia - B 26917
Savings Bank Building - State Library of South Australia - B 27237
The Wallaroo Times office staff stand outside the premises - State Library of South Australia - B 29280
Taylor Street - State Library of South Australia - B 28330
The Kadina Flour Mill (Kimber's Mill) - men standing in horsedrawn wagon waiting for supplies approx 1872
State Library of South Australia - B 28699
Moline Tractor 1920 - State Library of South Australia - B 32399
The Kadina Butter Factory - State Library of South Australia - B 29279
More Photos State Library of South Australia
TOWNS, PEOPLE, AND THINGS WE OUGHT TO KNOW NO. X.
Kadina was Founded By A Kangaroo Rat Story Of A Famous Copper Mine
By OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT
Kadina is a city in miniature; a town of some 3,000 people. It was founded by a Kangaroo Rat. The tiny rodent threw up a small mountain of greenish-looking stone when it was excavating its burrow. James Boor, a shepherd on Wallaroo St ation, found the mound, and reported to his em ployer. This mine, with its richer sister at Moonta, added over £20,000,000 to the wealth of South Australia.
Towns are very much like families. There are some people whose history you can read from their faces the moment you set eyes on them— the story of the struggle, the despair, and the hopelessness of their position in life. There are other people, equally hard hit, who carry on with a smile, and you would never judge from their courageous faces that they found the battle of life hard and relentless.
The analogy could not help coming into my mind when I reached Kadina. Here, I knew, was a town which had received two smashing blows from Fate — first the closing of the mines some eight years ago, and then the general depression which has almost brought the world to the dust.
But despite this Kadina keeps on smiling. It is not troubling itself about the setbacks of the past. Kismet! They are done with, and what is the use of complaining? So Kadina turns a bright face to the future, and tells you that things might be worse.
And so they might.
When you come to look into the resources of Kadina you soon discover there are good grounds for optimism. It is the centre of a large agricultural district, and the season has never opened better in the history of the peninsula. There is still, of course, uncertainty regarding the trend of future markets. But that is no new problem. It is a hardy annual. And if prices should not come up to expectations, well — will not a bumper harvest go a long way towards making amends?
So Kadina keeps its long face for Sundays, and feels quite confident about the future.
Nevertheless, in times gone by, Kadina was in a unique position. In wheat and copper she had two strings to her bow. If wheat was down copper was usually up. If copper slumped then wheat climbed. Those days are past. The famous copper mines are now just history— history and a stack of ruins.
The Wallaroo mines are not in Wallaroo. They are in Kadina— just a mile out of the town. That is a circumstance which confuses many people who do not know the geographical layout of the peninsula. They are only called the Wallaroo mines. The name was given to them because there was no township when they were found, and their site was part of the old Wallaroo sheep station. If you give a dog a bad name it sticks. Wallaroo stuck to the mines. Kadina just said 'Damn,' and did nothing more about it.
The other afternoon I motored out to the mines. The day was bleak and the sky heavily overcast. It was a typical day of mourning. I had a feeling as I gazed on the dismantled and deserted works that I was assisting at the obsequies of an industry which had added over £20,000,000 to the wealth of South Australia. I am, of course, including the production of the famous Moonta mines. Let me give you the story.
It sounds preposterous to say that the Adelaide University owes its existence to Kadina. Yet such is a fact. The man who gave the money to found the University was Sir Walter Hughes — and Sir Walter was a poor man until the discovery of copper on his station made him a wealthy one.
Next time you are on North terrace you can, if you are sufficiently interested, see a statue to Sir Walter on the lawn in front of the University buildings. He was a Fifeshire lad who became a cooper. He saved enough money to acquire a small vessel, in which he traded between India and China. It was in this vessel that he arrived in Adelaide in 1842.
He became a squatter, and Kadina of today was formerly part of his run. But it was dry country. Sheep could not be depastured there in summer, and a series of seasonal reverses almost brought the captain— he bore this title until he received the more elaborate one— to the ground.
It was at this juncture that Fate took a hand in the game.
A kangaroo rat discovered copper on the property.
The little animal in burrowing its hole threw up tiny scraps of greenish stone. These were seen by a shepherd. James Boor. This was the beginning of the famous Wallaroo copper mine.
Captain Hughes was a made man. Some years later he returned to England, where he died in 1903. These things came back to me as I stood regarding the great dump which today is the monument of the dead mine. There was not a soul in sight just that immense dump standing stark and silent in the midst of a forest of roofless, tenantless, and ghost-like buildings.
'Twenty millions,' I murmured. It seemed incredible.
Eighty years ago Kadina was a shepherd's hut. Today it is a young city of 3,000 souls. Many people who have risen to prominence both at home and abroad have been connected with It. Daisy Kennedy is perhaps its brightest star. The famous violinist was born there, or, rather, at Wallaroo Mines, where her father had charge of the school. The town gave Australia two Premiers in John Verran and John Scaddan (ex-Premier of Western Australia). In Sir R. D. Ross it provided a Treasurer and Speaker (1881-7), in L. L. Purner a C.P.W. in the Downer Government, and in David Bews a Minister of Education in the Playford Administration of 1890. And there were others.
Not a bad record for a town founded bya kangaroo rat!
'Kadina,' Mr. Rodney Cockburn says, means 'lizard plain.' It is a corruption of the native 'caddy-yeena.' In writing of the three towns — Kadina, Wallaroo, and Moonta— one is liable to overlap. Their history is almost identical; they are so close together. If, therefore, I step on someone's toes by ascribing to one place something which took place in another, you may accept my apologies beforehand, knowing that I err not so much on the ground of ignorance as on that of convenience.
The First Minutes
I had a look recently at the flrst minute book of the Wallaroo Mines. I do not think they called it a company in those days. It was, of course, years before the amalgamation. In view of the tremendous wealth taken out of the ground — over £2,000,000 in dividends alone — some of the entries are interesting. For instance, the first: —
"At a meeting of the proprietors of the Wallaroo Mines, held at the offices of Messrs. Elder, Sterling & Co., Grenfell street, Adelaide, on the 17th of August, 1860, it was resolved that a board of management for the future conduct of the affairs, general and particular, of the mines, be constituted, and that it consist for the present of W. W. Hughes, Hon. Edward Sterling, and John Taylor."
Other resolutions were that George Boothby be appointed acting secretary at a salary of £50 per annum, Mr. Wormington as captain of the mine at £400 per annum, and W. Mair as clerk at the mine at £300 per annum.
It was resolved to seek an assayer, and a 'competent person' in anticipation of smelting works being established at the mine. They never dreamt that day that the 'anticipated' smelting works were destined to become the largest copper works in the world.
'That for the present Captain Hughes be requested to take on himself the general supervision of the interests of the mines, and "that the ore now lying at Port Adelaide be shipped in bulk to England."
In a minute of August 27, 1860, appears this interesting entry:— "Mr. Sterling to wait on the Chief Secretary, and raise the question of postal communication with Wallaroo."
At that time the whole district was Wallaroo. There was no Kadina. Equally illuminating are the entries in the first minute book of the Moonta Mines. Here is a complete copy of the first minutes: —
"Adelaide, 11th December, 1861.
"At a meeting of the proprietors of the Moonta Mines held this day at the office of Messrs. Elder, Sterling & Co., present the Honble. Edward Sterling, Messrs. Thos. Elder, John Taylor, and Robert Barr Smith.
"Mr. Thos. Elder was unanimously called to the chair. Mr. Robert B. Smith was requested to act as secretary, pro tem.
"Mr. Sterling reported having received from Government the following twelve mineral leases numbered 930, 931, 932, 933, 953, 956, 957, 958, 959, 961, 962, and 964.
"It was then resolved that instructions be given to Mr. Belt, solicitor, to prepare the deed of settlement to embody in its general features the deed of settlement of the Wallaroo Mines proprietors.
"It was also resolved that a secretary and clerk be appointed, and that weekly meetings of the proprietary be held— Wednesday being named as the most suitable day for meeting.
"The meeting was then adjourned.
"Thos. Elder, Chairman."
For those of us who have seen the end of the mining operations there is something pathetically interesting in these records of the beginning.
Before I got to Kadina they told me it was a dry country— so dry that in the early days sheep could only be depastured there in the winter. In another sense, a few years ago. they told me America was a 'dry' country. Personal acquaintance showed me it was far from that. Similarly personal acquaintance with Kadina showed it was not so dry as some people would have one believe.
When I left the bitumen soon after crossing the South Hummocks, the sky had been weeping steadily for a week. The 'swish' of the water on the macadam roads as the car ploughed through miles of miniature lakes grew horribly monotonous, and I began to wonder if it would not have been wiser if I had fitted the vehicle with floats instead of wheels.
The fact of the matter is that the peninsula has never had such a propitious opening of the season in its history. That is not only true of Kadina. It applies equally to the whole 'leg' from Port Wakefield down to Cape Spencer. There was water everywhere. It was curious to be told in town after town that lack of water was their chief problem, when every footstep I took echoed 'splosh splosh,' and liquid mud oozed up over one's boots, and climbed half-way up one's unmentionables. If the peninsula suffers from want of liquid this coming summer, then I can only pronounce its case as chronic and incurable.
But the peninsula won't so suffer It is in for a bumper harvest. The sub-soil of this wonderful South Australian wheat belt is saturated with moisture, and even a 'drought' for the rest of the year will do no real harm, while propitious rains in the spring will probably return a yield which will make the farmers grin from ear to ear. And they deserve it.
All this country around Kadina and southwards through Maitland and Minlaton comprises some of the finest wheat lands in the State. If it were not so good these copper towns would have crashed badly when the mines ceased operating, and 1,700 men were thrown on the labor market. As it was, they scarcely felt the jolt. Any town which can stand up to a thousand and a half of its breadwinners suddenly finding themselves minus jobs, and still pay 20/ in the £. has something more solid than hot air behind it. Kadina did it.
I do not know any members of the Kadina Corporation. Yet I am able to say that it is a wonderfully efficient body. It is not difficult to do that. All one has to do is to take stock of the bitumen streets, the kerbed footpaths, the well-drained roads, the modern lighting, the picturesque town gardens, and the handsome municipal buildings. Then get to work in a sticky-nose fashion and find out how much is owing on all this. In the case of Kadina you will discover that it is free of debt. Better than that, even, is the fact that it has a reserve of £3,500 on fixed deposit. This represents profit from the municipallyowned electric light which is sold there cheaper than in Adelaide, and yet is giving such a good return that the question of further reduction in the price is shortly to be considered. The present price for current is 6d. and 2½d. per unit for light and power respectively. The municipal rate is 2/ in the £. The present mayor is Mr. E. H. C. Hall, and the town clerk is Mr. P. W. Harris, who has held the position for 22 years. The municipality was sixty years old ths month. It was brought into existence in 1872. No one looking at the model well-laid-out town of today could imagine the 'stag-nant water and accumulated filth' which were the subject of debate when some two hundred residents met in a room at the Wombat Hotel sixty years ago to consider the formation of the municipality. There was some strenuous talk at that meeting, for forty odd citizens regarded the proposal as "premature." Nevertheless, a motion to create the municipality was agreed to. Kadina was then twelve years old. The wards were named Hughes (Sir W. W. Hughes), Elder (Sir Thomas Elder), Sterling (Hon. Edward Sterling), and Taylor (John Taylor), after the owners of the Wallaroo Mines. They are still so named today, but the growth of the town has necessitated the addition of other wards. The first council met at the office of Mr. Thomas Hall (the first mayor), then situated at the corner of Graves and Hallett streets. The residence of Mr. G. T. Herbert today occupies the site of the first post office at the comer of Digby street and No. 6 Lane. The records give the first postmaster as Mr. William Graham.
The great dump at Wallaroo Mines serves as a reminder of former activity on the now silent and deserted fields
You will observe that I put the responsibility for this statement on to the records, because the date of Mr. Graham's advent seems to have been 1866, while two years prior to that the post office was apparently occupying its second home. That is a point which local historians should investigate. The postmaster today is served by a staff of 10 assistants.
In the early seventies the education of the young was chiefly a matter of private enterprise. The schools remembered were conducted by Messrs. John Gaskell, R. Henderson, and W. R. Bailey. A "seminary for young ladies"— how the Victorians loved these kind of phrases — was conducted by a Mrs. Francis. It was not until some time in the eighties that a public school was started in the present Orange lodgeroom, with Mr. Samuel Sullivan as head master. Today, in addition to the primary schools in Kadina and Wallaroo Mines, there is a High School and a technical school. To the cost of the former the local branch of the Returned Soldiers' League contributed £1,000, and it is known as the Memorial High School. Could there be a better monument?
When, in three weeks' time, I tell you the story of Maitland, I will recount, incidentally, portion of the history of agricultural Kadina, and the big stretch of country lying between Yorketown and Port Pirie. It will reveal the old pioneering phenomenon— that the 'best' land turned out to be the worst, and that the despised portions of the country have since proved to be the best. It will be another justification of my refusal, in my South-Eastern articles, to accept the popular belief that the so-called worthless land in that region is really worthless.
In front of the Town Hall in Kadina there is a picturesque square. It contains a monument, ''Erected to the memory of the Hon. David Bews, as a slight recognition of valuable services rendered to this town and district, A.D. 1892." There is a similar pedestal in Wallaroo. I wonder how many of our present-day legislators are worthy of having their services thus commemorated?
David Bews was Minister of Education in the Playford Administration of 1890. Prior to entering public life he was editor of the 'Kadina and Wallaroo Times.' Yorke Peninsula never had a greater champion. He was bom in the Orkneys in 1850. As a baby in arms he was brought to South Australia by his parents, who, after trying their luck at the Victorian goldfields, took up a farm near Port Elliot in 1854. As a lad young Bews worked on this property until he secured a clerkship in the old Kadina and Wallaroo railway. From then on his interests were closely identified with the peninsula for the rest of his life. He was goods manager when the Government took over the railway, but the public service held no attractions for him, and he resigned to become a newspaper man. He served several terms as Mayor of Wallaroo, and entered the Assembly in 1885. He died in Melbourne in 1891 while on his way to represent South Australia at a postal convention.
Monument erected by the townspeople in memory of David Bews, in recognition of his services to Kadina. photo
A PENINSULA TOUR
After a few miles had been covered, we had our first sight of Kadina, or rather, the old copper mine dump, which stands out for miles around, particularly from the Balaklava—Kulpara side. We found Kadina, too, an old coppermining town still bearing many signs of bygone days. Kadina is the largest town on Yorke's Peninsula, and also possesses the biggest population. Although the town is fairly old, and as rather wide-scattered; many and varied impressions are provided. We halted first in the town's main streets —in our opinion Greaves and Taylor Streets share the honor. Here we found exceptionally fine and large shops in no small number, and all carrying a splendid range of goods, as our womenfolk soon found out, and with which they 'played hell,' as all women do when confronted with a large display of fashions: one has to admire the capacity the fair sex has for taking notice of, and remembering, such a formidable list. There's no doubt about the female ability in any direction, for that matter—providing the cash lasts! (Careful, son—careful!—Ed.).
Large shady trees make Kadina's Victoria Square an exceptionally fine asset to the district, which can be very hot in the summer. Here we noticed a children's the equipment in the usual neglected state—I say 'usual' because we did find so many such playgrounds (including our own at Balaklava) sadly ; neglected, which state of affairs cannot but have some effect on the future generation. Apparently it is not too much trouble to drill youngsters for military or political purposes, but apathy in providing the means of developing healthy bodies and encouraging an individual outlook which is the enemy of regimentation amounts to downright opposition. I mention this (believing that I have a healthy and broad outlook on most matters, particularly where our children are concerned) because I find that the shadow of Socialistic extremes is riot a fairy story, but a stark reality. The only modern playground I have seen in my travels through most country areas is at Angaston—in fact, it one of the finest in South Australia. I suggest that anyone doubting this statement take a party of youngsters on this short trip from the Balaklava district, and let them pass judgment..
While in Kadina we visited the 'trots.' The district owns a fine new trotting track, which seems to lack no requirements of the sport. Of course, every member of our party had a good day! We all do! Here I wish to make a plea for the poor bookies and all those who get their living from such sports. I wonder who pays the bookies, because we all seem to win (like hell!). Kadina staged a fine meeting, despite a very dusty day (making us quite homesick), and gave patrons a good day's entertainment. A taxi service, result of an exserviceman's enterprise, gave a metropolitan touch, and should be of good service to towns-people. Many such undertakings are gradually making headway in country towns. We commended Mr. H. B. East and Mr. Horrie Ninnes on their attitude towards a Trades School undertaking and similar enterprises which were soon to be established, and which should be encouraged in our own town. All success to those associated with Kadina's progress— their ideas are worthy of every support. Country centres will flourish only when it becomes unnecessary for people to go to the cities for their requirements, or for better standards of living, and amenities—but more of this later.
A DRIVE ON YORKE'S PENINSULA.
KADINA, at the head of Yorke Peninsula, is a thriving rural town, in the heart of some of Australia's best cereal growing country.
The Yorke Peninsula 'leg', covers the two Counties — Fergusson and Daly — and within this area are a number of other I towns whose communities are mainly I dependant on rural production. These I towns include Paskeville, Ardrossan, Maitland, Minlaton, Curramulka, Yorketown and Edithburg.
The 'leg' surrounded by sea, is bordered by St Vincent Gulf to the East, and Spencers Gulf to the West: both gulfs providing deep sea ports for SA Co-operative Bulk Handling shipping terminals at Ardrossan, Port Giles and Wallaroo.
Cereal crops are the major primary effort, with the average Yorke Peninsula production figures, as supplied by the Department of Agriculture, being wheat 170,000 tonnes, barley 400,000 tonnes, oats 25,000 tonnes and field peas 25,000 tonnes. Triticale, field peas, oil seed rape and sunflower are also grown.
Livestock statistics show that there are 1.1 million sheep (wool and fat lambs), 47,000 pigs and 20,000 cattle.
Fishing is naturally another of the important industries of the Peninsula, with a flourishing fishing fleet of 39 trawlers operating out of Wallaroo during the open season, while scale fishing gives employment to a section of the community commercially, as well as providing additional incentive for tourism during the summer months.
The thousands who come to Yorke Peninsula for holidays enjoy the many beautiful beaches and rocky coastline, which provide opportunities for spear, surf and rock fishing, underwater exploration of the many coastal wrecks, swimming, boating, yachting and skiing.
The development of the 'YP Country Times', the only country newspaper printed on Yorke Peninsula is of particular interest. It is an amalgamation of 12 other papers going back to the Wallaroo 'Times' of 186S, the Southern Yorke Peninsula 'Pioneer' of 1898, the 'Yorke Peninsula Advertiser and Mines News' of 1872, and the 'People's Weekly' of 1890. The 'YP Country Times' was first published in 1968 and now has a paid circulation of 7000.
A number of State Government Regional Offices are situated on Yorke Peninsula, including the Regional Police headquarters, Dept of Agriculture, Dept of Community Welfare, E & WS Dept, Dept of Marine and Harbors, Dept of Lands and Registrar of Motor Vehicles. The Australian Electoral Office for the Division of Wakefield is situated in Kadina.
Sport is a prominent feature of Yorke Peninsula social activity, covering the wide spectrum of summer and winter sports, together with a number of clubs devoted to the less popular sports.
Kadina is the focal point of major sports. Through the Sport and Recreation Centre top grade sporting facilities are provided, as well as catering for many of the larger Peninsula social functions. Trotting is a regular feature on the sporting calendar, with the Yorke Peninsula Trotting Club holding regular night events at the Kadina track. The annual A & H Society Shows also mirror district activity.
One of the major events on the Copper Triangle — Kadina, Wallaroo, Moonta — biennial calendar is the now famous 'Kernewek Lowender' Festival held in May, attended by many thousands, who come to the area to celebrate and remember the Cornish forebears of the district who, in the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s mined large areas of copper which, at that time, made a valuable contribution to the State's economy.
The famous Cornish pasty and the alcoholic drink of the pioneers 'Swanky', are consumed in large quantities during the Festival. It is interesting to note that the 'YP Country Times' printed on its own Goss Community press, serves an area that at one time or other since 1865, has had a total of 23 other country newspapers.
Kadina Primary School Date Range: 1879 - ct Inventory of Series Description
Kadina School was established in 1879. (1)
Approval was given to increase the size of the school by building new classrooms in 1905, although there were some delays in construction. (2)
In 1920 the school yard was found to be in a 'shocking condition very rough and uneven' having been under water for the winter. Approval was obtained to make the necessary improvements. (3)
In 1921 the town Clerk of Kadina offered a portion of the park for a high school in Kadina. (4) The High School was later co-located with Kadina Primary School. (5)
In 1936 Kadina celebrated the State Centenary by holding a Carnival Week. A special afternoon half holiday was granted to the schools in the area including Kadina Primary and High Schools, Wallaroo Mines, and Kadina Catholic Schools, so that their pupils could participate in the Children's Sports at the Kadina Show Grounds. In the morning, the public and ex-residents paid a visit to the schools as part of the celebrations . Another holiday was granted for schools in the area for a combined Sports Day on the 26th November. (6)
In 1938 the Head Teacher applied to the Director of Education for the school to become a 'Freedom School' in what was known as the 'Freedom Experiment' in the teaching of English. This new teaching method involved combining the teaching of oral English and formal grammar and linking it to the children's thoughts, interests and experiences. In the application to the Director, the teacher also noted that the children often found it difficult to relate to text books that were often written in the United Kingdom. The new method was approved. (7)
A new residence in Winter Street, Kadina was purchased for the District Inspector of Schools in 1938. (8)
In 1944 approval was given for a fowl house at the Kadina School to be situated alongside the vegetable plot, this was subsidised by the Education Department. (9)
A School Library was established in 1946. At this time there were ten rooms in the main building of the school and a portable room in the playground. Six were used as ordinary classrooms, and two for woodwork; one of the spare room s was designated as a Library room. The numbers of children attending the school was approximately 270 and an increase in numbers was not expected. (10)
An application for a 'proper' staff room was made and approved in 1956. The staff room referred to by the teachers as 'the morgue' was rarely used as teachers would lunch in their classrooms and was situated in an unlined, asphalt floored section of a porch partly accessed by a moveable cupboard with no facilities. The two rooms designated for woodwork were no longer needed as a new woodwork centre was being opened at the Kadina High School. Consequently, the rooms were reserved and renovations commenced for a new staff room and library. (11)
As of 27/04/2012, Kadina Primary School has an average student population of 450 with up to 18 classes. It is divided into three sections - junior, middle and upper primary and is co-located with the Kadina Pre-School, High School, TAFE and community library. (12)
Kadina Primary School will amalgamate with Kadina Memorial High School in the beginning of 2013. Two new school names have been proposed, Kadina Memorial School and Kadina Memorial R - 12 School: the new school name will be determined by the Government Geographical Name Board. It is hoped that a history book documenting the histories of both schools will be produced and launched at the new school opening. (13)
(1) Kadina School website URL: http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/docs/ContextStatement.pdf, accessed 24/04/2012
(2) GRG 18/1, File 46/1905, File 65/1905
(3) GRG 18/1, File 184/1920
(4) GRG 18/1, File 42/1921
(5) Kadina Primary School URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012
(6) GRG 18/2, File 972/1936
(7) GRG 18/2, File 819/1938
(8) GRG 18/2, File 882/1938
(9) GRG 18/2, File 222/1945
(10) GRG 18/2, File 2626/1946
11) GRG 18/2, File 3228/1956
(12) Kadina Primary School URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012
(13) Kadina Primary School, Amalgamation Fact Sheet No. 2 February 2012 URL: <http://www.kadinaps.sa.edu.au/>, accessed 27/04/2012
Contents Date Range Series Date Range Number of Units Public Access Series Id Series Title
1898 - 1996 1898 - 1996 6 Part Open GRS/14282 Admission registers - Kadina Primary School
1906 - 1920 1906 - 1920 1 Open GRS/14295 Teacher`s examination registers - Kadina Primary School
1933 - 1972 1933 - 1972 1 Part Open GRS/14294 Inspector`s registers - Kadina Primary School
c 2008 - c 2008 c 2008 - c 2008 1 Open GRS/14281 Photographs of school sites - Kadina Area